Skip to main content

Full text of "West Georgia College Review"

See other formats



Digitized by tine Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



Volume I May, 1968 Number I 

Published By 


A Division of the University System of Georgia 

y^^^ - X^^ 



Published by 
West Georgia College, Carrollton, Georgia 30117 

James E. Boyd, President 
George W. Walker, Dean 

Editorial Policies Which Govern The Review 

1. The Review will contain scholarly work accepted for publication 
by the editorial committee, as well as creative writing. 

2. Manuscripts that have already been published or accepted for pub- 
lication in other journals will not be included in the Review. 

3. The Chicago Manual of Style should be followed. 

4. Although the Review is primarily a medium for the faculty of West 
Georgia College, scholarly papers from other sources are invited. 

5. The Review will contain current publications of faculty members. 

6. The Review will be published annually or more frequently if the 
need arises. 

7. Articles will be presented on the authority of their authors. The 
Editorial Committee and West Georgia College assumes no respon- 
sibility for the views expressed by contributors. 

Research Committee 

Paul H. Bowdre, Jr. John M. Martin 

Herman W. Boyd James W. Mathews 

Donald G. Chandler Evan Dwain Porter 

J. David Griffin Thomas W. Sills 

Wietse de Hoop James Alexander Wash, Jr. 

Eugene R. Huck, Chairman and Editor 

The purpose of this publication is twofold. It is to provide 
encouragement and stimulation to the faculty to initiate or 
continue research leading to production of scholarly articles. 
It is also designed to make available to an expanding reading 
audience the results of such academic activity. 

Vol. I, No. 1 May, 1968 


Why Ciad Coins.? 

By IF. Glenn Moore _ _ 3 

Fowl Play on the Frontier 

By Wm. ].Stvanson 12 

Geographic Factors of Office Building Location 

By Jack L. Jewell _ 16 

Atticus G. Haygood: Social Critic of the New South 

By John M. Martin i 28 

On a Sum of Sets of Natural Numbers and Integers 

By Hwa S. Hahn 39 

Comprehensive Bibliography of West Georgia College 

Faculty as of January 1, 1968 „ „ 52 

The bibliography includes items in print or accepted for publica- 
tion. Term papers, theses and dissertations, all items known to be "in. 
progress" as well as recitals and art objects are not listed. Complete 
facts of publication are left out on some entries due to the necessity of 
changing scientific listings to the non-scientific form and the inability 
of finding page numbers and other data for publications now not 
traceable. The ultimate purpose of this inventory is to record ac- 
complishments and encourage further research leading to publication. 

Copyright @ 1968 by 
West Georgia College 

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used or re- 
produced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except 
in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. 
For information address the Dean of the College, West Georgia Col- 
lege, Carrollton, Georgia, 30117. 

Printed in the United States of America 


By W. Glenn Moore* 

Since 1965 our coinage system has been inundated with sandwich- 
type pieces of the ten-cent, twenty-five-cent and fifty-cent denomina- 
tions. Actually, the minting of the new ■'clad'" dimes, quarters, and 
halves is much the same as that of cents and nickels, except that the 
strip from which the blanks or planchets are punched consists of three 
layers permanently bonded together.' 

Formerly, these coins had a 9C'-pcr cent silver content. The Coinage 
Act of 1965 eliminated silver entirely from the dime and quarter, and 
reduced the silver content of the half dollar to 40 per cent. No change 
in standard silver dollars was authorized, but they have not been minted 
since 1935 and there are no plans at present to resume their production. ^ 

The new dimes and quarters consist of a copper core faced or 
"clad" by layers of an alloy — 75 per cent copper and 25 per cent nickel. 
The new halves consists of a core containing about 21 per cent silver 
and 79 per cent copper clad by layers containing 80 per cent silver and 
20 per cent copper. The latter have an overall silver content of 40 per 
cent and are eight per cent lighter than earlier halves. ^ 

Why did Congress pass a new law to eliminate silver from dimes 
and quarters and to reduce the silver content of half dollars? The an- 
swer is that because the consumption of silver had exceeded production, 
Congress had no choice. Industrial and artistic uses of silver had in- 
creased significantly with the tremendous growth in population and 
industr)/. The largest increase in the use of silver, however, resulted 
from an ever-increasing demand for coins — in exchange, for coin- 
operated machines, and by a growing number of coin collectors. So 

*Professor of Economics and Head of Department 

1 Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, Fundamental Facts about United States 
Money of Importance to Everyone Who Handles Cash (Atlanta, 1966), 14. 

2 Ibid. 

3 Ibid., 14, 16. 

great was the demand for silver coins that the entire country- was in 
the grip of a serious coin shortage by 1964. 

The world production of silver could not be stepped up in 
response to the increased demand without a substantial price boost 
to encourage exploration and production. In fact, 70 per cent of the 
1964 silver production came from copper, lead and zinc mines, where 
it was regarded as a by-product. The world's real silver mines also 
were running into poorer ores, and few rich deposits had been found 
in recent decades.'^ 

In 1963, the free world used 422 million ounces of silver and 
produced only slightly more than 235 million. Mexico, which used to 
ship most of her silver to the United States, had contracted to sell large 
amounts to West Germany. Russia, which used to export some silver, 
had sold none since 1955. Furthermore, the United States used more 
than 300 million ounces in 1964, while in the same period, domestic 
mines produced about 40 million ounces. ^ 

The difference between v,'orld production and consumption of 
silver was being supplied from the Treasury's huge silver bullion stocks. 
Under the Silver Purchase Act of 1934, more than two billion ounces 
of foreign and secondary silver were purchased at a cost of slightly over 
$1 billion. However, no silver has been bought under this act since 
1942, but an Act of July 6, 1939, resulted in the purchase of 206 mil- 
lion ounces at a cost of $146.6 million. Under a subsequent Act of 
July 31, 1946, the Treasury added 376.6 million ounces by the end of 
1962 at the cost of $340.9 million.^ 

These silver acquisitions by the Treasury had the effect of raising 
the market price of silver considerably. By the middle 1950's, the price 
had risen to about 91 cents an ounce. However, demand became greater 
than supply in 1959, and from then to November 1961, the price was 
kept down only by sales of the Treasury's silver stocks. When President 

* U. S. News & World Report (October 19, 1964), 59. 

5 Ibid., 58. 

6 U. S. Senate, 76th Cong., 1st Sess., Committee on Banking and Currency, 
"Repealing Certain Legislation Relating to the Purchase of Silver, and for 
Other Purposes," Senate Report 175 (Washington, 1963), 2-3. 

John F. Kennedy directed the Treasury to halt the sale of silver from 
its ""free" or '"nonmonetized" stocks on November 28, 1961, and to 
retire some silver certificates, the action came at a time when the price 
of silver was rising above the Treasury's selling price of 91 cents an 

The provisions requiring the Treasury to maintain a floor of 
90.05 cents an ounce under newly mined domestic silver v,'ere repealed 
in June 1963, and this legislation further allowed for the disposal of 
"nonmonetized" silver at $1.2929 an ounce. The Treasury was forced, 
however, to begin selling silver in September 1963, when the market 
price of silver in New York and London reached $1.2930 an ounce.^ 
Thus the Treasury assumed the job of equating supply and demand by 
opening its silver stocks to all who wanted to buy at $1.2929 an ounce, 
and could hold the price at that level by selling silver as long as its 
stocks held out. 

Not all of the Treasury stocks, howe\'er, were "nonmonetized" 
silver to sell. The problem concerned the "monetized" silver in support 
of silver certificates in circulation. Because of the increasing demand 
for silver certificates in the $1 denomination, G)ngress authorized the 
$1 Federal Reserve note, first issued November 26, 1963, as a replace- 
ment. Tliis action, however, caused all silver certificates (formerly 
issued in $1, $5, and $10 denominations) to be hoarded by collectors 
and silver speculators. Tlien, on September 30, 1964, the Treasury 
requested the Federal Reserve banks to begin retiring and destroying 
all silver certificates received by them, regardless of condition. Conse- 
quently, the stock of silver required to back silver certificates was re- 
duced as the notes were taken out of circulation and destroyed.'' 

An unfortunate effect of the rapid depletion of the Treasury's 
silver stocks was to touch off speculation in silver markets and their 

7 William J. Frazer, Jr., and William P. Yohe, Introdr/ction to the Analytics 
and Institutions of Money and Banking (Princeton, 1966), 188n-189n. 

8 Ignoring the cost of melting and the legal prohibitions, it becomes profitable 
to melt U. S. silver dollars for their silver content when the price rises above 
$1.2929 ($1.38 an ounce in the case of subsidiary silver coins). Ihid., 189n. 

9 Fundamental Facts, 3. 

futures. Handy and Harman, the nations leading refiner and fabricator 
of silver, estimated in its 1964 Annual Revieiv oj the Silver Market that 
hoarders and speculators bought heavily in the last four months of that 
year, presumably anticipating a price rise. The review also noted that 
the domestic industrial consumption of silver rose 11 per cent in 1964, 
w^hile the Treasury stocks shrank by 23 per cent. '° 

Meanwhile, the Treasury efforts to cope with the coin shortage 
contributed to a faster drop in silver stocks. The United States mints 
in Philadelphia and Denver doubled their output. In 1963, they used 
111 million ounces of silver in coins; in 1964, 203 million ounces; 
in 1965, 320.3 million ounces." Thus the United States by 1965 found 
itself using far more silver for coinage alone than the total of free world 
silver production. 

In the summer of 1964, when the Legal and Monetary Affairs 
Subcommittee of the House Committee on Government Operations 
first held hearings into the causes and possible relief to the nation's 
then-serious com shortage, the mint was producing coin at the rate of 
about 4.3 billion pieces a year. Although some 48 billion coins were 
then estimated to be in existence, the merchants and bankers were ex- 
periencing shortages in all coin denominations. Neither the commercial 
banks nor, in turn, the Federal Reserve banks could fill the requests for 
coin. '2 

The subcommittee study revealed that the shortage resulted princi- 
pally from tlie unprecedented coin uses in vending machines and other 
coin-operated devices, as well as, the rapid growth in coin hoarding 
(for profit or to assure adequaq^ of supply for business purposes). 
The Committee on Government Operations made tv^o recommendations 
in its report. One was designed to promote dishoarding by businesses 
and individuals. The other gave committee approval to the mint's crash 
production program which began immediately after the subcommittee's 
hearings were called. '^ 

10 The Atlanta Journal, January 23, 1965. 

I ' U. S. House, 89th Cong., 2nd Sess., Committee on Government Operations, 

"The Coin Situation," House Report 1468 (Washington, 1966), 28. 

12 Ibid., 4-5. 

"3 Ibid., 5. 

By February 1965, when the subcommittee's second hearings 
were held, the coin situation had substantially improved. Not only did 
the mint's schedules call for the production of more than 4.5 billion 
pieces in the first half of that year, but the fact that there was no 
actual shortage of coins was again clearly evident. The big problem 
that remained was to get the coin that was being held out of circulation 
back into commercial channels. However, the fact remained that the 
Treasury's silver supply was subject to further large diminutions 
through the mint's accelerated production program.'^ 

Added to the coinage demands on the silver stocks was the ever- 
increasing demand by industrial and artistic users. By June 30, 1964, 
more than 324 million ounces had been sold for industrial use under 
the authority of the Acts of July 12, 1943, and July 31, 1946. Silver 
not only continued to be used in luxury items, but found rising 
new markets in the electronics, aircraft and space industries. In 1963 
alone, industrial consumption amounted to 110 million ounces, and the 
estimate for 1964 was about 120 million ounces. '^ 

The economic interests of the American silver producers, how- 
ever, were different from those of the users of silver. Because of the 
large monetary demand for the metal, the American silver-producing 
interests in general opposed any elimination or reduction of silver in 
coins. Hence, the Coinage Act of 1965 — signed by President Lyndon B. 
Johnson on July 23 — was a compromise in Congress between the di- 
verse economic interests of the two groups.'^ 

It is to be remembered that the 1965 coinage legislation provided 
for the elimination of silver from the dime and quarter, and the re- 
duction of the silver content of the half dollar from 90 per cent to 
40 per cent. The unchanged standard silver dollar could not be minted 

i« Ibid., 5-6. 

•5 Statement by Leland Howard, Director, Office of Domestic Gold and Silver 
Operations, June 8, 1965, before the House Committee on Interior and Insular 
Affairs. Contained in U. S. Treasury Department, "Annual Report of the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury on the State of the Finances," Treasury Document 3236 
(Washington, 1966), 314-316. 

16 Clifton H. Kreps and Olin S. Pugh, Money, Banking and Monetary Policy 
(New York. 1967), 330. 

for five years. '^ Because no silver dollars had been minted since 1935, 
the silver users gained nothing by the latter provision. The act, how- 
ever, marked a sharp curtailment in the usage of silver for monetary 
purposes, and the silver users were reasonably well satisfied with it.'*' 

In addition to retaining silver in the half dollar, the silver pro- 
ducers were protected by the putting of a floor by Congress under the 
price of newly-mined domestic silver. Section 104 of Title I of the 
Coinage Act of 1965 provides that the Secretar)' of the Treasury 
shall purchase at a price of $1.25 per fine troy ounce 
any silver mined after the date of enactment of 
this Act from natural deposits in the United States 
or any place subject to the jurisdiction thereof and 
tendered to a United States mint or assay office 
within one year after the month in which the ore 
from which it is derived was mined.''' 

The new clad coins also benefited other groups. The vending- 
machine industry gained in two ways — an ample supply of coins for 
future expansion, and no expensive conversion of existing coin-operated 
equipment. The cupro-nickel layers of the new clad coins have the 
same electrical properties of the "old" silver coins. In fact, the major 
reason for the adoption of these specific clad metals for coinage was 
that they would be acceptable to rejection devices (sensors) in vending 
machines. To have changed all rejection devices would have required 
from one to three years, and an expenditure by the vending-machine 
industry of an estimated $100 million.20 

The Treasury also gained in two ways. First, its silver problem was 
alleviated temporarily. At the time of the Legal and Monetary Affairs 
Subcommittee hearings in February 1965, the Treasury estimated its 
silver stocks at 785 million ounces. The 1965 Handy and Harman 
Annual Kevietv of the Silver Market showed the Treasury silver stocks 

17 Section 101 (c) of Title I of the Coinage Act of 1965. See Treasury Docu- 
ment 5256, 317. 

IS Kreps and Pugh, Mof7ey, Banking and Monetary Policy, 330. 

19 Treasury Document 3236, 317. 

20 House Report 1468, 7. 

at 800 million ounces on December 31, 1965. The study also estimated 
that for 1966, the Treasury^ stocks would be reduced by 100 million 
ounces for coinage and between 75 to 100 million ounces by industrial 
withdrawals. At this rate of depletion, the Treasury silver stocks would 
have been rapidly exhausted, but a total usage of 100 million ounces 
for both coinage and industrial withdrawals was estimated for each 
year after 1966 — indicating that the Treasury stocks would last through 
1973.^' Second, the Treasury profit from minting operations (seignior- 
age) was increased significantly. For example, each $1,000 of the new 
dimes or quarters contains about $60 of metallic content.22 Seigniorage 
amounted only to $117 million in fiscal year 1965, but it was estimated 
at $900 million in fiscal year 1966, and about $1.5 billion for fiscal 
year 1 967.23 

In conclusion, the rapid depletion of the Treasury's silver stocks 
in trying to overcome an acute coin shortage in the mid-1960's led 
Congress to reconsider the use of silver for monetary purposes. It was 
obvious that the Treasury soon would have to stop using silver for 
coinage. To avoid any such development, the use of silver in coins 
was reduced while the Treasury's stocks were still large. Fortunately, 
the ingenuity of American industry and trained research came to the 
rescue with a clad coin. 

Some ask if Gresham's law — in effect, bad money drives good 
money out of circulation — would have any application during the tran- 
sition period from the "old" silver to the "new" clad coins? While this 
precept had universal application when all coinage systems attempted to 
equate intrinsic values and face value, it should not operate when dif- 
ferent coins have the same face value. 

Of course, some "old" silver coins, especially half dollars and 
quarters, are being hoarded by speculators for other than numismatic 
purposes. They expect eventually to make a profit by selling the coins 
to industrial users for melting. In fact, on July 14, 1967, the Treasury 
abandoned the sale of silver at $1.2929 an ounce2* and announced 

21 Ibid., 28. 

22 Kreps and Pugh, Money, Banking and Monetary Policy, 331. 

23 House Report 1468, 28. 

2^ The Atlanta Journal and Constitution, October 15, 1967. 


that the silver certificates still in circulation^^ would be redeemable 
in silver at $1.2929 an ounce only through June 24, 1968. This action 
caused an immediate and dramatic rise in the market price of silver 
(to $1.87 an ounce), gave the collectors of the rapidly-disappearing 
silver certificates an unexpected financial windfall,^^ and lent encourage- 
ment to all speculators in silver coins. 

It should be noted, however, that speculators in silver coins are 
ignormg one important consideration— the Coinage Act of 1965 gave 
standby authority to the Secretary of the Treasury "to prohibit, curtail, 
or regulate the exportation, melting, or treating of any coin of the Unit- 
ed States. "27 The act also made punishable by a fine of not exceeding 
$10,000 or imprisonment not exceeding one year, or both, the lending 
or borrowing of money or credit upon the security of such coins as the 
Treasury Secretary may designate by proclamation. ^s Such Treasury con- 
trols were invoked on May 18, 1967, when a ban on the melting of coins 
was proclaimed along with a limitation on sales of silver bars to domes- 
tic users^' and a prohibition on exports of silver coins. ^o 

The Treasury, of course, is not bound by the ban on melting of 
coins. Immediately following its ban, the Treasury quietly began 
withdrawing from circulation (through the Federal Reserve banks) 
some of the silver dimes and quarters — described as a precaution to 
provide an ample supply of coins for the Christmas rush, and to make 

25 Silver certificates in circulation (outside the Treasury and the Federal Reserve 
banks) were reported as $547,000,000 on April 30, 1967, while the silver bullion 
then held by the Treasury amounted to $664,000,000. Board of Governors, 
Federal Reserve Bulletin (Washington, 1967), 991. 

26 As intermediaries between the industrial users of silver and the collectors 
of silver certificates, the nation's coin dealers and brokers were offering as 
much as a thirty per cent premium on silver certificates in the summer of 1967. 

27 Section 105 (a) of Title I. See Treasury Document 3236, 317. 

28 Section 212 (a) of Title II. Ibid., 320. 

29 Set at 2,000,000 ounces weekly. Because new production exceeds 40,000,000 
ounces annually. Treasury officials stated that the rationing system should 
satisfy domestic industrial needs which ap roach 160,000,000 ounces a year. See 
The Atlanta Journal and Constitution, October 15, 1967. 

30 The Atlanta Journal, October 24, 1967. 


certain the Treasur)' had enough silver to redeem silver certificates 
and feed the strategic stockpile.^' This informal practice, however, 
became a fixed rule by late July, 1967, but the Treasury did not an- 
nounce until late October, 1967, that it anticipates the melting of 
silver coins in early 1968 — to help accumulate enough silver for domes- 
tic use into the 1970's.32 

Thus there occurred a sharp reduction in the Treasury silver stocks 
within the short span of a few years — on August 31, 1967, the silver 
bullion held by the Treasury was reported to be worth $519,000,000 
(at $1.2929 an ounce). ^3 Like it or not, the clad coin, necessitated by 
Treasury silver problems in the 1960's, has become an important 
part of the changing American scene, and it promises to play an ever- 
increasing role in the future. 

31 Ibid. The Treasury subsequently announced (October 13, 1967) that it was 
saving its purest silver for the strategic stockpile. This decision prompted the 
price of silver to reach a record of $1.89 an ounce ten days later. 

32 Ibid. At the same time, the Treasury disclaimed any plans to lift the melting 
ban or to recall all silver coins. 

33 Board of Governors, Federal Reserve Bulletin (Washington, 1967), 1765. 
In addition, the Treasury for several years has held 3,000,000 silver dollars and, 
presumably, these pieces could be diverted into the melting pot or used to 
redeem silver certificates in circulation. 



By Wm. J. Swan SON* 

Augustus Baldwin Longstreet's Georgia Scenes has been hailed as 
the first significant written manifestation of American frontier humor; 
this, indeed, it is. The critics who have pored over thif work for many 
years have, apparently, found in it a seemingly inexhaustible supply 
of the stuff of speculation. One sketch in that early nineteenth century 
work would seem to indicate a similarity in certain folk customs found 
in frontier Georgia, the New Netherland of Peter Stuy\'esant, and 
twentieth century Guatemala. This sketch deals with a gander pulling 
which Judge Longstreet set outside of Augusta, Georgia, in 179S. 

In Judge Longstreet's words: 

A circular path of about fort}' yards diameter had already 
been laid out; over which, from two posts about ten feet 
apart, stretched a rope, the middle of which was directly over 
the path. The rope hung loosely, so as to allow it, with the 
v/eight of a gander attached to it, to vibrate in an arc of four 
or five feet span, and so as to bring the breast of the gander 
within barely easy reach of a man of middle stature upon 
a horse of common size. 

A hat was now handed to such as wished to enter tlie 
list; and they threw into it twent)--five cents each; this sum 
was the victor's prize. 

The devoted gander was now produced; and Mr. Prator, 
having first tied his feet together with a strong cord, pro- 
ceeded to the neck-greasing. Abhorrent as it may be to all who 
respect the tenderer relations of life. Mrs. Prator had actually 
prepared a gourd of goose-grease for this ver)' purpose. ' 

* Instructor in English 

' Augustus Baldwin Longstreet, Georgia Scettes (New York: Sagamore Press, 
Inc., 1957), 100. 


Judge Longstreet further describes the attachment of the gander 
to the rope stretched between the posts directly above the path over 
which the contestants would ride. He adds that a man was placed on 
each side of the suspended gander to lash the horse of any contestant 
who might be tempted to linger under the prize in violation of contest 
rules. 2 

During SJirovetide (the Monday and Tuesday immediatelv pre- 
ceding Ash Wednesday) in Nev, Netherland the sport of pulling the 
goose was a part of the holiday merriment. A goose or hare with well- 
greased head was suspended from a rope stretched across the road and 
the young bloods of the village v^'ould attempt to pluck it down as 
they galloped past on horseback. An interesting variation of this game 
saw the goose hanging from a line stretched across a stream. A boat 
was rowed under the suspended prize and the contestant, standing on 
a plank in the boat's stern, would attempt to pull it down. An un- 
successful pass saw the contestant rewarded for his efforts with a cold 
bath. Although Peter Stuy\'esant was opposed to the custom, it per- 
sisted even after New Netherland came under English control in 1664.^ 

Because of the frontier barbarit}^ of the sport, one could be par- 
doned for assuming that it would not be likely to persist into the twenti- 
eth century. However, a short item in a monograph published in Guate- 
mala in i960 would seem to indicate that the custom., there dubbed 
"the pulling of ducks," v»'as known in one area of that country (Huite, 
which was chartered as a municipality on 5 October 1957*) until fairly 
recent times. In the words of Alvaro Enrique Palma S., author of the 
monograph : 

Antano se celebraba tambien la fiesta de San Juan se 
jalaban patos, (esta informacion la conseguimos nosotros) 
costumbre que ha pasado de moda. 

2 Ibid., 101. 

3 John Allen Krout, "Pulling the Goose" Annals of American Sport, ed. Ralph 
Henry Gabriel, The Pageant of America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 
1929), XV, 15. 

* Alvaro Enrique Palma S., Huite {Pequena Monografia), (Guatemala; 
Editorial del Ministerio de Educacion Publica "Jose de Pineda Ibarra." I960), 


"La jalada de patos" consistia en poner de un horcon o 
poste a otro, un lazo, alli se amarraba un pato vivo colgado, 
y un jinete en carrera pasaba y jalaba el pato el que en cuanto 
recibia el primer jalon ya se defendia solo en el momento 
mismo que oia que el caballo se acercaba al lazo.^ 

It is interesting to note that in all of the pulling accounts dis- 
approval was either expressed or implied. Judge Longstreet's account 
has a wryly facetious flavor; moreover, although the account was written 
as a newspaper sketch a few years before it appeared in the Georgia 
Scenes collection (which was first published in book form in 1835), 
Judge Longstreet holds that the event which he described took place 
in 1798. Because he himself was born in 1790, he would have had 
to be about eight years old at the time of the described gander pull- 
ing. One can speculate that in choosing the 1 798 date he was attempting 
to assure his readers that "this sort of thing doesn't happen around 
Augusta any more." 

The account of the New Netherland indulgences in the sport 
states that it was enjoyed despite the disapproval of the Dutch Govern- 
or, Peter Stuyvesant. One might be led to conclude that this sport was 
regarded by the officials of the Dutch colony as one belonging chiefly 
to the lower orders, in much the same way that stock car racing is re- 
garded by the more sophisticated today. 

Senor Palma, in his monograph, states that duck pulling was in- 
dulged in in "bygone years" (he refuses to be more specific than this) 
and that the custom has "passed out of style." From none of the 
sources does one gain an impression of unqualified approval of the 
activity described. 

5 Ibid., 80. 

In years past the Feast of Saint John was also celebrated and ducks were 
pulled (we have personally gathered this information) — this custom has 
passed out of style. 

The "pulling of ducks" consisted in extending from one forked branch or 
post to another line, from which line was hanged a living duck — and a 
horseback rider would pass and pull the fowl, the which (upon feeling the 
first pull) would defend itself in the very moment that it heard the horse 
approaching the rope. 


There is, by the way, an interesting point in common shared by 
colonial New Netherland and modern Guatemala: in both places the 
pullings were associated with a religious festival. In New Netherland 
the festival was Shrovetide and in Guatemala it was the Feast of Saint 
John. In Georgia, on the other hand, the pulling contest seems to have 
been set up as a routine entertainment and as a possible source of 
profit for its promoter. 

What conclusion can be drawn from this material? Perhaps the 
safest conclusion would be this: cruel and barbarous amusements are 
not particularly characteristic of specific nationality groups but are 
the natural outgrowth of a rugged frontier environment. 



By Jack L. Jewell* 

High-rise office buildings are one of the most spectacular and 
universally recognized symbols of the American cit}'. Their towers 
are among first significant features that appear on the horizon as the 
city is approached. Tliis study presents three phases, or eras, of office 
building construction in the downtown section of the Atlanta Central 
Business District with focus on factors of site location involving 
accessibility, functional linkages, physical and economic environment, 
and human influences upon location. 

Office Building Construction Eras 

There have been three eras of office construction in the United 
States. The First Era came between the years 1885 and 1919, the 
Second Era between 1920 and 1944, and the Third Era between 1945 
and the present. Bailey refers to a study in 1926 which indicated 
that First Era office buildings has an average life span of 37 years 
compared to an anticipated 75- to 100-year life span for Second Era 
buildings. ' 

An article in the Atlanta Journal describes three eras of office 
building in Atlanta which coincide with Bailey's eras. 

There have been three major building booms in Atlanta's 
history. First, following the Civil War, the brick buildings 
began appearing in the downtown area. This was in the 
1880's and stepped up in the 1890's to about 1910, and, ex- 
tending sporadically until about 1914, when World War I 
started. The second, and most important in the city's growth, 
until the current boom, was in the 1920's, ending abruptly 
about the first of 1931, by the great depression. From 1931, 

*Assistant Professor of Geography 

I George R. Bailey, "The Birth, Life, and Death of an Office Building," Journal 
of Property Management, XXVII (September, 1962), 213-218. 


stifled by the depression, and stopped again by World War II, 
no real building progress was made until after 1946. The 
third, and current boom — outdistancing all others — started 
slowly about 1946.2 

Each successive office building construction era has been attuned 
to modern building trends to such degree that structures of preceding 
eras either have had to conform to new concepts of office building 
architecture and function or face extinction. In some instances, owner- 
occupied buildings have avoided conforming to modern building 
trends. A case in point is a bank building in Atlanta, a First Era build- 
ing, which operates at a profit to its owner despite the fact that its 
rent rates are the lowest of any building in its proximity and that it 
maintains a relatively high vacancy rate. The bank pays a capital stock 
tax but no direct ad valorem taxes on the property and, in addition, 
the bank is housed in its own building. 

Modern Construction Practices 

The construction of a large office building is most commonly 
associated with a bank, an insurance company, or some other previously 
assured occupancy. The risks for this stem from the reasons involved; 
namely, construction costs have reached appalling heights, operating 
expenses and taxes are virtually overpowering, and the maintenance 
of an adequate occupancy rate to provide a profit is too hazardous for 
an independent investor due to the mushrooming competition of the 
rental market. It is unlikely that a large office building project could 
be found under construction today in which the builders expect to 
rent speculatively to profitable advantage. The National Market Letter 

New office buildings built for rental to multiple tenancy in 
the present market cannot be filled fast enough to relieve the 
builder from undue risk. Such buildings should only be built 
today by bulk space users or institutional investors who can 
underwrite losses in the early years. ^ 

2 "Three Major Booms Stretch Atlanta," Atlanta Journal, March 21, 1962, 1, 5. 

3 The National Market Letter, XVII, No. 12 (April. 1963), 8. 

Urban Land reported: 

A conspicuous feature of postwar office construction 
in Chicago has been the comparatively small amount done 
"speculativ^ely. " All but two of the dozen major new build- 
ings (250,000 square feet or larger) have been erected by 
or on behalf of firms expecting to occupy most of the space. 
Insurance companies haVb been especially prominent as 
sponsors of new office buildings . . . '* 

In all probability, an edifice speculatively proposed could not be 
financed as was the case in a recent office building venture in Atlanta. 
Construction of a projected 12-story office building was delayed in- 
definitely because a key tenant for the projected structure cancelled 
plans to occupy an appreciable amount of space in the projected build- 
ing. The upshot of this cancellation was that the construction company 
could not secure firm leases for at least one-half occupancy upon com- 
pletion of the building.5 Therefore, financial arrangements for the 
venture could not be concluded. 

As a consequence of the risks involved, big users of space are 
planning and doing most of the office building construction. They 
build beyond their immediate requirements, partly in anticipation of 
future expansion of their organizations, and partly for profit from 
rental of the extra space which reduces their own rental costs. Typical 
examples of this trend in Atlanta are the builders of the Fulton Na- 
tional Bank Building, the Bank of Georgia Building, and the First 
Federal Savings and Loan Building, all of which utilize lower floors 
and lease the remaining space. Newly constructed buildings such as 
the Hartford and the First National Bank Buildings are examples 
of trends in this direction. In 1965, the Continental Insurance Company 
occupied almost half of Atlanta's American Fore Building and leased 
the remainder of the building. Figure 1 shows the major high-rise 
office buildings of downtown Atlanta. 

^ "Chicago's Downtown Office Space Supply," Urban Land, (April, 1961), 8. 
5 John Crown, "Structure Delayed on Ponce de Leon," Atlanta Journal and 
Constitution, January 9, 1964. Also, see discussion concerning the decline of 
speculation as stimulus in "Office Buildings." Architectural Record, CXIV 
(June, 1962), 121-151. 


Three major types of office buildings prevail in the modern con- 
struction boom. The first is the corporate building largely restricted 
to New York City because of the great concentration of headquarters 
in that city. This type office building generally houses headquarters* 
functions of large corporations. The second t)'pe is the single-occupancy 
institutional, or "identit)' t}'pe" illustrated by the Inland Steel Building 
in Chicago, the Libby-Owens-Ford Building in Toledo, and the Alcoa 
Building in Pittsburgh. They have important advertising and public 
relations value, are particularly designed to use the company's products 
(stainless steel, aluminum, glass, etc.), are more expensive than ordi- 
nary buildings, and are often partly subsidized for this reason. The 
third type is the multiple-occupancy, or ordinary, office building usu- 
ally designed for rental to small tenants.^ 

Locatwnd Considerations 

Geographic factors and considerations are primarily involved in 
site selection as well as spatial interrelations of the edifice within its 
sphere of influence. A primary element in site selection concerns the 
geographical connections of the building and the area it is to serv^e 
or be served by. No matter how beautiful or now functionally perfect 
a building may be, it will never be able to overcome serious short- 
comings of its site. For instance, parking problems have plagued Sec- 
ond Era buildings, some of which were built before the modern boom 
in automobiles. Third Era buildings are attempting to provide parking 
either under their own roofs or in nearby facilities. 

Accessibility. Accessibility, public transit, and parking are inter- 
woven problems tliat plague the office function. While retail and 
wholesale functions require movement of goods and people, the major 
part of the office function exists only to serve people. If it is not 
readily accessible to its clientele, it degenerates. 

Accessibility is perhaps the most important factor in site location. 
How far must employees travel to get to work? The shorter the distance 
the better, but adequate public transportation modifies the importance 

6 George R. Bailey, "The Skyscraper Snaps Back," Skyscraper ManuQement, 
XLVII (April, 1962), 12-13. 


of site location provided the site is convenient to major transportation 
lines. Both employees and clientele usually must get to the office build- 
ing to transact their affairs, therefore, office buildings tend to locate 
near main traffic arteries. For example, the Atlanta National Bank 
Building, a First Era building, is now virtually inoperative primarily 
because of an unfavorable location, yet it is located less than one 
block from the new one million scjuare feet First National Bank Build- 

Local environment. Another factor in high-rise office building 
location is local environment. In almost all cases the jamming of the 
site against a heavily traveled main artery causes bottlenecks and traffic 
snarls which impede normal traffic flow.'' The kind of district in which 
the site of the proposed building is located, the possibilities of the 
site becoming more desirable in the future, land use on nearby proper- 
ties, topography of the site, and nuisance factors such as smoke, noise, 
odors, dirt, and unusual light obstructions, all of which tend to make 
maintenance costs skyrocket, all play important roles in office building 

A plot outline which will allow orientation of the building so as 
to gain full advantage of the prevailing breezes and maximum advan- 
tage of shade from direct rays of the sun will cut down costs of sum- 
mer air conditioning. Moreover, with modern architectural methods of 
fenestration, the proximity to adjoining buildings produces problems 
of natural versus artificial lighting of the building. A building with 
much glassed-in area placed extremely close to other high-rise buildings 
defeats the purpose of large scale fenestration unless the proposed 
building rises significantly higher than surrounding edifices as in the 
case of the First National Bank Building in Atlanta. 

Unusual construction complications. Any large office building will 
need an excavated basement and substantial foundations. Added ex- 
pense may be incurred if adjoining buildings must be shored up dur- 
ing excavation. Complications may arise due to the water table, soil 
conditions, geological structure, likelihood of nature catastrophies 
such as flooding, earthquake, or subsidence, and from slope problems. 

7 Kenneth H. Ripnen, Office Building and Office Layout Planning (New 
York, McGraw Hill Co, I960), 74-78. 


In general, while slope may be an asset in excavation and mutli-level 
access, it is more expensive to build on steep sites. ^ 

Functional linkages. Function is an important factor of office 
building location. A vital consideration is the choice of locality which 
will give easiest contact with other activities to which prospective tenants 
will be functionally linked. These ties may differ; for instance, the 
functional needs of a medical office building are not the same as those 
of a multiple-occupancy office building. A study by Free listed five 
locational advantages of office buildings which attract medical trade: 
(1) the building must be located on or near a major traffic artery 
because of the need for convenient accessibility by the large volume of 
clientele which go in and out of the building; (2) the building must 
be near good public transportation both for clientele and for the 
working force; (3) there should be retail stores and restaurants nearby; 
(4) the hospital district should be within fifteen minutes in either di- 
rection; and finally, (5) there should be a medical school or university 
nearby for immediate access to qualified consultants.'' The first three 
of these locational advantages, as stated by Free, could be considered 
as advantages for the location of any office building while the latter 
two are specifically oriented to medical office buildings. 

A survey of 750 business organizations by the firm of H. K. 
Negbaur and Company, Inc., New York City, leasing specialists, was 
summarized in Urban Land as follows: 

... the leasing firm gave the following tabulation of sub- 
jects included in the questionnaire survey and the percentage 
of respondents accorded first consideration in each instance: 

Accessibility of transportation, 26 per cent; rental, 25 
per cent; accessibility of customers, 18 per cent; air condition- 
ing and new "prestige" building, each 12 per cent; inexpens- 
ive restaurants and luncheonettes nearby for employees and 
garage in building, each two per cent; Post Office nearby, 

8 Leonard Manasseh and Roger Cunliffe, Ojfice Buildings (New York: Rein- 
hold publishing Corp., 1962), 17. 

9 Robert L. Free, "Appraisal of Medical Buildings," Appraisal Journal XXVI 
(January, 1958), 81-86. 


number of elevators serving a floor, hung ceiling with re- 
cessed fluorescent lights, each one per cent. 

Approximately 13 per cent of 750 business organizations 
to whom the research firm submitted its survey questionnaire 
participated. A broad range of industries was represented 
among the 103 business responding. '° 

Marketing influence. The marketing influence of a high-rise of- 
fice building is the relationship of the economic function of the build- 
ing (in terms of service or sales) with potential clientele. It is, per- 
haps, best measured in terms of accessibility concerning those office 
functions requiring face to face transactions, i.e., lawyers and doctors, 
and others. Other office functions may bear strong linkages with simi- 
lar office functions (as in the case of a financial office district) and 
their marketing influence may be secondary in importance relative to 
site location because of a need to be near parallel and related functions. 
In any case, if an office building enjoys a favorable market for its 
services, its site will tend to be economical as well as accessible to 
the customer. 

Competitive position is a result of the economic pressures of sup- 
ply and demand. Swan indicates that the element of competition is one 
of the determinants of the moment of time when one land use is re- 
placed by another land use. ' ' Scarcity of usable land breeds competition 
for a given site and dictates that only those economic activities can long 
survive which provide maximum return on investment. When usable 
land is plentiful, economic activities may survive even though their 
operation be marginal. In terms of competitive position, the supply 
and demand factor dictates that if an office building is to occupy a 
given site in a region of scarce usable land, there must be a reasonable 
guarantee that such use will provide an adequate return on the invest- 

Land value and land use stability. Land value, a factor involved 
in the location of office buildings, is derived from a complex mixture 

10 "Factors in Business Office Relocation Plans," Urban Land, XIX (July- 
August, I960), 4. 

11 Herbert S. Swan, "Land Values and City Growth," The Journal of Land 
and Public Utility Economics, X (May, 1934), 201. 


of phenomena and is subject to change with the passing of time. The 
purpose and desire of man, the scarcity of usable land, and the pur- 
chasing power of tlie general area in which the site is located are major 
characteristics of land value. Specifically, the land value of a particular 
site is influenced by its competitive position, marketing influence, sta- 
bility of use, and relation to surroundings. 

Modern high-rise office buildings are generally expected to eiijoy 
a profitable life span of at least 50 to 75 years. The maximum de- 
preciation time is 50 years. Therefore, it is imperative that consideration 
for stability of land use be taken into account. Taylor sums up this 
aspect of site location: 

An unstable site is the resultant of a combination of influences 
such as economic loss, physical depreciation, change in buy- 
ing habits, functional obsolescence, and changes in traffic and 
parking patterns. Sites are improved on the basis of future 
return, i.e., a coming use, and if that use does not produce 
the anticipated return, it is replaced by a more economic use.'^ 

Proudfoot indicates that the dominant factor necesary for site se- 
lection with regard to stability is accessibility to the greatest number 
of potential consumers of goods and services. '^ 

There is a lack of developable land in most Central Business 
Districts. Consequently, if an office building is to occupy a favorable 
site it will often force the demise of an existing land use considered 
of less economic value. The proposed office building in relation to 
surrounding land uses must be an improvement to its immediate en- 
virons if it is to compete successfully in economic worth with surround- 
ing land uses. Ideally, it should command a higher land value than 
the land use it supercedes as well as to raise the value of adjacent land. 
Better office buildings force competitiors to remodel to keep in stride 
and ultimately seem to stimulate the construction of bigger and better 
office buildings. 

^2 Gerald Kirkbridge Taylor, Jr., Relationships Between Land Value and Land 
Use in a Central Business District (Washington: Urban Land Institute, 1957), 

>3 Malcolm J. Proudfoot, "The Selection of a Business Site," Journal of Land 
and Public Utility Economics, XIV (November, 1938), 371. 


Human factors. In addition, human factors must be considered 
in office building location. There tends to be a strong attraction of 
like upon like in business groupings and offices of certain occupations 
often congregate. There are manifested needs for intercommunication, 
for the availability of a pool of similarly trained labor force and man- 
agement, for prestige, and for the volume of business all of v/hich be- 
come linked to a specific area. 

A vital concern to those engaged in office building location is 
office space market demand of the city in which the structure is to be 
erected. Along this line, Shultz and Simmons report the results of early 
studies made of this facet of building location. 

Even as early as 1922 fears had been expressed that 
office space would be overdone if its production were not 
governed by some relationship to the requirements of a city. 
In San Francisco, E. M. Applegarth . . . made the first at- 
tempt to determine a city's real need for office space. He 
assumed that each city had a relationship between population 
and office space; while this would be different for different 
cities, it might be fairly uniform from year to year in each 

The Applegarth study, as related by Shultz and Simmons, shows 
that between the years 1914 and 1924 the total per capita square foot 
office floor space of San Francisco rose from 7.50 to 7.70 square feet 
while the per capita of office floor space actually occupied during this 
period rose from 6.37 to 6.75 square feet. The upshot was that while 
the gap was closing, the city remained overbuilt by about one square 
foot per capita. 

A later study by Hart re-affirms that population ratio studies 
are valuable instruments in selecting office building sites. However, 
Hart shows that results of such studies may not be so easily diagnosed. 
For instance, he states that population ratio may not be directly related 
to the kind of business development taking place within a community. 
It is possible that industrial and office space may not expand in the 

14 Earl Shultz and Walter Simmons, Offices in the Sky (Indianapolis: Bobbs- 
Merrill Company, Inc., 1959), 159-160. 


same proportion as population. While any increase in population will 
automatically require more office space, such as lawyers and doctors, 
the dominant economic and functional characteristics of the city may 
dictate the quantity of office floor space needed. '^ A highly industrial- 
ized city may not need the same kinds and amounts of office space as 
a city in which the dominant function is real estate and insurance. 

The attitudes and desires of the labor force as to site location for 
office buildings is an important consideration. A survey conducted 
among 100,000 insurance workers in an area of lower Manhattan's 
financial district revealed "these downtown job holders voted heavily 
in favor of working downtown. In fact, they stated outright that if the 
companies moved to the suburbs they would not make the trek, but 
would hunt for other jobs downtown."'^ A paper presented in 1959 by 
Fred B. Moore at a conference of the Building Owners and Managers 
of America stated, "The convenience of a downtown location means 
a lot to the employees of companies housed there and it is not uncom- 
mon for a company to lose a majority of its old personnel when it 
moves to one of the suburbs." The Moore paper lists assets of a sociolo- 
gical nature to downtown location as ( 1 ) prior start, a pattern of eco- 
nomic activity has developed downtown over the years and has resulted 
in patterns of movement by clientele of office buildings and shoppers 
to this district, and ( 2 ) congestion, people like to be where other 
people are and pedestrian congestion stimulates economic activity. On 
the other hand, auto congestion is a liability which must be alleviated.'^ 

Summary and Conclusions 

The analysis of office building location characteristics is a many 
faceted geographic problem involving economic, sociological, and other 

15 Gerald T. Hart, "Economic Background of Office Buildings," Appraisal 
Journal, XXIX (April, 1961), 207-212. 

16 "Downtown Wins Employee Popularity Poll," Skyscraper Management, 
XLIV (October, 1959), 68. 

17 Fred B. Moore, "Urban Development and Its Effect on Downtown Office 
Buildings," paper read before the Southern Conference of the National Associa- 
tion of Building Owners and Managers at Birmingham, Alabama, March 17, 

considerations. This problem is of such complex magnitude that the 
National Association of Building Owners and Managers organized a 
Building Planning Service for site selection based on circumstances 
surrounding individual office buildings. While a number of checklists 
may be found in office building literature,'^ no one such list should 
be considered as being exhaustive. 

Atlanta has experienced three eras of office building construction 
which coincide with similar building eras across the United States. 
Presentday office construction is not undertaken speculatively by large 
users of space with assured occupancy prior to construction. Specific 
location of individual buildings involves accessibility, parking, land 
value, primary function of the building, and its linkages with its clientele 
and with other buildings. The construction of new office buildings 
appears to be the most spectacular evidence of the growth of the city 
of Atlanta. 

18 See: S. Wescott Toole, "Choosing a Business Location: Downtown vs. 
Suburbia," Skyscraper Management, XLIV (October, 1959), 18-19, 69-70; 
Ripnen, 74-78; Abbott L. Nelson, "The Value of an Economic Analysis of 
Downtown," Skyscraper Management, XLV (October, I960), 12-14. 



President of Emory College, agent of the Slater Fund, bishop of 
the Methodist Church, Atticus Green Haygood was also a pioneer 
social critic of the New South. In speeches, pamphlets, and books, he 
considered such problems as the Negro question, lynching, convict 
leasing, the liquor evil, farm tenancy and educational backwardness. 
Many of his later views were foreshadowed in a Thanksgiving sermon 
he delivered at Emory on November 25, 1880. Southerners, he said, 
should frankly recognize their faults and seek to correct them. Too 
provincial in the past, they had not felt enough of the heartbeat of the 
world outside. "Had we been less provincial, less shut in by and with 
our own ideas, had we known the world better," he declared, "there 
would have been no war in I86I." He was pleased that slavery had 
been abolished because emancipation had brought benefits to both 
Negroes and whites and because it would lead to southern industrial 
and business progress and to social and ethical improvement of the 
section. The South, he said, was now ready to take its "place among 
both the conservative and aggressive forces of the civilized Christian 
world." But there was a vast mass of illiterac)', among whites as well 
as blacks. Public schools were painfully inadequate, and colleges and 
universities struggled against "fearful odds." The want of literature 
was "too obvious to dispute about, .... too painful to dwell upon." 
Although nature had furnished conditions for a prosperous industry, 
the section still lagged. In order to advance, its people must practice 
such traits as industry' and economy in business, political and social 
toleration, respect for law and authority; they must cease from politics 
as a trust and a trade. "Our deliverance will come," he declared, 
"through industr}^ economy, civil order, and the blessing of God upon 
obedience." Within twent}' years, he hoped the "South" would have 
only geographic significance. To look forward, he felt, was not to do 
injustice to heroic southern dead. 

Haygood elaborated his views further in a speech delivered in 
Boston and several other New England cities in 1881. In this speech 


he called for sectional reconciliation and southern economic and social 
progress. The South should be regarded as "simply part of the nation." 
People in the different sections could no longer afford to hate each 
other or even to think evil of each other. If there u'as one "supreme 
civil duty" of the hour, it was the "burial of sectional animosities." 
Usually poor and ignorant, southern Negroes constituted a major pro- 
blem; and the problem could be solved best with the assistance of all 
parties and all sections. "We want you of the North," he urged, "to 
help us make the most of (the Negro) as a man and as a citizen ..." 
Although the South had made considerable economic progress in 1865, 
it was still predominantly agricultural. Haygood, however, was con- 
fident that a manufacturing instinct was emerging and that farmers were 
becoming convinced of the sound policy of diversified crops. Much, 
he noted, needed to be done in the field of education. Partly because 
financial resources were inadequate, schools had been neglected, and 
colleges lacked substantial endowments or other resources. But south- 
erners, he felt, were "weary of geographkd and sentimental politics" 
and wanted peace, development of industr}-, and the improvement of 
their civilization. 

Haygood's views concerning the Negro question were expressed 
at greatest length in a book Our Brother in Black: His Freedom and 
His Future published in 1881. Although he displayed a degree of 
racial prejudice and was somewhat condescending toward the Negro, 
the book was generally sympathetic toward the colored race and reflect- 
ed the experiences of an observant and tolerant southerner who had lived 
among Negroes while they were both slaves and freedmen. With an 
insight based on long experience, he described the race problem and 
suggested means by which it could be solved. Listing the good and bad 
traits of Negroes, he attributed the worst ones to the heritage of 
slavery. As a rule, he said, Negroes were unsystematic in their plans 
and labor and did not practice frugality and thrift; many were fond 
of strong drink and lived by a lax moral code, and most were ignorant. 
On the other hand, they were kind-hearted, generous, obliging, unre- 
vengeful and willing to learn if given a chance. Although most were 
agricultural workers or unskilled laborers, some had acquired property, 
and some Negro pupils had done work "every whit as good as the 
best done in the white schools of similar grade." 


Solution of the race issue was possible, said Haygood, through 
"the poise of good sense and the guidance of good conscience, " rather 
than through "the heats of sectional or party passion." It could be 
solved best, he felt, if the Negroes remained in the South, for souther- 
ners were "the fittest to deal" with the "difficult and delicate" question. 
Three groups must work together in seeking to solve the problem: 
southern whites, northerners, and the Negroes. Unfortunately, many 
mistakes had been made since 1865. The Soutli had failed in refusing 
to give "patient submission," and the North had failed in refusing to 
exercise "wise forbearance." Northern impatience, moreover, had in- 
creased southern reluctance to accept change and had "greatly hindered" 
southerners from acknowledging their faults. Some were unwilling to 
admit the existence of a race problem, and most still had not "set 
themselves fairly and earnestly" to seek solutions for it. Under the 
circumstances southern whites, northerners, and Negroes must recog- 
nize the need for understanding. Northerners must realize that the 
"cordial and vigorous cooperation" of southern whites was necessary. 
Southerners must concede that tliere was a need for action. Since the 
Negroes were an integral part of the southern industrial, social, and 
political system, it was time for southerners to do their best "thinking, 
working, and praying" for means to settle the question. "If we cannot 
go fast." he declared, "we must go slow, but we must go." He hoped 
that enough people from each of the groups concerned were ready to 
"clear the ground" for mutual understanding. 

Haygood outlined several steps that could be taken to improve 
conditions among the Negroes. First, they must be educated. Each 
should be given keys to "unlock all the doors of wisdom" he was 
capable of opening. Each should be shown that ignorance was a shame 
and that it involved enslavement to the powers of darkness. For the 
good of both races, however, schools should be segregated. Second, 
Negroes should be encouraged to become self-sufficient instead of 
remaining dependent on others. Only as a last resort should they be 
given financial assistance. Some should be encouraged to own land as a 
means for the encouragement of industry and thrift, a desire for a stable 
community, an interest in honest government, and a recognition of the 
need for moral and social improvement among the "idle and vicious" 


of the race. Finally, Negroes must be taught to become better citizens, 
to respect the rights of others, to keep contracts, to obey the law, to 
abstain, to vote honestly and to respect marriage vows. The whites, 
for their part, must see that Negroes received "fair dealing and justice." 
Although social problems could not be solved by legislation or author- 
ity, progress could be made if all had "right spirit" in their hearts and 
"good sense" in their heads. In succeeding years, Haygood, as a minis- 
ter, school administrator and agent of the Slater Fund, continued to 
work for improved race relations. In sermons, articles, pamphlets, and 
books, he continued to stress the same approaches enounced in Our 
Brother in Black. 

Haygood also considered the evils of farm tenancy in the South 
and possible solutions. "We have, perhaps," he wrote in 1881, "the 
poorest substitute for a tenant farming system that was ever devised." 
In 1888 he again noted that no enlightened system had been evolved 
for the use of free labor 'with a broad, clear recognition of the differ- 
ence between free and slave labor." Under the plan in use, most land- 
lords and tenants had understandings lasting only until the end of a 
given year. Hardly any thought was given "beyond the next crop." Such 
a system caused both the tenant and the landlord "to give as little as 
possible and get as much as possible" without concern for improvement 
of the farm. The tenant had little incentive to take care of the soil, 
fences, buildings and machinery; likewise, landlords had little incentive 
to improve them since they did not know who would be cultivating 
the farm the follovv'ing year. The tenant wanted to get the most he 
could from the land, and the landlord wanted to get the most he could 
from the tenant. "It is a case of skinning on both sides;" wrote Hay- 
good, "both are at it, and both succeed. Each gets the other's hide and 
loses his own." The "land-poor landlord" and the "half-skinned tenant" 
went from bad to worse. 

As solutions to the tenancy problem, Haygood suggested long- 
term leases and landownership. Long-term leases, he said, would be 
beneficial to all concerned because there would be an inducement for 
the tenant to improve the land instead of trying to squeeze all he could 
from it and for the landlord to make farm improvements. With the 
substitution of natural fertilizers, millions could be saved in commercial 


fertilizer costs, too much of wliich went to pay for swindles perpetrated 
by fertilizer companies. Over the years, land could be made more pro- 
ductive even though it remained in constant use. Instead of tending to 
be a "tramp," the tenant would be able to settle down to systematic, 
intelligent work and would be delivered from the "systemless and thrift- 
less style of living" that prevailed under the old system. Some would 
no doubt become landowners. Haygood saw no reason to object to 
such a development, for landownership would bring stability and con- 
servatism to the community. He reminded those who objected to changes 
in the tenancy system that the "interests of several millions of people" 
and not the "convenience of a few thousand planters" should be con- 

Throughout the 1880's, Haygood called attention to the shortage 
of industry in the South and sought to promote economic diversification. 
In his Thanksgiving message of 1880, he blamed the industrial lag 
in the section on the existence of slavery. In his New England speeches 
in 1881, he admitted that most southerners served King Cotton with 
a "slavish loyalty" and that he made them pay dearly. In 1888 he pro- 
tested because Georgia still imported too much of everything — except 
cotton — from locomotives to toothpicks, mules, horses, wagons, plows, 
reapers, harnesses, hame-strings, axes, and canned peaches. Too often, 
he said, even haystacks, wheat bins and corn cribs were outside the 
South. "We will make nothing," he declared, "we can pay a stranger 
to make for us, whether we want hairpins or bristles, baby carriages 
or road wagons." In the absence of economic opportunity, trainloads of 
people were leaving Georgia for Arkansas and Texas. To hold its 
people and to attract others, the state must provide greater economic 
opportunity, enforce the law, and improve education. Prosperity, he 
warned, would not come by "a happy stroke of genius or good luck;" 
instead, it would require dedicated planning and work from within. 
He welcomed, therefore, industrial expositions, railroad building, agri- 
cultural diversification, and industrial expansion as means to bring into 
being a greater South. 

Better education, said Haygood, was vital to the economic and 
social progress of the South. As a consequence, he agitated incessantly 
for the improvement of public schools. He called southern schools 


"painfully inadequate" in his Thanksgiving message of 1880, and 
noted in 1881 the neglect of common schools in the section. In an 1884 
speech, later published, he emphasized the need for universal education 
— for the good of the people themselves and for the efficiency of insti- 
tutions. Although some felt that giving education to the masses was 
dangerous, he saw no such danger, for to him knowledge and virtue 
went together. Police records, on the other hand, showed that much 
crime could be traced to illiteracy. Neither could Haygood agree with 
those who argued that the public should not be taxed for the support 
of all children and that the welfare of the less fortunate should be dis- 
regarded. The section, he declared, could not afford to have ignorant 
people. Education was both a measure of economy and public safety. 
Compulsory education should be provided, and those who did not 
acquire an elementary education should be penalized by being denied the 
right to vote. Although public schools competed with private schools 
and were sometimes inefficient, churches could not rightfully oppose 
public education since they were unable to provide private schools for 
both white and Negro children. Elementary schools, he pointed out, 
taught basic subjects, not religion. Instead of being critical, all should 
work together to bring about improvement of public education. Unfor- 
tunately, however, schools had been starved by "small-brained" legis- 
lators in the name of economy. To improve the "discreditable" situation, 
several steps were necessary: greater financial support, longer terms, 
better teachers, but, more important, an "intelligent interest" on the 
part of the public who must recognize that ignorance was a "source of 
weakness to both Qiurch and State." 

Haygood re-emphasized his views about public education in an 
Atlanta speech delivered in 1888. Delivered for the purpose of arousing 
interest in better schools, it was later published with the title The Cry 
of Half a Million of Georgia's Children. In it, he pointed out that the 
State of Georgia had not properly implemented the provision in its con- 
stitution calling for state support of public schools. He reproved those 
who opposed educational progress because they feared it would cause 
the masses to want better pay or to be discontented with their lot and 
those who sneered at the supporters of public schools as "visionaries" 
and "cranks." The existing system scarcely deserved the name because 


it gave less than half the children only two and one-half to three months 
of schooling per year. Good teaching, moreover, could not be expected 
when teachers were paid so little. Just enough public money was being 
spent to do the "least possible good and the greatest possible harm." 
Just enough was being spent to give the people a "low idea of educa- 
tion." Meanwhile, the percentage of illiteracy in Georgia w^as increasing, 
and members of the legislature were justifying their miserly policy on 
the grounds that they were "saving the people's money for them." 

Sound political economy, the republican philosophy of government, 
and the Christian religion, declared Haygood, made it "the duty as well 
as the policy of the state to provide for the education of its children." 
The task could not be left to local option, for some of the communities 
most in need of schools were most apathetic. Since the "country child- 
ren" had the greatest need, the more fortunate must help them; the more 
intelligent must guide the ignorant. Intensive agriculture and diversi- 
fied industry were possible only if the people were better educated. 
The ignorant could not fill jobs adequately and could not afford to 
buy enough goods to justify business expansion. Twenty years of six 
months' schools would "build more factories in Georgia than all the 
syndicates." Better education w^ould provide economic opportunity and 
set young people free from the "hopelessness of ignorance." The most 
important issue before the state, he concluded, was adequate provision 
for the education of its children, both white and Negro. 

At the same time Haygood was urging improved education, he was 
publicizing the twin problems of execrable prison conditions and con- 
vict leasing. He told a prison reform group in 1886 that the public 
would be shocked if jails and prisons in states, counties and cities 
were inspected. No government, he said, had the right to jeopardize 
the health of prisoners unnecessarily. Each was obligated to make prison 
conditions as healthful as possible and was culpable if it permitted a 
prison or jail to be so filthy, so crowded, so ill-ventilated, so hot, so 
cold, so ill-fed or cruelly governed as to produce a breeding place for 
disease. A high prison death rate represented evidence of negligence 
or oppression. No just government, he added, could rightfully deprive 
its prisoners of opportunity for mental and moral development and 
could not tolerate prison conditions that would permit immorality. Yet, 


by incarcerating mere youths with hardened criminals, states were 
conducting a "normal school for vice." Rather than turning out better 
people, prisons were turning out "men graduated in the arts of crime;" 
the public was paying tuition for those who learned in prison "to prey 
upon them upon release." By the barbarous act of herding men and 
women together, moreover, governments were encouraging vice and 
taxing the virtuous to pay the bill. The birth of illegitimate children 
in jails and penitentiaries, he charged, was "appalling moral monstros- 
ity in a civilized and Christian countr)'." 

Governments, said Haygood, were also culpable in permitting 
convict leasing, for they did not have the right to transfer to private 
persons the right of punishing law violations. In permitting leasing, 
moreover, they were propagating evil fruits. The practice could never 
have existed except for monteary considerations. Because it involved 
money and influence, it led to the corruption of legislators. Because of 
it, lessors had a monetry interest in crime and the conviction of those 
charged with crime. For them, the greater the punishment, the greater 
the profit. For monetary reasons, they sometimes found it profitable 
to keep certain deserving prisoners from being released and to hasten 
the release of others more dangerous to societ}' by pardon, easy escape 
or other means. No government, asserted Haygood, could supervise 
lessees adequately. Mere visitations were not sufficient when prisoners 
were scattered in brickyards, shops and mines, or on farms and railroad 
projects; for the lessor was still in charge of prisoners and could 
conceal facts and enforce silence. 

Prison reform, said Haygood, would come as a consequence of a 
healthy and vigorous public sentiment on the subject growing out of 
an awakened public conscience. Such an awakening could not be ac- 
complished in a day, perhaps not in a generation; however, facts 
should be collected and remedies suggested. He called for "a justice 
blind and deaf to favoritism as to men or classes of men." The poor 
must be treated in the same way as the rich, the Negroes in the same 
way as the whites. Tlie public must consider not merely the thousands 
who remained in prison, but also the thousands who left jails each 
year; else, those who were released would inject a "blood poison" into 
the community, one that had probably been intensified by prison life. 


Southerners, he added, needed to become more concerned about 
the related problem of lynching, a practice that was "too common to 
shock the sensibilities of natives." Nothing more than lawlessness, it 
was a "crime against society." Even though the person put to death 
was possibly a violent wretch, those who lynched him were criminals 
because they were taking the law into their hands. A group of a hun- 
dred had no more right to exercise private law than did a single 
individual. "Lynching," declared Haygood, "does more to put down 
law than any criminal it takes in hand; lynching kills a man; the 
lyncher kills the law that protects life; lynching is anarchy." Lynchers 
admitted thq^ were conscious of their lawlessness when they sought 
protection in "masks and numbers." Any government that winked 
at lynching was vicious; any that did not put it dovv'n was weak and 

Blaming many of the problems of society on alcohol, Haygood 
spoke out from time to time against the liquor evil. The people them- 
selves, he told a Georgia audience in 1884, were to be blamed for 
permitting the saloon and related evils to exist. Either because of 
apathy or because they had been blinded by the promise of large re- 
turns from taxes, they had failed to eradicate the problem. Liquor inter- 
ests, on the other hand, were well organized and well financed and 
were able to protect themselves effectively. 

For economic, social, political, and moral reasons, said Haygood, 
the trade in liquor must be abolished. It made men spend extrava- 
gantly and forced families to live in povert}'; it made laborers unreliable 
and businessmen unfit to attend their businesses; it destroyed credit, 
blasted health and shortened life. The drinker wasted his money, 
"leaving nothing, absolutely nothing, for the half -clad wife and the 
bare- foot and untaught children at home." Ail, he said, had seen pale, 
sad-eyed women with hungry cliildren tagging at their skirts crying 
or others who were bruised and bloody as a result of brutality growing 
out of drunkenness. Drinking, moreover, caused men to be disagreeable 
and dangerous neighbors. Nearly all disturbances, Haygood charged, 
had their origin in drink. The communit)^ had to pay heavily in pro- 
perty damage, salaries of policemen, and court costs. Liquor was also 
responsible for most vice and crime. "Go to your prisons and chain- 


gangs, " he declared, "and trace the history of wretches there. They 
are there for stealing, arson, murder, rape, and nearly every one was 
a drinker of liquor . . . ." It debauched politics at the local, state and 
national level. Officeholders were often under the influence of the 
liquor interests, and some voters were willing to sell their vote for a 
"drink of mean whiskey." The curse of the traffic, Haygood warned 
those who argued that education would benefit from liquor revenues, 
was more costly than the returns. He cautioned the Negroes that the 
drink habit was a greater danger to them than ignorance and poverty 
because it had resulted in a "small army" of their race being in the 
chain-gang and threatened others with the same result. All thinking 
people, he urged, should seek to rid the community' of a "social, 
political and moral nuisance and peril . . . ." 

In an article published in the Evangelical Recorder in 1887, Hay- 
good called the liquor problem "imminent, ever-present and omni- 
present." It was a "monstrous and terrible thing — cruel, remorseless, 
pressing its iron hand upon all that is good in human life." Neverthe- 
less, the masses of the people had become so inured to its presence 
that they scarcely realized the harm it brought. Repeating his earlier 
arguments, he pointed out that the liquor business hindered legitimate 
business, reduced production and resulted in other "consequential 
damages." To the actual cost of liquor should be added the loss to 
productive industry, the cost of supporting paupers, lunatics, and 
criminals produced by the drinking habit, and the added cost for 
policemen and criminal courts. "With its vast resources and shrewd and 
unscrupulous leaders, the liquor interest was a greater danger in politics, 
especially since the votes of many of the least intelligent could be 
bought cheaply. It could exert a controlling influence over the great 
national parties, manipulate municipal governments, pack legislatures, 
town councils and juries, and subsidize newspapers. From a social 
standpoint, liquor was especially harmful because those who sold it 
preyed upon men's v,'eaknesses and vices in order to increase the trade 
and make greater profits. The low order of saloons catered to the 
colored people who, ignorant and easily imposed upon, usually bought 
the cheapest and often the worst liquor. Already poor, the drink habit 
kept the Negroes poor. Liquor, Haygood concluded, was an enemy 
of the church, the home, education, the Bible and free institutions. 


At the forefront of southern social thought, Haygood made a 
valuable contribution in keeping before the southern people their prob- 
lems and possible solutions. Although he was subjected to attack be- 
cause of some of his advanced views, he served as a gadfly to stimulate 
discussion and encourage action along needed lines. A doer as well as 
a propagandist, he made direct contributions in the fields of religion, 
education and Negro relations. He deserves recognition as one of the 
first and one of the most fearless social critics of the New South. 

On a Sum of Sets of Natural Numbers and Integers 

Hwa S. Hahn 
West Georgia College 

1 . Introduction. By the expression 


N = Ai + Ao + . . . = 2 A. , 
where N = { 0,1 ,2, ... } , we shall mean that for the subsets A: of N each num- 


bar n can be expressed uniquely as a sum n = S a- , where a- ^ A- . We may 


call it a (pseudo) direct sum of N with summands A- . Note that 6 A^ for 

each i, and N = II A- , where A- 9^ { } (1 = i = k), is a special case of the 

above expression in which A- = { } for i > k. 

The purpose of this note is to consider not only direct sums of N but 
also direct sums of Z, the set of all integers, and that of Z , integers mod n. 
For the direct sum of N we treat the same content of de Bruijn [3] from a 
slightly different point of view. 

2. Construction of direct sums of N. Let 

1 = Pp P2' P3' ••• 
be either an infinite or a fmite sequence of positive integers such that 

Pj+l =miPi with mj > 1 

Pi+1 = "^l"^2 ••• mj . 

In the finite case if p^ is the last positive element put p- = for i > h. 


(1) = TT 

1 - X i=l 1 - xPi 


The left hand side is 2 x^ so that its exponents generate N, and a typical fac- 

tor of the right hand side 

1 - x' 


Pi+1 2 ("^1-%. 

- ^t ^^^ p- ^Pi ^1 

(2) =l + x^ + x W... + X 

1 - X 

generates { 0, p-, 2pj, . . . , (m- - 1) Pj } which we denote by [p-] j^. In the 

finite case — will generate all positive multiples of pi which we denote 

by [pu] oo • Then from (1) either 

N = 2 [p^] or N=2 [p^] with m^^ = c» 

W 1=1 1 1=1 1 

is clearly an expression of a direct sum for N. 

Since (1) is an absolutely convergent infinite product for I x < 1 we 
may rearrange the summands of (3) in any way we please. By assigning each 
summand of (3) to one and only one of the A's in 

Ai + A2 + . . . or Ai + A2 + . . . + Ak 

we obtain a desired direct sum. In such a decomposition as (3), if two consecu- 
tive summands in (3) fall into the same A- then 

tPiU- ^ [Pi+Jm-^i = fPi^niimj^i 

For example, if m- = 2 for all i then (3) becomes N = £ (0^2^ }, An example 

ofN = Aj + A2 + . . . + Ai^ from this is given by 

A. = 5 {0,2,^k+i4^ (l5i5k). 

For k = 2 

N = Aj + A2 

= ( {0,1} + {0,4} + {0,16} +...) + ({0,2} + {0,8} + {0,32}f 
= -(Q. 2n 1 +Xn9«in^9^AAn ^ 


3. Uniqueness of construction. We shall prove next the following theorem, 
which has been previously given by de Bruijn [3] . Our proof, however, is 

Theorem 1 . The construction described in the section 2 gives all possible di- 
rect sums of N. 
Proof. It is sufficient to prove that if 

1 °° 

= Tl p- (x) , 

1 - X i=l 

where each p- (x) is a polynomial or a power series with coefficients either 
or 1 , then each p- (x) may be expressed as a product (finite or infinite) of poly- 
nomials or power series of type (2). The case where one of the p- (x) is equal 

to — is trivial. 
1 -X 

We denote P (x) = p- (x) and P* (x) = f f p^ (x) and shall prove both 

j^i J 

P (x) and P* (x) must be a product of the type (2). It is easily seen from 

(4) = P*(x)P(x) 

1 - X 

that one of P* (x) and P (x) must contain the term x. Without loss of general- 
ity we assume P* (x) contains the term x, and let the least positive exponent 
among the terms of P (x) be m^. We apply the following lemma which has 
already been established by de Bruijn in [3] and by Vaidya in [7] (proved 

by induction on q. 

Lemma, (a) The terms x ,r = 0, 1,...., mi-l, either all appear in 

P*(x) or none of them appears in P*(x). (b) The exponent of each term 

in P(x) is a multiple of mi . 

Since by the lemma P* (x) contains 

mi - 1 nil 
1 qm, +r 1 - x ^ ^"^1 
2 X ^ = X , 

r = o 1 - X 

ut 1 -X ^ m, 1 - xi n . . 
let p* (x) =- P, (X 1) = -^ Pi (xi) 

1 - X ^ 1 - X 

with X| = X ^ and P (x) = Pi * (x,). Then from (4) we have 


1 -xi 


This is exactly the same situation as in (4) in which P^* (xj) contains the term 
Xi . Here again, if the least positive exponent of Xi in Pi (xi) is m-, we shall 
have by the lemma 


1 - X2 


= P2*(X2)P2(X2), 

m^, mim^ _ P3 


111') lllilU^ 

=Xj ^ = X ^ ^ = ^ 


P* (x) = —^ ?2* (^2) ' 
1 - x 

1 - X2 

P(x)= 1 P2(X2). 

In 2s steps we shall have 

1 -xi 

^ =P*2s(^2s)P2s(-2s)' 



1 -^2s 

_ mim2...m2s_ P2S+1 
X25 - X -X 

l-xj I-X3 1-X2,.i 

'^ 9« ^X7 J , 

1 - X 1 - X-) 1 - X 

2 ' ■ ^2s-2 

2s ^^2s^ 

(7) and 

1 - X-7 I -Xa 1 - X^„ 

I-X, I-X3 l-Xjs.] 

Thus in 2s + 1 steps 


= P*2s+1 (^2s+l) P2S+1 (^2s+l) ' 


1-x 2s+l 

'^^ ^-^^^' P (X ) 

P*(X) = n P9M ■ 2S+1 ^^^28+1^ 

i=l 1-X ^^"^ 

P(X) = TT ii^ - 1^ 2S+1 ^^^28+1^ 

i=l P2i 


It may happen that in one of these steps of P*2s. P28' P*2s+1 ^"^ ^28+1 be- 
comes 1 . Then we have nothing more to prove. Otherwise, in (6) 

1 1 

1 - ^n i./n+l 

= P*n(Xn) Pn(>^n) 

tends to 1 uniformly as n tends to °° for x in the domain = x =1/2 
This clearly implies that both P*^^ and P^^ tend to 1 as n tends °° . 
Thus from (7) we obtain infinite products 

°o 1 P2i 

P*(x) = TT 

i 1 ^2i-l 
'■^ 1-x 


00 i./2i+l 

P(X) = TT 

-1 P2i 
^-1 1-x 

This completes our proof. 

4. Construction of direct sums of Z. We may apply our construction for 
direct sums of Z, the set of all integers. 

From (3) for an infinite sequence of p- we have 


Z = 2 [eiPjlnij ' 

where£= + 1 or - 1 and both occur infinitely often. Now (8) follows as a 
special case of the following 

Theorem 2. If R(m:) denotes a complete residue system mod m-, fixed for 
each mj, such that for every element r in R(m-), 1 r | < m-, then we have 


(9) Z = S p.R(m.) , 


provided that there are infinitely many positive residues and at the same time 
infinitely many negative ones. 

Proof. Let the smallest and the largest integers in R(m-) be a- and b-, respect- 
tively. Then aj^O, b-40 and b- - a- = m* - 1. We claim that the set, denoted by 
Z(t), of integers z in the range 

t t 

S p-a- < z < 2 p.b- 

i=l ~ - i=l 

can be expressed as the direct sum 


(10) Z(t)= S p.R(m-) . 


And then (9) follows from this by 


Z = limZ(t) = Z PiR(m.) . 

Since by the definition of Z(t) the right hand side is clearly a subset of the left 
hand side in (10), it suffices to show that the cardinal numbers of the both are 
the same. First, the cardinality of Z(t) is 

1 + 1^ p.(bi - a.) = 1 + .2 p^(m. - 1) 

= 1 + (mj - 1) + m|(m2 - 1) + 1x1^1x12(1^2 - 1) + . . .+m, . . .m. i(m.-l) 
= mim2...m^ = p^^ J 

and the cardinality of the right hand side is also niim^ . . . m = p.^, , pro- 
vided that all the numbers expressed there are distinct. Hence it remains to 
show that if 

2 p-c- = with Ic- I < m- 

then cj = (1 < i < t). 

Suppose c ^t and Cj = (q < i ^ t). Then we have 



This is, however, impossible because we can show 

i= 1 

i= 1 

^ 2 Pi hi I < Pq ^ Pq I ^q 

easily by induction on q; for 


.:^ Pihil <Pq-l^Pq-l |Vl| ^P, 

We note that this theorem is a generalization of Theorem 2 in [1] . 

Also (10) gives a solution to Bachet's problem of the weights, (see [6] 
if we take P|^| = 3' with m- = 3 and R(m-) = {-1,0,1 } for all i. 

Once we have a direct sum Z = Ai + A2 + . . . 
we also have 

Z = -Aj - A2 


Z = (zj + Aj) + (z^ + A2) + . . . 

where z's are arbitrary integers but only a finite number of them are nonzero. 
By no means does the above construction exhaust all possible direct sums of 
Z as in the case of N. For other direct sums not obtainable by our elementary 
methods see for example [2] . 

-'^ n;ror.t »f 7 R^, r>;na n = r. . in n m »;a r.htQin a HirAr^t glim r.f 7 

(11) Z^ = Z(t)= 2 PiR(m.) 


because Z(t) is a complete residue system mod p++i • As a special case we have 


i=l ^ 

Next we classify these summands in (1 1) or (12) into 

(13) ^n =^1 + A2 +...+ Aj^ 

for k < t. Since among the summands in (1 1) pxR(m^) is the only subgroup of 
Z , the A: which has this summand satisfies 

Pt + A. = A. . 
Then A- is said to be periodic. Hence our direct sum (13) is the type in which 
one and only one summand is periodic and this summand A- can be a subgroup 
if it consists of p^R(mp alone. 

These direct sums of Z are quite numerous. For instance, even from 
the direct sums of Z, ^ of the type (12), more restricted than (11), we can 
construct 64 distinct decompositions oi Tyi into two direct summands. A 
few examples are: 

Zi2 = {0,1,2,3,4,5} + ^0,6} = {0,1,6,7} + {0,2,4} 
= {4,-3,-2,-1,0,1,} +{0,6} = {0,1} +{-6,^-2,0,2,4}. 
An example, which can be constructed from the type (11) but not contained 
in among the above 64, is 

Zi2 = [-2,0,2] + {-6,-5,0,1} . 
Here again our method does not exhaust all possible direct sums of Z^. 
For a general decomposition into a direct sum of k summands we should con- 

Pj(x)p2(x) . . . pj^(x) = 1 + X + x^ + . . . +x" " ^ (mod x" - 1) 
where each p-(x) is a polynomial with coefficients either or 1 . 


The literature in this direction may be found in [5] . 

6. Direct sums of a subset of Z. Here we consider direct sums of some pro- 
per subsets S of Z. If Z = 2 A- then obviously 2 A' , where each AJ is a subset 
of A-, is a direct sum of the set it expresses, and it is a proper subset of Z if at 
least one A- is a proper subset of A-. For example, in (3) if we let m-_= 10 for 
all i and let d be any digit with 
1 5 d 5 9, then 


2 {0,10id} , 

where {0,10M} is a subset of [10^] jq, forms the set of all natural numbers 
expressed only by the digits and d in the decimal representation. Thus the 
set of all natural numbers expressed by and 9, for instance, has a direct sum 
with any number of summands. 

Another example of a subset of Z that has a direct sum is the set of in- 
tegers in arithmetic progression : 

S = {az + b| z e Z} 
where a ^ and b are fixed integers. For from any decomposition Z = S Aj 
we have 

S = (aAj + b) + aA2 + aA3 + . . . . 
For the set generated by a polynomial in z with degree greater than 1 , how- 
ever, a nontrivial decomposition into a direct sum is no longer possible. Here 
by the trivial direct sum we mean 

S = S + {0} + {0} + ... . 
We may state this assertion as the following 

Theorems. S='{Q(z)= S a-zJ I a„ 9^ and z 6Z'}(n>l), 

j=o J 

where Z' is any infinite subset of Z, has no nontrivial direct sum. 

Proof. Assume there exists a nontrivial direct sum. Then we would have the 

following relation: 

Q(Zo) + Q(2i) = Q(^i') 

which is satisfied by infinitely many distinct pairs (z-, z-) for a fixed z . This 
can be expressed as 

Q(z;) - Q(Zi) 

(z;-z.) ; =Q(z^). 

Zi - z. 

Here either factor of the left hand side must be an integral divisor of the fixed 
integer Q(z ) and in the second factor on the left hand side, the dominating 
term in size as either one of | z- | and f z' I becomes large is 

z'" - Z-" 

= a (z^n-l + z'"-2 z. + . . . + z"-l) 
m 1 11 \ ' 

But since when z- and z- have the same sign the number of divisors with the 
form of the second factor is clearly Hmited, and also when they have different 
signs the number of divisors of Q(z ) with the form of the first factor is finite, 
there cannot exist infinitely many pairs (z^, z-) which satisfy the relation. 

An obvious consequence of this theorem is that any infinite set consist- 
ing of k-th(k > 1) powers of integers has no nontrivial direct sum. 

It is trivial that an infinite set of primes has no nontrivial direct sum un- 
less there exists an infinitude of twin primes. 

7. The least summand-set of N. For a direct sum N = A, + A2 + ... we 
shall call the union of the direct summands A = Aj U A2 U . . . the summand- 
set of N of the above direct sum. Let A(n) be the counting function of the 
summand-set A defined by 

A(n) = 6 21 . 
a A 


We are interested in to find a least summand-set of N, if there is any, in the 
sense that A(n) is the least for every n(> 1). We state affirmatively the 

Theorem 4. The direct sum 


(14) N = 




has the least summand-set of N. 

Proof. It is sufficient to compare (14) with (3) because (3) gives all possible 

direct sums of N and clearly the counting function of the summand-set of (3) 

does not exceed that of any direct sum of N which is derived from (3). 

Let denote the summand-sets of (3) and (14) by A and A*, respectively. 
We are to show A(n) ^ A*(n) for every n > 1 . It is easily seen that any integer 
n > 1 must He in an interval 

(d-l)p^ <n < dpj. (Kd < m^.) 
for some r and d, where p = m,m2 . . -nij-.i with m- ^ 2 (p, = 1) . 
Then from (3) 

A(n) = (mj - l)+(m2 - 1)+ . . . +(m^.i-l)+(d-l) . 
We define a positive real number m by dp = m''. Then m^ 2 
(note m| ^ 2 and d ^2). Since the arithmetic mean is greater than or equal to 
the geometric mean, 

mi + m2 + ... + m 1 + d>rm. 

Then from n < m 


(15) A(n) > r(m - 1)> (m - 1) . 


Next, if 2^-1 < n < 2^ then 

[log2n] = kifn = 2^ 
(16) A*(n) = 

[log2n] + 1 = k if 2*^-^ < n < 2*^, 

where [log^n] is the greatest integer not exceeding log2n. Now, since 

2"^-' 1 m for m > 2, 


' (m - 1) > log2n, 


the equality holds for every n if and only if m = 2 i.e. 

m.= 2 for all i. In case n = 2 , this inequality, together with (15) and (16), 

implies A(n) > A*(n). If 2*^-^ < n < 2^, 

^2 (m.i) . [log^n] > 


and so 


(m-1) - ([log2n] + 1) >.l. 

Since A(n) is an integer, we have from (15) and (16) 

A(n) - A* (n) ^ 
which is to. be proved. 

Finally, we mention an intriguing question, proposed by P. Erdos (see 
[4] ), whether the direct sum (14) also has a maximal property in the sense 
that there are no n+2 integers: 

1 < ai < a2 < . . . < a^^2 ^ 2^^ 

such that the form 


2 e a. (e- = or 1) 

are all distinct. 

Acknowledgement. The author wishes to express his gratitudes to 
Professor Harlan Stevens for his careful reading and corrections of this note. 


1. J. L. Brown, Jr., A generalization of semi-completeness for integer se- 
quences, The Fibonacci Quarterly Vol, 1, No. 1 (1963), 3-15. 

2. N. G. de Bruijn, On bases for the set of integers, Publicationes Mathe- 
maticae (Debrecen) I (1950), 232-243. 

3. N. G. de Bruijn, On number system, Mewwylrc/z. Wish. (3) IV (1956), 

4. Paul Erdos, Quelques problemes de la theorie des nombres, Mono- 
graphic No. 6 (Societe Mathematique Suisse) (1963), 101-102. 

5. L. Vwch?,, Abelian groups, Pergamon Press (1960). 

6. G. H. Hardy and E. M. Wright, An introduction to the theory of num- 
bers, (Third edition, Oxford University Press), 1 15-1 17. 

7. A. M. Vaidya, "On complementing sets of nonnegative integers," Math- 
ematics Magazine, Vol. 39, No. 1 (1966), 43^4. 




Adams, James W . 

"A Study of Transportation Cost Control in the Industrial Enter- 
prise," article is indexed, printed and distributed by the Li- 
brary of American Society of Traffic and Transportation, 
Chicago, Illinois, 1962. 

"How the Economist Uses the Newspaper," The Newspaper in 
the Classroom, (Council for the Social Studies, American 
Newspaper Publishers Association), University of Georgia, 
Athens, Georgia, 1964. 

Barbero, hivia 

Newspaper Articles 

"The United Nations Organization," £/ Diario (Bolivia) March, 

"International Free Transit of Bolivia," La Nacion (Bolivia) 
June, 1961. 

"The Pacific War; Bolivia and Chile," La Nacion (Bolivia) June, 

"Educational Problems in Bolivia," Educational Planning Research 
Publication, Ministry of Education. (Bolivia) 1967. 

"The Bolivian Woman and her Political Rights," La Nacion 
(Bolivia) March, 1965. 

"The Treaty of 1904 Between Bolivia and Chile," Antofagasta 
(La Paz, Bolivia) March, 1966. 

"Letters to the Bolivian Women on Politics," La P atria (Oruro, 
Bolivia), Los Tiempos (Cochabamba, Bolivia), Ultima Hora 
(La Paz, Bolivia), El Diario (LaPaz, Bolivia) 1967. 


"Tales for Qiildren," El Diario (La Paz, Bolivia) every Monday 

Berry man, James M. 

"Solubility of Naphthalene at 25° Centigrade in Some Ternary 
Solvent Mixtures," Journal of Chemical Engineering Data, 

XI (January, 1966), 108. 

"Solubility of p-Dibromobenzene at 25° Centigrade in Some 
Mixed Solvents," Journal of Chemical Engineering Data, 

XII (March, 1967), 249. 

Botvdre, Jr., Pa.ul H. 

A Study of Eye Dialect. A study of approximately 120 pages in 
length accepted for publication by the American Dialect 

"The New Grammar," Changing Georgia Education, 1966. 

"Eye Dialect as a Literary Device in the Works of Sidney Lanier." 
Paper read November, 1964, at South Atlantic Modern Lan- 
guage Association meeting. 

"Sources of Romantic Power in Wuthering Heights." Paper read 
at West Georgia College Fine Arts Festival, 1964. 

"The Structure of English as Defined for the Development of an 
English Curriculum." A Study Guide for Teachers for the 
Development of an English Curriculum, State Department 
of Education, Atlanta, Georgia, 1966. 

"What Linguistics Has to Do with Learning to Read" and "De- 
tails of a Linguistic Method of Learning to Read." Two 
papers read at Science Research Associates Reading Con- 
ference, Knoxville, Tennessee, November, 1966. 

"Transformational Grammar, I and II." Two TV programs on 
transformational grammar for Georgia Educational Tele- 
vision and study guide for teachers in connection with the 


"Linguistics and Reading." Paper read at Georgia State Reading 
Conference, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, Feb- 
ruary, 1967. 

"A Linguistic Approach to Reading." Paper read at Alabama State 
Reading Conference, Birmingham, Alabama, June, 1967. 

Boyd, Herman W . 

"Effects of Converter Thickness on K Conversion Coefficients for 
605-KeV Transitions." Bulletin of the American Physical 
Society, VII (November, 1962), 566. 

"A Test of the Internal-External Conversion Method for Photons 
of 345 KeV." Bulletin of the American Physical Society. 
VIII (April, 1963), 19. 

"Production and Decay of Cd'°^." Bulletin of the American 
Physical Society, VIII (April, 1963), 19. 

"The Thermal -Neutron Capture Cross Section of Cd'*^ and the 
Decay of Ag io9m;' Physica. Netherlands, XXX ( April, 
1964), 124-28. 

"L, M, and N Photoelectric Cross Section Measurements in Urani- 
um for Photons of 122 KeV." Conference on the Role of 
Atomic Electrons in Nuclear Transformations, Warsaw (Au- 
gust, 1963). 

"E2 Conversion Coefficients in Cd"° and Xe'^s." Conference 
on the Role of Atomic Electrons in Nuclear Trans for^nations, 
Warsaw (August, 1963), 1-16. 

"Low Energy Transitions in the Decay of I'^iS." Bulletin of the 
American Physical Society, IX (April, 1964), 485. 

"Low Energy Transitions in the Decay of r^s/' Nuclear Physics 
LXXII (December, 1965), 604. 

"Energy Levels in Xe'32." Nuclear Physics. LXXII (December, 
1965), 625-40. 

"Precision Measurements of '22Cs Gamma Rays." Bulletin of 
the American Physical Society. X (January, 1965), 82. 


"Reinvestigation of '^^Cs Decay." Physical Review, CXXXVIII 
(May, 1965), 520B. 

"E2 Conversion Coefficients of the 245 KeV Transition in Sm'^^ 
and the 344 KeV Transition in Gd'52." Internal Conversion 
Processes. Edited by J. H. Hamilton. New York: Academic 
Press, 1966, 277. 

"Piiotoelectric Cross-Sections for the L, M and N Shells of 
Uranium for Photons of 122 KeV." Nuovo Cimento, Italy 
XXXIX (1965), 1. 

Boyd, ]ames E. 

"Scattering of X-Rays by Cold- Worked and Annealed Beryllium." 

Physical Revieiv (1934). 

About 20 articles on operational and tactical problems in use of 
fire control radar. Bulletin of Ordnance Information (1943- 

"Effects of Meteorological Conditions on Microwave Propagation 
at 3, 10 and 25 cm." (Co-author Catherine Yoe) Abstract in 
Physical Review, LXXVI (1949), 203A. 

"Propagation of 3, 10 and 25 cm Waves Over 50-Mile Optical 
and Non-Optical Paths." Navy Electronics Laboratory Re- 
port (collection of papers of Trophospheric Wave Propaga- 
tion Symposium) (July, 1949), 36-8. 

"Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Precision Tracking Radar." 
Special Report for Research & Development Board, Georgia 
Institute of Technology (August, 1949), 1-9. 

"Probability Distributions of the Resultants of Two or More 
Vibrations." (Co-author C. F. Kent) Abstract in Physical 
Review, LXXIX (1950), 417A. 

"Effects of Weather on Microwave Propagation," Research Engi- 
neer (January, 1950), 3-4; 16-22. 

"Propagation Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves." Final 
Report and two Technical Reports on Contract W28-099-ac- 
175, 1951. 


Five technical reports on special radar research under Contract 
NOrd 10020, 1949. 

"Nuclear Science at Georgia Tech." Research Engineer (January, 
1956), 4-8; 14-9. 

"Research Center in an Institute of Technology." IKE Transactions 
of the Professional Group in Engineering Management, Vol. 
EM-4, No. 3 (September, 1957), 99-100. 

Contribution to section entitled "The Institute Approach," in 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, I960. 

Br y son, T. A. 

"An American Mandate for Armenia: A Link in British Near 
Eastern Policy." Accepted by the Armenian Review. 

Bunting, Kenneth 

"The Arabic Heritage: From Al-Muqaffa to Chaucer." Paper read 
to West Georgia Fine Arts Festival, Spring, 1967. 

Cash, Doris C. 

"Southeastern Constructors, Inc." Intercollegiate Bibliography, 
Volume VIII, 1963. (Case Study in Administrative Practices, 
Human Relations). Available through the Intercollegiate 
Case Clearing House, Harvard University. 

"A Case Study in Federally Assisted Housing: Atlanta, Georgia, 
1947-63." Accepted by Atlanta Economic Review. 

"The Economic Impact of a Resource Conservation and Develop- 
ment Project, Gwinnett County, Georgia." To be published 
by Economic Research Service, United States Department 
of Agriculture. 

Corriere, Alex 

"Madame Girerdin as a Dramatist." Romance Notes, Foreign 
Language Journal, IX, No. I (December, 1967) 1-7. 


Cleere, William R. 

"Considering College Costs." Off to College: Guide to College 
Students, (1966-67), 40-1. 

"Scholarships and Loans for Education." Georgia Education As- 
sociation Journal, (1965). 

"Financial Aid for Further Education," Georgia Teachers and 
Education Association Herald, (1965). 

"State Scholarship Program for Future Teachers." Georgia Educa- 
tion Association fournal, LVIII (September, 1964), 42-3. 

de Hoop, Wietse 

"Buitengewoon Onderwijs in de Verenigde Staten," (Special 
Education in the United States). Series of 8 articles, Tijdsch- 
rift voor Orthopaedagogiek (February, August, 1963). 

"Listening Comprehension of Cerebral Palsied and Other Crippled 
Children as a Function of Two Speaking Rates." Exceptional 
Children, XXXI (January, 1965), 233-40. 

"Het onderwijs in de USA," (The Education in the USA). Series 
of 3 articles, Contact (Netherlands Antilles) (September and 
October, 1965), 2-8; 6-10 respectively. 

"De man en het systeem," (The Man in the System). Contact, 
(November, 1966). 

"Intelligentie en creativiteit," (Intelligence in Creativity). Ac- 
cepted for publication in Paedagogisch Forum, I (October, 

"De toekomst van ons vak," (The Future of Our Profession). 
Paedagogische Studien, XLIV (October, 1967), 439-44. 

"Special Education in the Netherlands." Strategies for Educational 
Progress. Selected Convention Papers, 44th Annual Council 
for Exceptional Children Convention. Washington, D.C. : 
Council for Exceptional Children, 1966. 


"Effects and Interaction Effects of Speaking Rate, Visual Limita- 
tion and Intelligence Level on Aural Acquisition and Reten- 
tion of Sentences." Proceedhigs on the Louisville Conference 
on Time Compressed Speech. Edited by Emerson Foulbe. 
Louisville, Kentucky, (1966), 115-25. 

Duquette, Alfred L. 

"The Analogue of the Pisot-Vijayaraghavan Numbers in Fields of 
Formal Power Series." Illinois Journal of Mathematics, VI 
(December, 1962), 594-606. 

"Uniform Distribution in fields of Characteristic p." ]et Pro- 
pulsion Laboratory Research Summary, XXXVI (1961). 

"An Error-Correction Procedure for a Class of Bose-Chaudhuri 
Codes. ' ]et Propulsion Laboratory Research Summary, 
XXXVI (1962). 

"Quaternary Cyclic Codes." ]et Propulsion Laboratory Research 
Summary, XXXVI (1962). 

'Erasure-Fill-In for Binary Erasure Channel." Jet Propulsion Lab- 
oratory Research Summary, XXXVI (1962). 

"On the Checking of Arithmetic Operations for Digital Comput- 
ers." IBM Technical Report Number 65-049-009, 1, (April, 
1965), 1-12. 

"Some Known Redundancy Techniques." Reliability and Main- 
tainability Design Department Report, IBM (May, 1966), 

Edwards, Jr., Corliss H. 

"The Early Literary Criticism of Corra Harris." Georgia Review, 
XVII (Winter, 1963) 449-55. 

"Richard Malcolm Johnston's View of the Old-Field School." 
Georgia Historical Quarterly, L (December, 1966), 382-90. 

England, Robert B. 

"Algal Establishment on Sterilized Soil Replaced in an Oklahoma 
Prairie." Ecology, XL (July, 1959), 3. 


Fmnie, Gordon E. 

"Some Aspects of Religion on the American Frontier." A Miscel- 
lany of American Christianity: Essays in Honor of H. Shelton 
Smith. Edited by Stuart C. Henry (Durham: Duke University 
Press, 1963), 80-94. 

"The Antislavery Movement in the Upper South before 1840. " 
Accepted for publication b)- the Journal of Southern History. 

"A New Look at the Antislavery Movement in the South, 1787- 
1836." Paper read at the annual meeting of the Southern 
Historical Association in Little Rock, Arkansas, November, 

FitZ'Simons, Theodore B. 

"The Camilla Riot." The Georgia Historical Quarterly, XXXV 
(June, 1951), 116-25. 

Review of O. H. Shadgett, The Republican Party in Georgia. The 
Georgia Historical Quarterly, XLIX (September, 1965), 335- 

Frank, Harry E. 

"Studies in the Propagation of Eastern Gamma Grass (Tripsacum 
dactyloides)." Report to Agronomy Department, Oklahoma 
State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, National Range 
Society Journal (1964). 

"Seeding Habits of Eastern Gamma Grass (Tripsaum dacty- 
loides)." Report made to the Agronomy Department, Okla- 
homa State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma (1965). 

"Establishment of Gamma Grass from Seed and Vegetated Prop- 
agation." (Co-author Robert M. Ahring) Journal of Range 
Management, XXI (January, 1968), 27-30. 

Freeman, Bernice E. 

"Costumes of Love's Labors Lost, Twelfth Night, and The Tem- 
pest." Shakespeare Association Bulletin, XI (April, 1936), 


"Propaganda and Teaching Current Events." Georgia Educational 
journal, XXXV (December, 1941), 22-30. 

"The Part of the English Teacher in Guidance." Georgia Educa- 
tion journal. XL (April, 1947), 33-45. 

"Listening Experiences in the Language Arts." The English journ- 
al, XXXVIII (December, 1949), 572-76. 

"Georgia English Study." Georgia Education journal, XLIV (Oc- 
tober, 1950), 14. 

"The Teaching of English in Georgia: A Report of the Georgia 
English Commission." (A bulletin co-authored with Paul 
Farmer) Atlanta, Georgia: Georgia Council of Teachers of 
English. 1952. 

"Teaching Short Stories." The English journal, XLIV (May, 
1955), 284-87. 

"Reader's Digest Skill Builder." Grade V, Part 3, prepared with 
Lydia A. Thomas. Pleasantville, New York: Reader's Di- 
gest Association. I960. 

"Georgia." The Teaching of English in the South, IX, Chapel 
Hill, North Carolina: Southern Humanities Conference. 
1961, 28-36. 

"Reader's Digest Skill Builder." Grade I, Part I, prepared with 
■ Bernice Cooper. Pleasantville, New York: Reader's Digest 
Association. 1963. 

"The Troup County (Georgia) Program." Supervision of English, 
Grades K-12. Champaign, Illinois: National Council of 
Teachers of English. 1965, 107-11. 

Gardner, Arthur W . 

"Use of Hormones" and "Adaptabilit)' of Breeds of Rams and 
Breed-Types of Range Ewes to Market Lamb Production in 
Kansas." Both in Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Circular 320 (May, 1955), 8-14; 18-20 respectively. 

Gott, Prentice L. 

Personal Information Survival Manual. Savannah: Savannah-Chat- 
ham County Board of Education, January, 1964. 


"Stretching the Textbook Dollar." Georgia Education journal, 
(April, 1964), 8-10. 

"The Non-graded School Program in Georgia." Atlanta: Georgia 
Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development 
(March, 1965). 

"Student Teaching Handbook." West Georgia College (August, 

"Changing Georgia Education." Co-editor, Georgia Association 
of Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1966. 

"The Role of the Curriculum Worker in Georgia." Georgia As- 
sociation of Supervision and Curriculum Development (May, 

Griffin, J. David 

"Benevolence and Malevolence in Confederate Savannah." The 
Georgia Historical Quarterly, XLIX (December, 1965), 347- 

"Savannah's City Income Tax." The Georgia Historical Quarterly, 
L (June, 1966), 173-6. 

Hahn, HS. 

"Some Remarks on A. C. Schaeffer's Paper in Dirichlet Series." 
Illinois Journal of Mathematics, IV (December, I960), 501- 

"On the Relative Growth of Difference of Partition Functions." 
Pacific Journal of Mathematics, XIV (January, 1964), 93- 

"A Simple Proof of Aaron's Conjecture on the Farey Series." 
Mathefnatics Magazine, XL (November, 1967), 274. 

Hand, Edith 

"Evaluation of a Large-Scale In-Service Mathematics Institute." 
(Co-authored by Len Pikeart) . Paper presented at the Annual 


Meeting of the National Council on Measurement in Educa- 
tion, New York City, February, 1967. 

Huck, Eugene R. 

Review of La Colonizacion Antioquena en el occidente de Co- 
lombia, by James Parsons. Translated into Spanish and aug- 
mented by Emilio Robledo. Hispanic American Historical 
Review, November, 1963, 604. 

Review of Documents ineditos para la historia de Colombia, by 
Juan Friede. Hispanic American Historical Review, Febru- 
ary, 1966, 87-8. 

"Latin America's Appalachia: Its Genesis in Illiteracy." West 
Georgia College Studies in the Social Sciences, V (June, 
1966), 66-74. 

Merchants, Missionaries and the Ai/litary's Expansion into the Gulf 
and Caribbean. (Co-editor with Edward H. Moseley). To be 
published by University of Alabama Press, Spring, 1968. 

"The Fort)'-Niner in Panama." Article in above book. 

"The Forty -Niner and the Panameno: A Cultural Impact." Paper 
read at VI annual meeting of the Southeastern Conference on 
Latin American Studies, University of South Carolina, March, 

"The Economic Ideas of General Francisco de Paula Santander." 
Paper read at the annual meeting of the Southern Historical 
Association, Richmond, Virginia, November, 1965. 

Jacobs, W^illiam D. 

"Solvent Extraction of Platinum and Palladium with Derivatives of 
Dithiocarbamic Acid." Analythical Chemistry, XXXVI 
(1964), 1796. 

"Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Rhodium and 
Iridum with l-(2-Pyridyla2o)-2-napthol." Analytical Chem- 
istry, XXXV (1963), 149. 


"Spectrophotometric Study of p-Nitrosodiphenylamine as a Rea- 
gent for Rhodium." Tdanta, X (1963), 43. 

"Spectrophotometric Determination of Palladium and Platinum 
with Diben2yldithio-oxamide." Talanta, IX (1962), 76l. 

"Spectrophotometric Determination of Palladium with didodecyl- 
dithio-oxamide." Talanta, IX (1962), 243. 

"Spectrophotometric Study of p-Nitrosodimothylaniline as a 
Sensitive Colorimetric Reagent for Rhodium. ' Analytical 
Chemistry, XXXIII (1961), 1952. 

"Separation of Iridium from Rhodium by Extraction with Tribut/i 
Phosphate." A?ialytical Chemistry, XXXIII (1961), 1650. 

"Spectrophotometric Determination of Platinum with N, N'-bis 
(3-dimethylaminopropyl) dithio-oxamide (Simultaneous De- 
termination of Platinum and Palladium)." Analytical Chem- 
istry, XXX (1961), 1279. 

'Spectrophotometric Determination of Rhodium with N, N'-(3- 
dimethylaminopropyl ) dithio-oxamide. ' Analytical Chemis- 
try, XXXII (I960), 514. 

'Spectrophotometric Study of N, N'-bis (3-dimethylaminopropyi) 
dithio-oxamide as a Reagent for Palladium." Analytical 
Chemistry, XXXII, (I960), 512. 

'Some Derivatives of Dithio-oxamide as Reagents for the Simul- 
taneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Traces of Co- 
balt, Nickel and Q)pper." Proceedings of the Symposium on 
the Chemistry of Coordination Compounds, Agra, Part III, 
(I960), 265. 

"Spectrophotometric Determination of Ruthenium with N, N'-bis 
(3-dimethylaminopropyl) dithio-oxamide." Talanta, 
(1959), 270. 

"Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Traces of 
Cobalt, Nickel and Copper with N,N'-bis (3-dimethy- 
laminopropyl) dithio-oxamide." Analytical Chemistry, Acta 
XX (1959), 435. 



"Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Traces of Q)- 
bait, Nickel and Copper with Dithio-oxamide." Analytical 
Chemistry, Acta XX (1959), 332. 

Jewell, Jack L. 

"House Abandonment as a Significant Indicator of Declining 
Rural Settlement: The Oglethorpe County, Northeast Geor- 
gia, Example." Paper read at the Southeastern Divisional 
Meeting of the Association of American Geographers in 
Atlanta, Georgia, November, 1966; abstracted in the South- 
eastern Association of American Geographers, Memorandum 
Folio, (November, 1966), 99. 

"An Analysis of Geography and Social Studies Textbooks as to 
Inclusion of Geographic Concepts." Curriculum Improve- 
ment Proposal: The Development of a Sequential Curriculum 
in Geography for Grades K-8, submitted to the U. S. Office 
of Education by Merle C. Prunty and Marion Rice. The paper, 
though unpublished, has been nationally referenced and 
footnoted, e.g., The Elementary School Journal, LXVI, De- 
cember, 1965, 131-4, and Focus on the Social Studies, De- 
partment of Elementary School Principals, National Education 
Association, 1965, 53-4. 

Johnson, Collus O. 

"Using the Test-demonstration Farm as Teaching Materials." Pre- 
pared jointly by a Committee of interested persons at Mur- 
ray State College, Murray, Kentucky, July, 1950. 

"College in the Country, An Adult Program of Community Edu- 
cation." West Georgia College, Carrollton, Georgia, Second 
Edition, August, 1953. (Pamphlet) 

"Professional Preparation for the Public Health Worker for Com- 
munity Development." Community Development Seminar, 
School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, May, 


hampton, Robert K. 

"The Lycopodiacease of Ohio." Ohio Journal of Science, XXXV 
(January, 1935), 1-3. 

"Floral Morphology in Ashnina triloba Diinal. I. Development of 
Ovule and Embryo Sac." Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical 
Club, LXXXIV (May, 1957), 151-6. 

"Merceya ligulata in Georgia." The Bryologist, LXIX (Winter, 
1966), 511. 

Lockhart, William L. 

"Metal Ion Effects on the Acid Hydrolysis of Pyrophosphate." 
Journal of Inorganic Nuclear Chemistry, XXVI (1964), 

"Kinetics of the Periodate Oxidation of Glycol Esters of Orthotel- 
luric Acid." Journal of Inorganic Nuclear Chemistry, XXVIII 
(1966), 2619. 

"Deoxyribonucleic Acid Synthesis by Cultured Mammalian Cells 
in the Presence of Orotic Acid." Metabolism, XIII (1964), 

"Proliferation of Cultured Liver Cells in the Presence of Lysine 
and Arginine Salts of Fatty Acids." Experimental Cell Re- 
search, XXXVII (1965), 169. 

"Assay of Vitamins and Amino Acids with Cultured Tissue Cells 
and Antimetabolites." Applied Microbiology, XII (1964), 

Retention of Sialic Acid, Protein, and Deoxyribonucleic Acid by 
Cultured Mammalian Cells Following Freezing Injury." Ex- 
perimental Cell Research, XXXVIII (1965), 42. 

"Influence of Beta-Hydroxybutyrate on Cultured Mammalian 
Cells." Experimental Cell Research, XXXIX (1965), 40. 

Maples, William Paul 

"Helminth Parasites of the White-tail Deer {Odocoileus virgini- 
anus) of the Southeast." In -press, Wild-Life Journal. 


"A New Host and Two New Locality Records for the Blood 
Fiuke,HeterobHharz/a Afuer/cana (Price, 1926." Journal of 
Parasitology, LIII (1967). 

"The Occurrence of Oesophagostomum Cervi Mertts, 1948, in 
White-tailed Deer [Odocwleus virginianus) of the Southeast- 
eastern United States." Journal of Parasitology, LIII (March, 

"Grysoma singularis, A New Species of Trematodes ( Digenea: 
Psilostomidae) from the Raccoon Procyon lotor (L)." 
Journal of Parasitology, XLVII (March, 1961). 

"The Glypthelminths (Trematoda: Digenea), with a Redescrip- 
tion of One Species and the Erection of a New Genus. Z. F." 
Parasitenkunde, XXII (June, 1962). 

"The Egg and Miracidium of Dasyrnetra conferta Nicoll, 1911, 
(Trematoda: Ochetosomatinae) ." Association of Southeastern 
Biologists Bulletin. XX (April, 1963). 

"Developmental Stages in the Digenea. V. The Egg, Micacidium 
and Brood Mass in Dasymetra conferta Nicoll, 1911 (Tre- 
matoda: Plagiorchioidea: Ochetosomatinae)." Journal of 
Parasitology, LIV (January, 1964), 295. 

"The Intramolluscan Stages of Dasymetra conferta Nicoll, 1911." 
Journal of Parasitology, LI (April, 1965). 

"The Sporocyst Producing Generation of Pneumatophilus leydi." 
Journal of Parasitology, LI (April, 1965). 

"The Excretory System in Trematoda III; A Critical Study of the 
Cellular Organization of the System for Representative 
Ochetosomatid Species." American Institute of Biological 
Scientists Bulletin. Abstracts of papers given at meeting, 

"New Host Record for Obeliscoides cunicula Graybill, 1929," 
Journal of Parasitology, LII (May, 1966). 

"A Second Record of Phagicolla longa." Journal of Parasitology, 
LII (February, 1966). 


"Nematode Parasites of Some Game Animals of the Southeast." 
Paper presented at annual meeting of American Society of 
Parasitologists and Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1966. 

"Trichostrongylus dosteri Sp. N. (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae ) 
A Parasite of the White-tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus 
Zimmermann." In press, Journal of Pcirasitology. 

Martin, John M. 

"A Methodist Circuit Rider Between the Lines: Private Journal of 
Joseph J. Pitts." The Tennessee Historical Quarterly, (I960). 

"William R. King and the Comprise of 1850." The North Caro- 
lina Historical Review. XXXIX (October, 1962), 500-18. 

"William R. King and the Vice Presidency." The Alabama Re- 
view, (Januar)', 1963), 35-54. 

"Joseph Le Conte and the Reconciliation of Science and Religion." 
The Georgia Review, XVIIII (Spring, 1964), 78-91. 

"The Senatorial Career of Gabriel Moore." The Alabama Histori- 
cal Quarterly, XXVI (Summer, 1964), 249-81. 

"The Changing Role of Colleges and Universities." West Georgia 
College Studies in the Social Sciences, IV (June, 1965), 42-8. 

"William R. King: Jacksonian Senator." The Alabama Review, 
(October, 1965), 243-67. 

"John McKinley: Jacksonian Phase." The Alabama Historical 
Quarterly. XXVIII (Spring and Summer, 1966), 7-31. 

"The Early Career of Gabriel Moore." Accepted for publication in 

The Alabama Historical Quarterly. 

"New Orleans as Seen by Her Visitors, 1803-1860." Louisiana 
Studies, VI (Winter, 1967), 361-75. 

Mathews, James W . 

"Hawthorne and the Chain of Being." Modern Language 
Quarterly, XVIII (December, 1957), 282-94. 


"The Great Chain of Being." A Scarlet Letter Handbook. Edited 
by Seymour L. Gross. San Francisco: Wadsworth Publishing 
Co., Inc. (I960), 19-23. 

"Howells and the Shakers." The Personalist. XLIV (Spring, 
1963), 212-19. 

"The Heroines of Hawthorne and Howells." Tennessee Studies in 
Literature. VII (1962), 37-46. 

"Antinomianism in 'Young Goodman Brown'." Studies in Short 
Fiction, III (Fall, 1965), 73-5. 

"Howells' 'Realism' " The Middle Way in American Fiction." 
Read at South Atlantic Modern Language Association meet- 
ing, November, 1965. 

"The Civil War of 1936: Gone With the Wind and Absalom! 
Absalom!" The Georgia Review, XXI (Winter, 1967), 462- 

"Another Possible Origin of Howell's The Shadow oj a Dream." 
Accepted by American Literature. 

Mat his, L. Doyle 

"Chisholm V. Georgia: Background and Settlement." journal oj 
American History, LIV (June, 1967), 19-29. 

"The Eleventh Amendment: Background and Adoption." Ac- 
cepted by Georgia Law Review. 

"The Eleventh Amendment: Supreme Court Interpretation." Ac- 
cepted by Georgia Latv Review. 

"Prelude to Amendment: The States Before the Court." Accepted 

by American Journal oj Legal History. 

"The Reapportionment Process in Georgia." To be published by 
the National Municij:>al League. 

Miller, J. Mark 

"Down with Free Enterprise — Without Government Regulations." 
A paper delivered before the West Georgia Chapter of the 


American Association of Certified Life Underwriters, Car- 
rollton, Georgia, 1966. 

■'Written Communications." A Seminar presentation to business 
and industry personnel, West Georgia College, February, 

"Market Analysis: Locating the Target Market and Determining 
its Characteristics." Delivered at Seminar of business man- 
agers, West Georgia College, April, 1967. 

"Professionalism and Business Education." A paper delivered be- 
fore the 6th District of the Georgia Business Education As- 
sociation, Griffin, Georgia, October, 1967. 

Moore, W . Glenn 

"Problems of Colleges in Transition from Two- to Four- Year 
Status in Business Administration." Paper presented to the 
Academic Committee on Business Administration of the 
Regents' Advisory Council, Atlanta, November, 1964. 

Mulkey, Steve 

"A Study in Newspaper Sampling." The Public Opinion 
Quarterly, XIV (Fall, 1950), 533. 

Editor, Assembly Magazine. (Alumni Magazine U. S. Military 
Academy), 1955-58. Author of many unsigned articles in 
this magazine. 

Editor, Infantry Magazine, Ft. Benning, Georgia, 1961-63. Author 
of many unsigned articles in this magazine. 

Editor, The Bayonet. (Weekly newspaper of the U. S. Infantry 
Center, Ft. Benning, Georgia, 1960-62, circulation — 18,000). 

Norrell, Lemuel N. 

"Robert Lowell: A Possible New Leader for Modern Poets." A 
paper read for the West Georgia College Fine Arts Week, 
May, 1965. 

"The Cuckold: An Analysis of his Comic Role." In preparation by 
assignment for Comparative Drama. 


Oakley, John W. ' 

"G>tton Development. "Co/Z/er' J. (August, 1943). 

Articles, leaflets, booklets, advertisements and promotional pro- 
grams while serving as Executive-Secretary of the Mississippi 
Seed Improvement Association, 1946-1961. 

Porter, E. D. 

"The Buccal Organells of Paramecium aurelta During Fission and 
Conjugation v^^ith Special Reference to the Kinetosomes." 
Journal of Protozoology, VII (I960), 211-17. 

Multipolar Mitosis in the KB (Eagle) Human Cell Line and its 
Increased Frequenq' as a Function of 250 KV X-Irradiation." 
(Co-author R. H. Fetner) Experimental Cell Research, 
XXXVI (1965), 429-39. 

"Radiomimetic Effect of Cycasin-emulsion Solution and MAM on 
Root Tips of Zamia jloridana (integrifolia) and Allium cepa 
Compared with X-radiation." (Co-author Howard J. Teas). 
Fifth conference on Cycad Toxicity, Public Health Service, 

"Effect of Mechanical Pressure on Paramecium aurelta during 
Stomatogenesis." Association of Southeastern Biologists Bul- 
letin. IX (April, 1962), 34. 

Abstract of "Observations on the Effect of Mechanical Pressure 
on Parameciu?// caudatum." Bulletin of Georgia Academy 
Science, XIX (196l), 5. 

"A Theory of Morphogenetic Migration in Paramecium aurelia." 
The Journal of Protozoology. IX Suppliment (August, 
1962), 27. 

Powell, Bobby Earl 

"Elastic Strength of Tin Whiskers in Tensile Tests." Bulletin of 
Southeastern Section of the American Physical Society. XXII 


"Elastic Strength of Tin Whiskers in Tensile Tests." journal of 
Applied Physics, XXXVI (1965), 1495. 

'Q)mparison of Mechanical Cross-Sections to Electrical Cross-Sec- 
tions of Whiskers." Bulletin of the South Carolina Academy 
of Science, XXVII, (1965), 60. 

"Discussion of Adiabatic and Isothermal Third-Order Elastic 

Constants." Bulletin of the South Carolina Academy of 
Science, XXVIII. (1966), 62. 

"New Technique for Measuring Isothermal Third-Order Elastic 
Constants." Bulletin of the American Physical Society, XI 
(1966), 839. 

"Relation between Isothermal and Mixed Third-Order Elastic 
Constants." Journal of Applied Physics, XXXVIII (1967), 

"Symmetry of Mixed Third-Order Elastic Constants." Journal of 
Applied Physics. XXXVIII (1967), 38. 

"Third-Order Isothermal Elastic Constants of Iron." Bulletin of 
the Southeastern Section of the American Physical Society, 
XXXII (1967). 

Satter field, Namoi L. 

"Phi Chi Theta, Its Organization and Functions." A paper de- 
livered to chapters of Phi Chi Theta (National Business 
Women's Fraternity) during term of office as Southeastern 
District Director, 1964-1966. 

"Phi Chi Theta's Organization and Specific Purposes and Ac- 
complishments as a National Business Fraternity." A paper 
delivered to the Southeastern District Conference of Phi Chi 
Theta, September, 1965. 

"Phi Chi Theta for the Individual." A paper delivered to the Na- 
tional Convention of Phi Chi Theta, Portland, Oregon, July, 


Stewart, Jr., Horace Floyd 

"A Note on Recall Patterns Using the Bender Gestalt with Psy- 
chotic and Non-psychotic Patients." Journal of Clinical Psy- 
chology, XIII (1957), 95-7. 

"A Note of Scoring Recalled Figures of the Bender Gestalt Test 
Using Psychotics, Non-Psychotics, and Controls." (Co-author 
S. Cunningham) Journal of Clinical Psychology, XIV 
(1958), 207-8. 

"Repression: Experimental Studies Since 1943." Psychoanalytical 
Revieiv, IL (1962), 93-9. 

"A Critical Point in the Rehabilitation of the Patient with Mental 
Illness." Journal of Rehabilitation, XXX (1964), 19. 

"Sensory Deprivation, Personality, and Visual Imagery." Journal 
of General Psychology, LXXII (1965), 145-50. 

"A Comparison of the Intelligence and Personality of Moon-child 
Albino and Control Cuna Indians." (Co-author C. Keeler) 
Journal of Genetic Psychology, CVI (1965), 319-24. 

"The Relationship of Physical Illness to the IPAT 16 Personality 
Factors Test." Journal of Clinical Psychology, XXI (1965), 

"Ward Administration: Current Status." (Co-author H. Harsch) 
Journal of Clinical Psychology, XXI (1965). 

"On Keeping Mental Patients Chronic." Psychological Reports, 

XVII (1965), 216-18. 

"Personality Characteristics of Student Nurses With a High and 
Low Frequency of Physical Illness." Psychological Reports, 

XVIII (1966), 972. 

"Relationship Between the QT and WAIS in a Restricted Clinical 
Sample." Psychological Reports, XX (1967), 383-6. 

"The Psychologist as a Ward Administrator: Current Status." 
Chapter 31. (Co-author H. Harsch) Edited by Lubin, B. & 
Levitt, E. The Clinical Psychologist, (Chicago, Illinois: 
Aldine Publishing Co. 1967). 


Thomas, James Deward 

"Application of operant condition techniques to reinstate verbal 
behavior in psychotics."/<9//r«rf/ oj Speech and Hearing Dis- 
orders, XXV (February, I960), 8-12. 

Walker, Warren A. 

Review of Beyond the Nation State: Functionalism and Interna- 
tional Organization, by Ernst B. Haas. American Business 
Law Journal, III (Winter, 1965), 317-20. 

Review of Law, State and International Legal Order, edited by 
Salo Engel and R. A. yiQldW.American Business Latv Journal, 
IV (Spring, 1966), 96-100. 

Review of The Bill of Rights by Irving Brant. American Business 
Latu Journal, V (Spring, 1967), 121-6. 

Review of Treatise on Justice by Edgar Bodenheimer. Accepted for 
publication in American Business Laio Journal. 

Wash, James A. 

"Predictions of Successful College Academic Performance from 
Measures of Body-cathaxis, Self-cathaxis, and Anxiety." 
Perceptual and Motor Skills, XX (1965), 431-82. 

"What Research Says to the Reading Teacher about Programmed 
Instruction." (Co-author A. J. Kingston) Journal of Reading, 
X (1965), 125-80. 

Elementary Statistics-a Programmed Text, Pilot Trial Edition. 
(1965), 384 pp. 

"Correlates of Chemistry Achievement Employing a Programmed 
Format." Journal of Chemical Education. 

"Generalized Effects of Praise and Reproof. (Co-authors H. A. 
Anderson and W. F. White) Journal of Educational Psy- 
chology, III, (1966), 169-73. 

"Perception of Teacher Effectiveness as a Function of the Stu- 
dents' Need of Social Approval." (Co-author W. H. White) 
Perceptual and Motor Skills, XXIII (1966), 711-17. 


Welch, Robert McClam 

"Quantitative Microspectrophotometry and Microinterferometry of 
Nucleic Acids and Protein in Salivary Gland, Proventriculus, 
and Ring Gland of the Lethal Mutant translucida of D.. 
melanogaster." (Co-author L. E, DeBault) journal of the 
Royal Mkroscoptical Society, LXXXVIII. (1968), 1-34. 

"A Development Analysis of the Lethal Mutant 1 (2) gl of D. 
Melanogaster Based on Cytophotometric Determination of 
Nuclear De-soxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). " Genetics, XLII 

, (1957), 544. 

"A Cytophotometric Analysis of the Deoxyribonucleic Acid 
(DNA) Content in Germ Cells from Santa Gertrudis Bulls." 
The University of Texas Publications 6014, ( I960). 

"The Experimental Error of Feulgen Cytophotometry in the Analy- 
sis of Bull Spermatozoa Over an Extended Period of Time." 
Journal of Histochemical Cytochemistry, IX (1961), 251. 

"The Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Deviation in the Semen 
Spermatozoa of Bulls of Unknown Fertilit}' Under Two Years 
of Age and Its Relation to Motility Count, and Morphology." 
Journal of Morphology, CVIII (1961), 145. 

"Application of Naphthol Yellow S Cytophotometry in Deoxyribo- 
Nucleic Acid (DNA) and Protein Determinations on Larval 
Material of D. Melanogaster." fournal of Histochemical Cyto- 
chemistry, XI (1963), 675. 

"A Cytochemical Analysis of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and 
Protein in Salivary Gland and Gut of the Lethal Mutant Igl of 
D. Melanogaster." The University of Texas Publication. (In 
Press. ) 

i^t^i!^ 'yj — ^^ 



Volume II 

May, 1969 

Number 1 

Published By 


A Division of the University System of Georgia 





James E. Boyd, President 
George W. Walker, Dean 

Faculty Research Committee 

Myron M. Arons 
Herman W. Boyd 
Wietse de Hoop 

James W. Mathews 
James A. Wash, Jr. 
Robert M. Welch 
William L. Lockhart 

Eugene R. Huck, Chairman and Editor 
Gerald M. Garmon, Assistant Editor 

The purpose of this publication is to provide encouragement for 
faculty research and to make available results of such activity. 

The Review, published annually, accepts original scholarly work 
and creative writing presented on the authority of the author. West 
Georgia College assumes no responsibility for contributors' views. The 
style guide is Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers. Although the 
Review is primarily a medium for the faculty of West Georgia College, 
other sources are invited. 

An annual bibliography includes doctoral dissertations, items in 
print or accepted for publication, all in chronological listing. Papers, 
theses and all items known to be "in progress" as well as recitals and 
art objects are not listed. The annual bibliography includes compre- 
hensive listings for those who are being cited for the first time. The ul- 
timate purpose of this inventory is to record accomplishments and en- 
courage further research leading to publication. 


Vol. II, No. 1 May, 1969 





I Sing of Times Trans-Shifting 
(Convocation address, Parents Day, 
West Georgia College, May 14, 1969) 

By James W. Mathews 3 

American Literary Response to the Philippine Problem: 1899-1906 
By William S. Doxey, Jr. " 10 

Business is Business 

By Carole E. Scott 20 

Much Ado: The Moral and Religious Approach to Shakespeare 

By Mary Anne DeVillier 26 

Politics, The "Solvent" of Federalism 

By Henry J. Wise 32 

New Legislation for Secondary Education in the Netherlands 

By Frans W. Prins and Wietse de Hoop 44 

Inflation — Friend or Foe? 

By W. H. Lankford 56 

Abstracts of Master's Theses written at 

West Georgia College, 1968 60 

Annual Bibliography of West Georgia Faculty as of 

January 1, 1969 66 

Copyright © 1969 by 
West Georgia College 

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used or reproduced 
in any manner whatsoever vi'ithout written permission except in the case 
of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. For in- 
formation address the Dean of the College, West Georgia College, Car- 
rollton, Georgia, 30117. 

Printed in the United States of America 



•Convocation Address, Parents Day, May 14, 1969, West Georgia College 

One of the fundamental metaphors of human endeavor is that 
before reaching heaven one must first pass through hell. In ancient 
times peoples of diverse cultures found this myth a fitting expression 
of their particular experience, and man's continuous awareness of its 
significance has been amply demonstrated in our religion and in our 
art. 1 The principle is vividly portrayed by Dante when, after witnessing 
the soul-searing agonies of the ten circles of hell, he was forced to scale 
the hideous body of Satan in order to begin his ascent of Mount Purga- 
tory on his way to Paradise. Theseus, hero of old Athens, could not free 
Crete from the curse of the Minotaur until, in the subterranean passages 
of the Labyrinth he sought and slew the grisly giant. Jonah, cringing in 
cowardice, learned from the blackness inside the whale's belly that he 
could not subvert his own God-wrought destiny. Joseph, favored and 
pampered by his father Jacob, became a man and a leader only after 
Egyptian slavery and confinement in Pharaoh's dungeon. The chief 
heroes of Greek and Roman epic — Odysseus and Aeneas— both had to 
visit Hades in order to find their way home and acquire resolution for 
victory over their enemies. 

Through countless variations this metaphor has always represented 
the psychological and spiritual nadir a person or society reaches in a 
time of crisis just prior to a renascence. Today, we hear increasingly 
the conclusion that "everything is going to hell." Such a pessimistic 
prognosis usually means that those time-honored and comfortable in- 
stitutions which have been the mainstay of life are being threatened by 
flux and change. For many the future looks bleak because they can 
envision no future that is not repetition of the present. Oftentimes their 
peace of mind and emotional stability are tenuously balanced on their 
faith in the constancy of familiar patterns of life. When we examine 
contemporary society from a general perspective, we can hardly gainsay 
its apprehensive critics. If conditions haven't gone to hell, they are on 
the edge of the abyss. Almost daily the news media shock us with another 
example of the collapse of assumed solidarity and failure of the tried- 

•Professor of English and Chairman of the Division of Humanities, West Georgia College. 

1 See Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces (New York: Meridian Books, 
1956) and Maud Bodkin, Archetypal Patterns in Poetry: Psychological Studies of Imagina- 
tion (Lxjndon: Oxford University Press, 1953). 

and-true. A few sample headlines collected over the past two or three 
weeks will illustrate: "Atlanta Student Editor Vows Jail Over Draft," 
"Three Hours to Live,' Blacks Warn Cornell University," "Nothing 
Forbidden on Sex, Only Incest Left, Expert Says," "Will Not Uphold 
Celibacy, New York Priests Declare," "Church Sees Middle Class Drift- 
ing Away, Wonders Why." 

Although at this moment almost every segment of American life 
is under some kind of attack, the most dramatic and far-reaching revolu- 
tion is occurring in the three institutions that have long been considered 
the backbone of our society: the home, the church, and the school. 

The home, where Robert Frost said you can always go and they 
have to take you in,- is no longer the sure retreat from the clamor and 
frustrations of the outside world. Too often the home is a facade, a con- 
venient hotel offering free overnight accomodations. Rarely does every- 
one sit down to dinner together: and when several members of the family 
happen to be present at the same time, communication is limited to the 
question of which T-V channel to select. Sunday, that treasured time 
when we formerly paused to recapture our lost personal identity, is now 
the day to hit the road. On all holidays, our expensive, status-bearing 
houses, built to insure comfort and happiness, lie desolate while the 
highways, lakes, ball parks, and golf courses are teeming.^ Closely re- 
lated to these losses is the erosion of the home's original reason for 
being: an institution in which the sexual impulse of man and woman 
has its legitimate outlet, where devotion and responsibility are superior 
to physical pleasure. Instead, sex has become a commodity that every 
successful and sophisticated man and woman must have in abundance. 
The philosophy of self-gratification is advocated by T-V commercials 
and magazine advertisements (where sex is an implied reward for pur- 
chasing other products), pornographic novels by respected authors who 
should know better, so-called art movies, and Playboy magazine and 
its many imitators. 4 The controversial "pill" may share responsibility 

2 "The Death of the Hired Man" in Selected Poems of Robert Frost (New York: Holt, 
Rinehart and Winston, Inc., c. 1963), p. 28. 

3 Parental neglect, one result of the affluent society's recreational binge, was linked 
to almost every case of juvenile recalcitrance discovered at Mercer Island, a middle-class 
Seattle suburb. Roger Vaughan, "The Gulf Between Parents and Their Children," Life, 
LXIII (November 17, 1967). 104-114. 

"* Richard Schechner views the emphasis on sensuality in the movies and the theater as 
possibly the beginning of the destruction of our culture. "Pornography and the New Ex- 
pression," The Atlantic Monthly, CCIX (January, 1967), 74-78. 

for present extramarital sexual license, but the fragmentation of the 
family and the public barrage of sensuality cannot be ignored. 

In our religious life there are also vexing uncertainties. Church 
membership is still high, but church attendance is in rapid decline. 
Fewer young people are remaining with the church of their, parents, 
and a high percentage abandon religion altogether when they leave 
home. The church's critics seem to be drawn into two extreme and 
irreconcilable camps: those who tenaciously hold to fundamentalism 
and literalism and those who insist on scuttling outmoded concepts 
and concentrating altogether on social action. Caught between these 
warring factions, the church seems confused about its mission and un- 
sure of its message. -'' 

Those of us who are close to college campuses can give weighty 
testimony to the disconcerting rapidity of shifting values. For our edu- 
cational institutions are experiencing crises no less acute than those 
involving home and church. Today is the day of the student. He has 
forced his way into power, and some observers believe he will not be 
satisfied until he has overturned all regulations of academic life. He 
asserts his prerogative to enact his own rule of conduct, and he insists 
on tailoring the curriculum to his liking. He demands the right to judge 
his professors on their worthiness to instruct him. He abandons the pro- 
cess of education when his attention is attracted by any suggestion of 
injustice, from oppressive professors to inhumane wars. 

In the midst of such vacillating values, one wonders whether Hfe 
as we have known it in our reasonably placid, middle-class society will 
continue. It would be comforting to think affirmatively and ignore the 
consequences of present situations, but the realist must answer no. 
Conditions will probably become worse before they get better. And this 
is the hell that we may have to endure in the interim. Even now, how- 
ever, a stirring new hfe can be seen in the death agony of some of our 
old beliefs and habits. While the leaves wither and fall, the essential 
plant endures. Our youth, whom we honor here today, are our signposts. 
They are indeed halting and uncertain, but the more perceptive among 
the young adults in our society are everywhere reacting against the tired 
and hackneyed platitudes behind which society hides its loss of vitality 
and deep conviction. 

5 An astute study of the religious dilemma in the wake of rapid social and cultural change 
is Samuel S. Hill, Jr., Southern Churches in Crisis (New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 
c. 1967). 

The apparent rejection of authority and general restlessness of 
youth is not always rebellion for the sake of rebellion but is more often 
emotional opposition to the degeneration of home life. Instinctively 
the young know when something is missing in the family. Why do they 
disappear and turn up a thousand miles away in a colony with other 
derelicts like themselves? Why are teen-age marriages, including forced 
marriages, on the increase? One girl who was a member of Alice Brock's 
community in Stockbridge, Massachusetts (made famous by Arlo Guth- 
rie's ballad), summarized her purpose there as "How to care for another 
person, how to talk to him and truly communicate, how to be as aware 
and alive as possible in a natural way . . . ."^ It is true that young people 
are franker about sex than those of a generation ago. Part of this is a 
naive reaction against puritan and Victorian mores which hid sex and 
compartmentalized it even in the family. But sensitive young people 
are seeking, instead of libertinism, a greater commitment— a mutually 
respectful relationship that does not degrade one human personality 
at the expense of another. This is an unequivocal denial of the "Playboy" 
philosophy, which is anti-family and an avowed foe of equality in sex. 
Our perceptive young people eschew those relationships which degrade 
mind and spirit and which preclude deep communication and sympathy 7 
Though the family has apparently capitulated to its materialistic en- 
emies, it may be restored by its displaced and hungry children. ^ 

Tomorrow's religion, which has an intimate connection with the 
family, may also be in the hands of youth. We lament our young people's 
rejection of contemporary religious structure without seeking the cause. 
We continue to try to patch up the old house and ignore the tottering 
foundation. Here again is an example of youth's search for true com- 
munity and communication. Their frustration is deepened when they 
witness the wide gulf between religious theory and practice and the 

^ "Alice's; Family of Folk Song Fame Becomes a Movie," Life, LXVI (March 28, 1969), 

"^ In an article summarizing a lengthy examination of sex on college campuses, Albert 
Rosenfeld observed that "Sex is thought of less in terms of the mere sex act itself and more 
as just one ingredient of a total relationship." "The Scientists' Findings: More Sex, Less 
Promiscuity," Life, LXIV (May 31, 1968), 68. Kenneth Keniston has concluded that among 
today's youth "sexual exploitation— failure to treat one's partner as a person— is strongly 
disapproved." "Youth, Change, and Violence," The American Scholar, XXXVII (Spring, 
1968), 232. 

^ In its special issue on American youth. Fortune found that a sizable minority (two- 
fifths) of present-day college students can be identified primarily "by their lack of con- 
cern about making money." Fortune, LXXIX (January, 1969), 68. 

modification of the revolutionary and exciting message of the Gospels 
into a formula for maintaining the status quo. 9 There are, on the other 
hand, encouraging signs that clergymen as well as far-sighted laymen 
recognize the urgency of restoration. The introduction of congregational 
dialogues in place of sermons, the use of contemporary music, the aboli- 
tion of obsolete liturgical forms, the relaxation of rigid restrictions a- 
mong Roman Catholics, the heroic efforts of Protestants to heal the 
gaping wounds of centuries through the Consultation on Church Unity 
suggest that religion is organically very much alive. The form of future 
religion may be strange to us who cherish the "little church in the wild- 
wood" of a vanishing time, yet as long as man exists he will reach up 
toward his God in a manner relevant to contemporary life, lo 

Although American education is experiencing its darkest hour in 
history, one can occasionally glimpse, behind the storm clouds, its orig- 
inal high purpose. In their futile attempt to cope with mass rather than 
man, our public schools and colleges both have become factories turn- 
ing out thousands of identical products. The violence that is accompany- 
ing many student rebellions is deplorable, but we cannot turn the clock 
back to the placid 1950's when a symposium in The Nation characterized 
students as "the Brain-Washed Generation" who "has no gods and he- 
roes of its own." 11 Today's student is a product of our troubled times: 
he is searching for identity, which he has lost at home and in church 
and which he cannot find in the ascetic and isolated halls of his col- 
lege. The great majority of our students across the country do not en- 
gage in violence; still they have not repudiated the violent minority 
because they sense so deeply the need for change. It is lamentable that 
we who have committed ourselves to the education of youth have al- 
lowed present conditions to develop by being too preoccupied with re- 
search, commercial and governmental contracts, audiovisual aids, and 
electronics gimcrackery. Student power put to proper and peaceful 

9 The "new morality" is a significant effort at bringing Christian ethics to bear reahs- 
tically on contemporary problems. See Joseph Hetcher, Situation Ethics: The New Morality 
(Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, c. 1966) and Moral Responsibility: Situation Ethics 
at Work (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, c. 1967). 

10 For an interesting and revolutionary concept of "new spirituality," see Douglas Rhymes, 
Prayer in the Secular City (Philadelphia: The Westminister Press, c. 1967). Three "ex- 
perimental Christian communities as counterforces to institutionalism" have been identi- 
fied by Rosemary Reuther in "New Wine, Maybe New Wineskins, for the Church," The 
Christian Century, LXXXVI (April 2, 1969), 445-449. 

11 "The Careful Young Men: Tomorrow's Leaders Analyzed by Today's Teachers," The 
Nation, CLXXIV (March 9, 1957), 208. 

use may go a long way in restoring to our campuses a real environment 
for learning, where the individual teacher, freed from extraneous duty 
and extramural commitment, will have the time and interest to engage 
the individual student in meaningful dialogue. 

From surface appearances, therefore, many of our ways of life are 
on the verge of a life-and death struggle with the times. The over-thirty 
generation here today may never again know the, placid, well-ordered 
external world that we've come to believe immutable. Yet we can be 
sustained by knowledge that, while all external forms are transitory, 
the fundamental principles of the universe and the basic purposes of 
God are eternal. And these unchanging principles have to do with the 
nature of ourselves, created in the image, or spirit, of God. As William 
Faulkner asserted in his Nobel Prize acceptance speech, we should not 
despair of man's future. "I decline to accept the end of man," he said. 
"I believe that man will not merely endure: he will prevail. He is im- 
mortal, not because he alone among creatures has an inexhaustible 
voice but because he has a soul, a spirit capable of compassion and 
sacrifice and endurance."'-^ Within man is a higher faculty that will 
emerge when it is given only slight encouragement. Since we are now 
in the midst of our annual Fine Arts Festival, I believe it appropriate 
and not too trite to suggest that our only sustenance in a chaotic world 
must come from aesthetic and spiritual sources. One of the major causes 
of our present predicament may be that at a time when our material 
achievement has provided us more money and more leisure, we have 
sought the commonplace and the vulgar rather than the lasting beauty 
of great art, literature, and music. To echo Faulkner again, we have 
neglected matters of the heart and spirit and have concentrated on 
the glands. 

In relation to the sustaining power of music and poetry, I recall 
the English poet and clergyman Robert Herrick, who lived through the 
perilous days of the Puritan Revolution and the Restoration, dedicated 
to his calling and oblivious of social and political upheaval. In his in- 
comparable lyrics, Herrick sang of beauty while he saw the external 
world crumble. He wistfully accepted the decay of externals, for in the 
introductory poem to his best known volume, he said: "I sing of times 
trans-shifting." He did not deny the darker side of life but saw through 

*2 Essays, Speeches and Public Letters, ed. James B. Meriwether (New York: Random 
House, c. 1965), p. 120. 

it to the light beyond. "I write of hell," he said, "I sing (and ever shall) 
of heaven and hope to have it after all." '^ 

Our own times are trans-shifting. We cannot return to the security 
of the "good old days" no matter how deeply we desire it. We must write 
of hell. We must accept external change. To gain heaven may require 
extraordinary faith and courage. Above all, it will require a love for 
truth, which will not falter at the old shibboleth of "this isn't the way 
it's always been, so it couldn't be right." With reliance on the truly per- 
manent we will then be able to say with Herrick, "I sing (and ever shall) 
of heaven, and hope to have it after all." 

13 Lines 9, 13-14, "The Argument of His Book" from Hesperides in The Oxford Book 
of Seventeenth Century Verse (Oxford: the Clarendon Press, 1958), p. 299. 




Squatting by a smoking campfire in a park at Chicago's White 
City in 1906, the headhunter Fanged from Samoki chanted in Igorot, 
"nan soldadson si melikano pinotoiantja nan olon nan liktosh, " which 
the interpreter translated to the curious audience as, "The American 
soldiers cut off the head of the insurrecto." ' Thus, another incident 
in the Philippine War had been assimilated into the literature of a cul- 
ture. The literary method of the Igorot from North Luzon was perhaps 
the most ancient, oral formulation and transmission; another resident 
of Chicago, William Vaughn Moody, used a less ancient, the Ode, to 
present his views of the war, as he asked 

Alas! What sounds are these that come 
Sullenly over the Pacific seas, — 
Sounds of ignoble battle, striking dumb 
The season's half-awakened ecstasies'! 2 

In its time the Philippine phase of the Spanish-American War was 
a burning issue. Most Americans, including the intellectuals, supported 
United States intervention in Cuba to relieve Spanish oppression. But 
when the Philippine Islands were ceded to the United States in February, 
1899, and it became clear that the nation had no intention to live up to 
its promise to support a free Filipino country guided by the rebel leader 
Emilio Aguinaldo, the intellectuals voiced their anti-imperialism senti- 
ments by attacking not only the McKinley administration but world 
opinion which permitted conditions resulting in the Boer War, the Boxer 

*Assistant Professor of English, West Georgia College 

^ "The Igorot in the Battle of Calo/ocan," trans, by Carl Wilhelm Seidenadel in his The 
Language Spoken by the Bontoc Igorot (Chicago: The Open Court Pub. Co.. 1909), p. 
536. Material for this study was gathered in 1906-1907 when a large party of Igorot was 
on exhibition in Chicago. Fanged's tale briefly is this: Lured into a journey supposedly 
to dance for "much money," the warriors are thrown into battle by the Filipino leader 
Aguinaldo against the Americans, who bombard them with cannons and chase them home. 
Aguinaldo's wife and sister are captured near their home village. Interestingly, there was 
a two-way cultural exchange, for the American troops took the Igorot word for "back- 
country," "bontoc, " into their vocabulary as "boondock." 

2 "An Ode in the Time of Hesitation," Poems (Boston and New York: Houghton, Mif- 
flin and Co., 1901), pp. 14-15. 

Rebellion, and the Philippine Insurrection.^ While Fanged the Igorot 
was being drawn inevitable to his meeting with army cannon, William 
Dean Howells, Mark Twain, William Vaughn Moody, Thomas Bailey 
Aldrich, William Graham Sumner, Hamlin Garland, T. W. Higginson, 
Ernest Howard Crosby, and Henry Blake Fuller were protesting the 
American position "in the sincere belief that annexation and admin- 
istration of backward tropical areas would mean the abandonment of 
American ideals of self-government and isolation.'"* 

Many protests were neither sophisticated nor gentle. For example, 
in his poem "Administration Alphabet," Henry Blake Fuller says that 
"G is for guns that McKinley has sent/To teach Filipinos what Jesus 
Christ meant." "^ Ernest Howard Crosby, a figure less well-known today, 
was the president of the New York Anti-Imperialism League and, "in 
point of quantity, the leading anti-imperialist poet."^ In addition, Crosby 
wrote the one propagandist novel. Captain Jinx Hero (1902), in which 
the Cubans and Filipinos are collectively disguised as the "Cubapinos" 
and Old Glory becomes "Old Gory.'"^ A good example of Crosby's un- 
subtle style is his "The Real 'White Man's Burden'": 

Take up the white man's burden, 

send forth your sturdy kin 
And load them down with Bibles 

and cannon-balls and gin. 
Throw in a few diseases 

to spread in tropic climes, 
For there the healthy niggers 

are quite behind the times. 

3 Fred Harvey Harrington, "Literary Aspects of American Anti-Imperialism, 1898-1902," 
New England Quarterly, X (December, 1937), 650. 

4 Ibid., X. 

5 Ibid., X, 655; from Fuller's New Flag. 

6 Ibid., X. 

7 Ibid., p. 665. For contrast, Stanley Portal Hyatt's novel The Little Brown Brother (Lxjn- 
don: H. Holt and Co., 1908) is extremely interesting. Hyatt is anti-Filipino, no doubt be- 
cause of a personal tragedy. The novel is dedicated to "the memory of those gallant Amer- 
icans the officers of Native troops who fell during the Pulajan Campaign in the Island of 
Samar 1904-1905, and of that brave and well-beloved young Englishman Amyas Portal 
Hyatt who died towards the close of that campaign in Manila Hospital." On page two the 
American troops sing a song: "Damn, damn, the Filipinos, /Pock-marked, yellow-skinned 
ladrones, /Underneath the starry flag/Civilise them with a Krag,/And return us to our 
beloved homes." In a narrative passage the author offers an explanation for the insurrection : 
"In Manila, the half-breeds . . . dreamt of founding a republic" through which they could 
satisfy "their cupidity and lust." In the islands "it seemed as though a sheer love of dis- 
order lay on the root of the trouble." 


And don 't forget the factories. 

On those benighted shores 
They have no cheerful iron mills, 

nor eke department stores. 
They never work twelve hours a day, 

and live in strange content 
A It ho they never have to pay 

a single sou of rent. 

Take up the white man \s burden, 

and teach the Philippines 
What interest and taxes are 

and what a mortgage means. 
Give them electrocution chairs, 

and prisons, too, galore. 
And if they seem inclined to kick, 

then spill their heathen gore. 9, 

Even Finley Peter Dunne's famous comic character, Mr. Dooley, 
had a few words of comment against imperiahsm."^ 

Of the anti-imperiahst writers, Moody, Twain, and Howells seem 
the most significant for a modern study, though there is some disagree- 
ment as to the roles Twain and Howells played. One critic feels that 
Howells is an excellent example of the many writers "who sympathized 
with the movement" yet "who produced nothing at all to advance the 
cause,"'" while another maintains that Twain and Howells were "chief" 
among the anti-imperialists." As was the case with Twain and Howells, 
Moody supported the United States' position until the Philippine problem 
arose. 12 Besides the "Ode," which is "simultaneously a poem of protest 
and of celebration," ^^ Moody wrote "On a Soldier Fallen in the Phil- 
ippines," in which he subtly praises the dead soldier for doing the nation's 

8 Ibid., p. 657: from Swords and Ploughshares. 
'i Ibid., p. 664. 

10 Ibid., p. 665. 

11 William M. Gibson, "Mark Twain and Howells: Anti-Imperialists," A^evv England Quar- 
terly, XX (December, 1947), 436. 

12 Marten Halpern, William Vaughn Moody (New York: Twayne, 1964), p. 72. 

13 Ibid. 


will, while at the same time he questions the wrong done to the soldier 
by the nation's requirement of him. "Did we wrong this parted soul?" 
asks the poet: "We will make it up to him. /Toll! Let him never guess/ 
What work we set him to/ . . . Never a word that the blood on his sword 
was his country's own heart's-blood."''^ The poem ends with somewhat 
simplistic, yet, all in all, powerful ideas: 

Let him never dream that his bullet's scream 

went wide of its island mark, 
Home to the heart of his darling land where she 

stumbled and sinned in the dark. 

There is, as one critic points out, a vast difference between this 
poem and the "Ode" in that "there is not even a hint here of the attempt 
at hopeful affirmation that characterizes the last strophe of the 'Ode.'"'^ 

At the same time that Moody was writing his verse, there were 
examplesof "hopeful affirmation" appearing in the leading publications — 
though the affirmations tended toward whitewash and what hope there 
was appealed to the anti-imperialists' foes. "The Soldier Teacher in the 
Philippines," for example, is an unsigned article teUing how education 
can be used as a method of pacification.'^ Of course, Fanged from 
Samoki was not taught English, either by an American soldier or school- 
teacher, and certainly not by the unknown author, because the program 
was only used in the militarily secure area near Manila. "Making Friends 
of the Filipinos" is so blatant in its assumptions that it is no wonder 
that it is unsigned: 

It will be unfortunate if the just indignation of the American people 
over the outrages perpetrated in the Philippines by a few of our sol- 
diers should cast into the shade the great work which has been per- 
formed in those islands by Governor Taft and the aid which has 
been extended to him by the many intelligent and loyal (and wealthy?) 
Filipinos who see in American sovereignty the only hope for the or- 
derly progress of their country. The American government has 
undertaken in the Philippines what is probably the greatest con- 
structive work ever undertaken by a civilized power in any part of 
the world ...''' 

14 Poems, pp. 24-25. 

15 Halpern, p. 80. 

16 Harper's Weekly, XLVI (January 18, 1902), 74. 

17 Harper's Weekly, XLVI (June 14, 1902), 748. 


This was precisely the attitude that Twain and Howells attacked— 
the notion that the end justifies the means and that if the nation's at- 
tention were focused on the ends, the atrocities of the means would be 

But Twain was a means man. In "A Greeting From the Nineteenth 
to the Twentieth Century," he set forth an idea that in less than a month 
he would develop in a devasting essay: 

I bring you the stately nation named Christendom, returning, be- 
draggled, besmirched, and dishonored, from pirate raids in Kiao- 
Chou, Manchuria, South Africa, and the Philippines, with her soul 
full of meanness, her pocket full of boodle, and her mouth full 
of hypocrisies. Give her soap and towel, but hide the looking glass. '^ 

"To the Person Sitting in Darkness" followed. ^^ Here Twain spares 
no one as he points out the follies and evils of imperialism, regardless 
whether it be of the British industrial or American missionary type. 
"There must be," he says, "two Americas: one that sets the captive 
free, and one that takes a once-captive's new freedom away from him, 
and picks a quarrel with him with nothing to found it on; then kills him 
to get his land." 20 To point out the brutality of the war, he cites Gen- 
eral MacArthur's report that "during the last ten months our losses have 
been 268 killed and 750 wounded; Filipino loss, three thousand two 
hundred and twenty-seven killed, and 694 wounded"" and quotes a pas- 
sage "from the letter of an American soldier lad in the Philippines to 
his mother, published in Public Opinion, of Decorah, Iowa," that "we 
never left one alive. If one was wounded, we would run our bayonets 
through him." 21 The means we have used, Twain explains to the Person 
in Darkness, "look doubtful, but in reality they are not. . . . We have 
been treacherous; but that was only in order that real good might come 
out of apparent evil ... we have debauched America's honor and black- 
ened her face before the world; but each detail was for the best." 22 

18 Mark Twain on the Danmed Human Race, ed. Janet Smith (New York: Hill and Wang, 
1962), p. 5; originally printed in the New York Herald, December 30, 1900. 

19 Ibid., pp. 3-21; printed in the North American Review, February, 1901. 

20 Ibid., p. 15. 

21 Ibid., p. 19. 

22 Ibid., pp. 19-20. 


Why? Because "everything is prosperous, now." ~^ More soberly, Twain 
calls for a new flag, one more equal to America's aims: "We can have 
a special one — our states do it: we can have just our usual flag, with the 
white stripes painted black and the stars replaced by the skull and cross- 
bones." 24 Needless to say, the essay provoked a heated response. Andrew 
Carnegie payed for the printing and distributing of many copies. 23 

Twain continued his opposition 10 American imperialism in "A 
Defense of General Funston," a satirical essay published in the North 
American Review, May, 1902. Dated "February 22," the essay begins 
with a memorial to General Washington, whose value to the nation 
"lies in his permanent and sky-reaching consciousness as an influence," 
for he was "more greater than the father of a nation, he was the father 
of its patriotism." 26 Twain is worried that Funston will become an in- 
fluence, of the wrong kind. A Brigadier General in the Volunteers, 
Frederick Funston was thirty-six years old when he captured the rebel 
chief, Aguinaldo, through less-than-honorable means. For this service 
to his country, Funston was made a Brigadier General in the Regular 
Army and awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. Twain distrusts 
Funston because — aside from his being a soldier fighting against Fili- 
pino independence — he violated common decency and captured Agui- 
naldo after the rebel leader had saved him from starvation. 27 Perhaps, 
Twain suggested, Funston was not really to blame for his conduct, be- 
cause he was of a disposition that "admired everything that Washington 
did not admire." 28 Still, Funston could cause "Funstonism," which 
could "presently affect the army," perhaps in the same way that Gen- 
eral Smith's infamous order to "kill and burn — this is no time to take 
prisoners — the more you kill and burn, the better— kill all above the age 
often — makeSamara howling wilderness!" caused unnumbered atroc- 
ities. 29 

2:ilbid., p. 20. 
2"^ Ibid., p. 21. 

25 Gibson, p. 462. 

'2(>Mark Twain on the Damned Human Race, p. 85. 

27 Ibid., pp. 87-89. 

2^ Ibid., p. 91. 

29 Ibid., p. 93. 


Twain's "Comments on the Killing of 600 Moros" was first publish- 
ed in the 1924 Autobiography edited by Albert Bigelow Paine. ^o Though 
it is impossible to determine the date of composition, the situation a- 
bout which he writes took place in 1906. The six hundred Moros, "count- 
ing women and children," were located in a "crater bowl" in "the sum- 
mit of a peak or mountain twenty-two hundred feet above sea level, 
and very difficult of access for Christian troops and artillery." ^^ While 
it might at first seem an omen of God's approval that only fifteen Amer- 
icans were killed and thirty-two wounded, the miracle is that any troops 
were lost, because the Moros were trapped on exposed terrain and 
subjected to heavy fire from higher elevations. ^- The hero of the "battle" 
was a Lieutenant Johnson who, according to a headline, was "Blown 
from Parapet by Exploding Artillery Gallantly Leading Charge.'' ^^ 
Twain is quick to capitalize on the absurdity of the "heroism:" since 
the Moros were unarmed, "it is now a matter of historical record that 
the only officer of ours who acquired a wound of advertising dimensions 
got it at our hands, and not ihe enemies."-*'' 

Twain's anti-imperialism essays are, of course, always anti-war 
essays as well. ^5 His "The War Prayer," dictated in 1905 but not print- 
ed until 1916, is a damning indictment of warfare. ^^ The scene is a church 
in which people have gathered to pray for military victory. An "aged 
stranger" takes the pulpit to tell the congregation he has come from 
God, who says that He will grant their prayer "if such be your desire 
after I, His messenger, shall have explained to you its import," for it 
is really two prayers, "one uttered, the other not." 37 Their unspoken 
prayer is: 

30/^7/-^., p. 110. 
31/6/rf., p. 112. 

^^Ibid., p. 117. 

34/Z>/d., p. 118. 

^^ A brief study of Twain's views of war in Paul Carter's "Mark Twain and War," The 
Twainian, I, no. 3, new series (March, 1942), 1-3, 7. 

36 Mark Twain on the Damned Human Race, p. 64. 

37 Ibid., p. 66. 


O Lord our God, help us to tear their soldiers to Bloody shreds 
with our shells; help us to cover their smiling fields with the pale 
forms of their patriots dead; help us to drown the thunder of the 
guns with the shrieks of their wounded, writhing in pain . . . ^^ 

Coincidentally, this gruesome passage is similar to one in William 
Dean Howells' short story, "Editha." A comparison of the two passages 
illustrates the agreement of Twain's and Howells' ideas about imperial- 
istic war. 

Published in early 1905, "Editha" is the story of a super-patriotic, 
highly romantic young lady who urges her fiance, George Gearson, 
to go to war. She justifies the war theologically: "But don't you see, 
dear ... it wouldn't have come to this if it hadn't been in the order of 
Providence? And I call any war glorious that is for the liberation of 
people who have been struggling for years against the crudest oppres- 
sion.'"-*'' It is a case, George ironically says, of "Our country — right 
or wrong." Editha replies, "'God meant it to be war.'"^" As a result 
of her urging, and the emotional stimulation of a war demonstration, 
George volunteers and is made a captain. He is killed in action. Editha 
goes west with her father to visit George's mother, a widow whose late 
husband was seriously wounded in the Civil War and who is bitterly, 
personally anti-war. As Mrs. Gearson showers her justified scorn on 
Editha her reasoning seems guided by some "War Prayer" not unlike 

"No, you didn't expect him to get killed," Mrs. Gearson repeated 
in a voice which was startingly like George's again. "You just ex- 
pected him to kill some one else, some of those foreigners, that 
weren't there because they had any say about it, but because they 
hav^ *^o be there, poor wretches— conscripts, or whatever they call 
'em. f ou thought it would be all right for my George, your George, 
to kill the sons of those miserable mothers and the husbands of 
those girls that you would never see the faces of." The woman 
lifted her powerful voice in a psalmlike note. "I thank my God 

38 Ibid., p. 67. 

39 Milton R. Stern and Seymour L. Gross, American Literature Survey: Nation and Region, 
1860-1900 (New York: Viking Press 1962), p. 205; first printed in Harper's Monthly, CX 
(January, 1905), 214-224. 

40/Z)/rf., p. 207. 


he didn't live to do it! I thank my God they killed him first, and 
that he ain't livin' with their blood on his hands!"^' 

Howells' view of the Philippine problem probably stemmed from 
his belief that "all men had the right to decide their own destinies." -'^ 
In a letter dated February 24, 1901, he related that he and Twain "have 
good times denouncing everything. We agree perfectly about the Boer 
War and the Filipino War, and war generally." ^^ Two months later he 
used his "Easy Chair" to discuss Jose Rizal's novel, An Eagle Flight, 
which portrays the friars' deadly influence in the Philippines, and to 
comment that Rizal was executed by the Spainards "a few years before 
we (the U. S.) bought a controlling interest in their crimes."'*'' 

Some ten months later, Howells replied to General Wheaton's de- 
nunciation of comments against the handling of the Philippine situation 
that were made by members of a Senate investigating committee. As 
well as quoting such diverse authorities as Andrew Carnegie and James 
Russell Lowell's Hosea Biglow, Howells observed that: 45 

The brave fellows whom our government has sent to kill Filipinos, 
and who have done their full duty in that way, should learn that 
in the service of a free commonwealth they must take the chances 
of being killed by Filipinos encouraged to fight by American sym- 
pathy with any people fighting for their independence. ^6 

In March Howells came to the defense of Aguinaldo's character 
by examining and holding up to ridicule Philippines Governor Taft's 
declaration that although a great leader the rebel chief "has no idea 
of liberty, civil or any other kind."-'7 In closing, Howells states that 

■^Ubid., p. 216. 

42 Ralph L. Hough, The Quiet Rebel: William Dean Howells as Social Commentator 
(Lincoln, Nebraska: Shoestring Press, 1959), p. 88. 

43 Clara M. and Rudolf Kirk, William Dean Howells (New York: College & University, 
1962), p. 191. 

-^-^ Harper's Monthly, CII (April, 1901), 805. 

'*-"' Unsigned articles are assigned to Howells by William M. Gibson and George Arms, 
A Bibliography of William Dean Howells (New York: Macmillan & Co., 1948). 

46 "The Turning of the Dove," Harper's Weekly, XLVI (February 8, 1902), 165; italics 

47 "A Fatal Ignorance of Liberty," Harper's Weekly, XLVI (March 15, 1902), 325. 


"it would be a gross incivism, punishable with imprisonment or depor- 
tation, for a Filipino to read to other Filipinos a Spanish or Tagalog 
translation of the Declaration of Independence.""'^ Three months later 
Howells questioned the brutal tactics used by American troops against 
the Filipinos and found the generals' justification for them, that, though 
savage, fit for savages, itself savage and dishonorable.-''^ As late as 1916 
Howells protested against American interventionist policies, so 

The total significance of the United States' involvement in the 
Philippines is difficult to assess. Perhaps in the long run the anti-im- 
perialist cause did not leave a "permanent impress on American char- 
acter," ^' No great novel came out of the imperialist wars of the turn of 
the century as they did from the two world wars and the Spanish Civil 
War. Perhaps it was a question of national shame among the writers 
that turned their creative talents from fiction and poetry to argumen- 
tative discourse. Even in Fanged the Igorot's tale his people's gullibility, 
cowardice, fear, and dishonor are as prominent as the Americans' might. 
Still, it would be interesting to discover if in the half century the tale 
has been told in the jungles the roles have been altered and a hero has 
emerged from an unheroic situation. 

48/6jrf, XL VI. 

49 "Philippine Casuistry," /forper'^ Weekly, XL VI (June 7, 1902), 715. 

50 Hough, p. 88. 

51 Harrington, p. 667. 




Whether one views it in space as in Russia or in time as in Egyptian 
history, certain actions and factors support the idea that business is still 
business. It should no more come as a surprise to see the officials of 
government-owned, Russian industry who are assigned sales duties 
abroad acting like Western businessmen as to see Russian engineers 
come up with the same solution to a problem that American engineers 
do. Business — the purchase and sale of commodities or the acquisition 
and distribution of commodities via exchange — is not changed in its 
basic aspects by the ownership of the means of production. One need 
only look at government-owned industry in Italy, a mixed economy, 
and Russia to see how much of the usual difference between private 
industry and public industry is due to philosophy rather than ownership. 
Because it was too little sales oriented, the Russian philosophy is grad- 
ually mellowing toward the Western. 

Since the control of the exchange of commodities is a great power, 
government concern with the functions of business is both international 
and inter-temporal. The sales of commodities is not, of course, an in- 
herent function of government, but is the raison d'etre of business. 
Government and business are, however, entirely separate organizations 
only when the government neither directly nor indirectly engages in 
the sale of commodities. Obviously, this condition exists only in the 
rarest of cases, for it has been common throughout history for even the 
most laissez-faire government in its domestic policy to involve itself in 
commercial transactions with the rest of the world. Since the result of 
this government intervention — engaged in so as to improve the competi- 
tive position of its industries vis-a-vis the rest of the world's — serves 
to cartelize to some degree the individual units of an industry in its 
foreign dealings, the sale of commodities between nations has been char- 
acterized by many of the features of monopolistic or imperfect compe- 
tition. Intensifying this effect is the fact that small firms frequently do 
not engage in international trade. 

The Russians long resisted behaving like Western businessmen be- 
cause, equating "business" with Capitalism, they believed in the existence 
of an ever-present, inherent difference between the fundamental goals 

'Assistant Professor of Business Administration, West Georgia College 


of "business" and government with just as much fervor as many a CapitaUst. 
Again Uke many a CapitaHst, they appear to have inseparably Hnked 
business and private property. Worse, they dismissed Western economics 
as a lackey science of those they believed to be exploiters of the work- 
ing class. Now, however, they are slowly awaking to the fact that such 
concepts as marginal product are not an instrument for oppressing 
labor, but are, instead, guides to the rational allocation of resources 
in line with consumer desires. 

It is only business conducted by Capitalists; not business per se, 
which is, by the nature of its definition, inseparably linked with private 
property. If production is not the responsibility of the state, the capital 
necessary for production can only be accumulated through the institu- 
tion of private property. ' Because it often gives its owners economic 
independence in that they are not dependent on an income from the 
government, societies choosing to accumulate capital via private pro- 
perty have less powerful governments than similar societies where the 
government owns all. Here ownership which includes complete or nearly 
complete control of the use of property is assumed. It is possible, of 
course, to have "legal" title to an object but be deprived of control of 
its use. Invariably societies fail to grant complete freedom to property 
holders to use their holdings in any way they may desire. 

Popular opinion to the contrary, the exchange of commodities — 
business — is an occupation which traces its origins back as far or further 
than many of the "professions." Interestingly enough, the problem of 
dividing or whether to divide the economy into public and private sec- 
tors—is at least as old as the pyramids. To examine early business is 
quite illuminating to one concerned with such questions. 

Under the Pharaohs in Egypt subjects accepted the idea that goods 
belonged solely to the ruler. This was a personal relationship, for it 
was possible for even the poorest person to petition to this god and in- 
dividuals of every class could attain an ordinary degree of comfort and 
prosperity. Under the Greeks, however, Pharaonic rule was turned into 
a "soulless domination of State control," and "centralization and ex- 
ploitation were the two principles on which the Ptolemies acted." ^ 
The former, of course, facilitated the latter. 

1 Calvin B. Hoover, The Economy. Liberty and the State (Garden City, N. J.: Double- 
day and Co., 1961), pp. 112-113. 

2 Margaret A. Murray, The Splendor That Was Egypt (New York: Hawthorn Books, 
Inc., 1963), p. 75. 


In reality the native Pharaohs merely had been the head of a country 
in which private property and its associated rights were respected, but 
under the Greeks all land in private hands — the greater part of the total — 
was registered and placed under the control of the State. This land was 
then leased by farmers from the State. The State rather than the market 
had the "right" to dismiss the tenant at will and dictated what and how 
much was to be grown on the land. The produce from the land was 
heavily taxed and the State reserved the right to buy as much as it liked 
at a fixed — not the market— price. Equally absolute rule held sway in 
trade and the industrial sector of the economy. Every detail of each was 
registered and every industry was heavily taxed. All raw materials were 
the property of the State and certain branches of manufacture and trade 
were State monopolies. Eventually free-trading was crushed. All of 
these controls, as would be expected, led to a gigantic civil service. ^ 

Industrialization, at least in the modern sense, did not exist in an- 
cient Egypt. A pre-industrialization stage similar to that reached many 
centuries later in Europe did exist, however. A tomb dated about 2000 
BC revealed not only a model of a weavers' workshop illustrating its 
method of operation but also a model of a carpenters' workshop. More 
than half-a-dozen figures appeared in each model."* The quantity and 
quality of pottery, jewelry, building materials, utensils, and ships prove 
that there existed numerous enterprises outside the scope of unorga- 
nized and unspecialized labor. 

"Egypt had trade with foreign countries from the earliest time of 
which there are any remains in the Nile Valley." "" Around 2300 BC 
armed escorts were provided for trading expeditions just as they were 
later to be supplied European traders in the feudal period. Pre-accoun- 
tants recorded their accounts on papyrus. To open trade with Egypt, 
foreign rulers sent gifts to the Pharaoh, a practice hardly unknown 
today in some industries. To trade with other nations one early Pharaoh 
built a fleet of sixty ships. 6 

3 Ibid., pp. 76-77. 

4S.R.K. Glanville (ed.), The Legacy of Egypt (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1942), p. 131 
and p. 135. 

5 Murray, p. 80. 

6 Ibid., p. 97. 


Englebach, writing in The Legacy of Egypt, speculates that as a re- 
sult of intensive cultivation of such fertile land as the Nile Valley popu- 
lation must have increased greatly and that eventually the people would 
exceed the number necessary to provide subsistence for all. Ultimately 
their numbers would be such that they could "gratify every whim of 
kings and ruling classes, even after they had sent parties, with reck- 
less disregard for human life, to distant mines and quarries to obtain 
precious materials.'"^ Thus he believes that by about 2600 BC the na- 
tion's rulers were so surfeit with unemployed workers that they had to 
put vast numbers to work on the large monuments for which this civili- 
zation is today known. "* The control and use of such vast quantities of 
unskilled labor equipped only with primitive tools to build these amaz- 
ing structures is, of course, one of the marvels of the world and indica- 
tive of a high level of organizational ability. 

Little is known about the organization of Egyptian enterprises or 
even how they accomplished their tasks— for example, scholars are 
still speculating as to how the stones for the great pyramids were lifted 
into place (pulleys apparently were unknown). Something is known, 
however, of the organization of the government. At the helm was, of 
course, the Pharaoh. Under him were numerous officials whom he ap- 
pointed. Many of these were scribes or clerks in government offices 
as the process of taxation made necessary much writing. Because agri- 
culture depended on inundation, tax assessments varied each year and 
had to be made locally. And this, along with the locally conducted census 
of farm animals every second year, made necessary local arms of govern- 
ment. Thus the nation was divided into twenty nomes or provinces, 
each of which had its own governor, assessors, tax-collectors, and other 
necessary officials. Lxjcal courts were included in this arrangement. The 
Pharaoh was, however, constantly traveling through the country to per- 
sonally inspect operations. 

Like many managers before and since, eventually the Pharaoh had 
to delegate some of his responsibility as one man could not handle the 
job by himself. To assist the Pharaoh there was created the post of 
Vizier. Reporting daily to the Vizier was the Chief Treasurer. Local 
authorities reported to him three times a year and he made regular 
inspection trips. The extent of his control is illustrated by the fact that 

7 Glanville, p. 126. 

8 Ibid. 


no timber could be felled in Egypt without his permission (lumber being 
extremely valuable in Egypt). When the Pharaoh was available, the 
Vizier, taking the Chief Treasurer with him, reported daily to the Pha- 
raoh. Weak and idle Pharaohs invariably brought about foreign inva- 
sion. "^ 

Just as was later to be the case in Feudal Europe, eary Egyptians 
(3998 to 3335 B.C.) not of the aristocracy were serfs or virtually so, 
but by 3005 B.C. craftsmen, artists, scribes, and government officials 
were the source of a new class — a middle class. And just as did the Feudal 
Kings of Europe at a much later date, the Pharaohs encouraged the rise 
of this new class so as to weaken the power of local rulers, lo 

Thus the course of events in ancient Egypt paralleled in many 
aspects the later development of Europe which cumulated in indus- 
trialization. In both Egypt and Europe men were released from the land 
by improvements in agriculture and went into trade, industry, and the 
arts where they soon began to specialize in particular aspects of each, 
a state of affairs which led to the rise of that hallmark of a commercial 
and individualistic society: a middle class. As in Europe, the role of the 
government in business changed over the years, but where in Europe 
its role lessened as the Industrial Revolution approached and was reach- 
ed, in Egypt there was an economic, social, and political decline pre- 
ceded by a complete government take over of all economic activities. 
Of course, there were other distinct differences between ancient Egypt 
and 16th and 17th century Europe, the most important being the for- 
eign domination of Egypt, and so too much should not be concluded 
from this contrast. 

It is said that nature never uses the same pattern twice, but engages 
in putting together endless variations of the same patterns. Perhaps the 
same can be said of civilization. 

The ultimate result of Greek rule of Egypt has been well summarized 
by Rostovtzeff : 

The spirit of the nation was one of indifference — the dull obe- 
dience of serfs who possessed no initiative, no animation, no pa- 

9 Murray, pp. 73-75. 
lOGlanville, p. 30. 


triotism, whose thoughts were wholly concentrated on the problems 
of daily bread and economic interests.... The Greek officials be- 
came submerged in a mire of bureaucracy and bribery. ...Serfdom 
lay heavy upon the people, but protests were seldom heard. Dis- 
satisfaction assumed a form typical among serfs. When they found 
that conditions were no longer tolerable, groups of men, agricul- 
turists, workmen, sailors, and officials, said 'We can bear no more,' 
and fled to the temples to claim the protection of the gods, or dis- 
appeared in the swamps of the Delta. From the commencement of 
the third century B.C., these strikes were of common occurrence. 
They were a constant terror to the officials, since force was use- 
less in dealing with a psychology born of dull despair. The govern- 
ment was rich in money, but the country was poor in spirit, and 
hardly knew happiness. True, the country occasionally revolted, un- 
der the banners of the old gods and temples or under the influ- 
ence of national feeling. But these insurrections invariably ended 
in massacres, and only when the energetic elements in them had 
been destroyed was an amnesty granted to the survivors. ^^ 

Interestingly enough, after World War II in Eastern Europe we 
have a situation somewhat reminiscent of Egypt's conquest by the Greeks : 
In East Germany we had a dull obedience and flight to the West; in 
Hungary we had an insurrection followed by a massacre. In most Rus- 
sian satellites we used to hear little protest. As the Russian grip on these 
countries relaxes, however, their people are demanding and getting a 
reduction in the Russian-dominated government control of economic 
affairs both to satisfy nationalistic feelings and to make the economy 
more productive and, thus, more competitive. Though Russia herself 
has "liberalized" her economy— installing profit guidelines in consumer- 
goods industries — Russian supression of Czech, Western liberalization 
indicates their fear of decentralization accompanied by freedom of 
speech, a none-too-surprising partner of any substantial decentraliza- 
tion of an organization. 

11 Murray, p. 77. 




The moral and religious approach to criticism of Shakespeare is 
based largely upon critical examination of a play as a dramatic whole 
and within its own frame of reference. Ethical and theological signif- 
icances of imagery and symbolism are related to the central theme of 
the play. The poetry, the plot, and the characterization are considered 
as elements of the total dramatic statement. The integrated whole is 
then examined against the background of moral, religious, and social 
concepts prevalent in England during the time when the plays were 

Perhaps this approach discerns more in the plays than Shakespeare 
wrote into them; but sub-conscious dictates, which are revealed in the 
juxtaposition of words and in thought associations, often deepen the 
conscious, purposive thought of a writer. The greatest danger of this 
type of criticism is that the words are strained through the personal 
philosophy and experiences of the critic. What is valid for one reader 
is not necessarily so for another. Interpretations which transcend the 
conscious meanings attributable to the writer, his age, and his medium 
are in danger of failing to differentiate between individual, universal, 
and original concepts. Certainly the religious and moral critics vary 
widely in their conclusions. 

It is not easy to fit the moral and religious group into the over-all 
picture of Shakesperean criticism. It is too heterogeneous to cohere 
as a true "group" and too varied in method to fit neatly into any logical 
procession or movement of criticism. Coleridge, in defending Shakespeare 
against immorality, introduces into criticism the idea of Shakespeare 
as a moralist;' but Coleridge does not develop his conception of Shake- 
speare as philosopher-poet. Richard Moulton, in Shakespeare as Dramatic 
Thinker (1907), picks up Coleridge's suggestion and attempts to relate 
the plays to Shakespeare's personal philosophy. F. R. Leavis and his 

•Assistant Professor of English, West Georgia College. 

1 Alfred Harbage, As They Liked It: An Essay on Shakespeare and Morality (New York: 
Macmillan, 1947), p. 44. 


Scrutiny group, critical descendants of Coleridge and Matthew Arnold 
and important in twentieth century criticism in general, are particularly 
influential in the field of moral and religious criticism, since their method 
is close critical examination of the language as an integral part of the 
dramatic work. The debt to the Scrutiny group is obvious: it is by ex- 
plication of connotative and associative meanings that the moral and 
religious critics support their views. 

In general terms, the moral and religious school of criticism shares 
in the whole enlarged view of Shakespearean drama which began to 
take shape early in the twentieth century with the historical critics — 
men like E. E. Stoll, E. M. W. Tillyard, and Lewis B. Schucking. It em- 
ploys the Scrutiny method of close critical examination of the dramatic 
whole with particular emphasis on imagery. It is related, also, to the 
dramaturgical school — as represented by Harley Granville-Barker— 
since the plays are considered as drama, not as literature only. Accept- 
ing freely what all of these groups have to offer and not hesitating to 
incorporate valid concepts of the earlier schools, the moral and religious 
critics seek to determine, by examining the plays themselves, Shake- 
speare's analysis and interpretation of the world in which he lived. This 
critical approach involves knowledge of the social, political, ethical, 
and religious concepts of Shakespeare's era and of his audience. 

In Shakespeare and the Popular Dramatic Tradition (1944), S. L. 
Bethell combines the historical approach with the philosophical in his 
study of Shakespeare's theatre, its conventions, and its development 
from the Morality plays toward naturalism. He finds in Shakespeare's 
plays a "poetic crystallisation" of a Christian culture, and he maintains 
that Shakespeare wrote consistently from an orthodox Christian point 
of view. It is the Morality tradition, Bethell states, which enabled Eliza- 
bethan audiences to be simultaneously aware of a number of different 
aspects without confusion. Bethell's critical focus is on this multi-con- 
sciousness of the Elizabethan audience, which permitted the depth of 
perception and the complexity of vision which he finds in Shakespeare's 
poetic drama. 

The central idea of Alfred Harbage's As They Liked It: An Essay 
on Shakespeare and Morality (1947) is that Shakespeare's plays are de- 
signed "to exercise but not to alter our moral notions, to stimulate but 
not to disturb, to provide at once pleasurable excitement and pleasurable 
reassurance." 2 Shakespearean drama offered an escape comparable to 

2 Ibid., p. XII. 


that of modern motion pictures. Audiences were composed of "creatures 
of moral sensibility, whose interest could be aroused and held by con- 
flicts of good and evil."^^ The language and the content of the plays 
were readily understandable to those audiences, and the response to the 
moral stimulus provided was undoubtedly as varied then as it is today. 
Harbage's critical basis is that Shakespeare's plays exist in a moral frame 
but not a moralistic one, that any teaching they may do is coincidental 
and not by conscious design. His critical affiliations, like Bethell's, are 
both historical and philosophical. 

John Francis Danby's interest in Shakespeare's audiences lies only 
in their concepts of Nature. Basing his criticism on the belief that Shake- 
speare shared the prevalent ethical and theological beliefs of his age, 
Danby explores, in Shakespeare's Doctrine of Nature (1949), the evolu- 
tion of both conservative and liberal views. He sees the Elizabethan Play- 
house as the true successor to the Medieval pulpit, popular drama being 
a response to the need for a new religious form of thought. His critical 
approach is through the development of Shakespearean drama as dy- 
namic presentations of a new way of thinking. His point of departure 
is Elizabethan Nature, both the benign Nature of Hooker and the malign 
Nature of Hobbes. 

Paul N. Siegel's Shakespearean Tragedy and the Elizabethan Com- 
promise (1957) combines the areas of investigation of Bethell, Harbage, 
and Danby. He relates Shakespeare's plays to Elizabethan society as a 
whole and to Christian humanism in particular. Siegel considers his 
work to be an enlargement of Theodore Spencer's Shakespeare and 
the Nature of Man (1943) and a supplement to A. C. Bradley's Shake- 
spearean Tragedy (1904). Siegel's critical base is the broad social and 
political background of Elizabethan England. His thesis is that Shake- 
spearean tragedy was made possible by the concepts of Christian human- 
ism, which he considers to be ethical rather than theological in emphasis. 

Harold S. Wilson's On the Design of Shakespearean Tragedy (1957) 
is an attempt to trace a unifying principle of philosophy in ten of Shake- 
speare's tragedies. (He excludes Titus Andronicus as too specialized 
in its effect.) He acknowledges a debt to A. S. P. Wodehouse's study of 
nature and grace, "* but he denies that his use of the Hegelian triad — 
thesis, antithesis, and synthesis — implies any link with Hegelian philos- 

3 Ibid. p. 1 

4 A. S. P. Wodehouse, "Nature and grace in The Fairie queeneT Journal of English His- 
tory, XVI (1949), 194-228. 


ophy. Wilson merely finds the terms useful in indicating the rhythmic 
patterns he finds in Shakespearian tragedy. Wilson's groupings are 
determined by implied or overt relationships to Christian way of thought, 
and his base for critical consideration is the extent to which Christian 
concepts are relevant or regulative in the plays. 

G. R. Elliott's close analysis of imagery in Dramatic Providence 
in Macbeth (1958) reflects the influence of Carolyn F. E. Spurgeon's 
pioneer work in imagery, but the critical focus is quite different. Elliott's 
particular interest is in Shakespeare's esthetic use of Christian doctrine. 
He is in agreement with Harbage and Siegel in his belief that Shake- 
speare's use of Christian concepts is not religious; that is, not religious 
in the way that Spenser, Milton, and Dante use Christian doctrine. El- 
liott's critical manifesto is that Shakespeare's personal beliefs are un- 
known and irrelevant and that Shakespeare used Renaissance moral 
and religious doctrines for the purposes of dramatic art only. 

The diversity of conclusions reached by the moral and religious 
critics would seem to bear out Harbage's contention that there are as 
many moral interpretations of Shakespeare as there are readers. Al- 
though Bethel and Harbage cover approximately the same ground and 
agree that Elizabethan drama developed out of the morality tradition, 
that Shakespeare belonged to the popular theatre, and even that he and 
his audience shared similar religious backgrounds and moral attitudes, 
they reach quite different conclusions concerning the presence of 
conscious, purposive Christianity in the plays. The difference is not 
readily defined and may exist only semantically. 

Danby and Siegel are both concerned with Elizabethan philoso- 
phies. Danby's benign and malign Natures are the Christian humanism 
and scepticism of Siegel, but Siegel explores a broader social and po- 
litical area than Danby considers. They are in agreement concerning 
the historical framework of Shakespeare's plays, but Danby concludes 
that the Elizabethan theatre filled the place in society vacated by the 
medieval pulpit, that the religion in Shakespeare's plays probably ac- 
counts for their popularity. Siegel, on the other hand, concludes that 
the emphasis of Shakespearean tragedy is on the ethical rather than 
theological aspects of Christian humanism. Both critics feel that Shake- 
speare held orthodox Christian humanist views and that his beliefs were 
influential in shaping his dramatic work. Once again, the distinctions 
between ethical and theological are too finely drawn to be readily ap- 


Elliott asserts that Shakespeare's use of Christian doctrine is es- 
thetic rather than religious but that his beliefs had a regulative influence 
on his work. Wilson, however, finds Shakespeare's religious beliefs to 
be regulative in only a few of his tragedies. Wilson, moreover, agrees 
with Harbage's view that Shakespeare wrote to please his audience, 
whereas Elliott hotly denies any audience control or influence. Wilson 
and Elliott are also diametrically opposed in their understanding of the 
nature of grace, Elliott believing it to be the controlling action of Divine 
Providence and Wilson believing it to be the beatific ecstasy necessary 
for religious comprehension. Here Danby and Elliott are in agreement, 
since Danby can find no difference in "Lear's clairvoyance" and T. S. 
Eliot's "religious comprehension." 

The frequent appearance of "reconciliation of opposites," "balance 
of opposites," and "tension of opposites" indicates the strong influence 
which Coleridge still exerts in modern criticism. It might be well for 
critics to take a second look at non-Romantic work judged by Romantic 
standards. The Romantics appear to have fallen into the trap of char- 
acter analysis as a result of the fact that Shakespearean tragedy depicts 
dramatically the inner struggle with which Romantics are concerned. 
The larger view of adjustment to society and to the universe is rele- 
gated to the background, because it is the conflict within the individual 
which interests the Romantic. The growth and development of Field- 
ing's Tom Jones in terms of his gradual adjustment to society is of no 
interest to Romantics because Tom is only part of the larger view. In 
Sahnger's Catcher in the Rye, on the other hand, society is seen only 
through the eyes of Holden Caulfield; and Holden's inner struggle to 
adjust himself to the outer world is the theme of the novel. Shelley de- 
clared Satan to be the hero of Paradise Lost, because Satan's struggle to 
fulfill himself is so dramatically presented; but only a Romantic could 
take such a position in a critical examination of the poem as a whole. 

Moral and religious critics seem to fall into the same sort of error 
in narrowing their critical approach to Shakespeare. It is really necessary 
to determine whether or not Shakespeare was purposely didactic? To 
the study of the history and development of the drama, the answer may 
be yes. By relating Elizabethan drama to previous stages of develop- 
ment and to what is known of Elizabethan society, assumptions may be 
made — with varying degrees of confidence — concerning conventions 
and purposes. On the other hand, in considering the plays as artistic 
creations, the question of moralistic teaching would appear no more 
relevant to Shakespeare than to Michelangelo. 


The struggle of man to find himself and his place in society is pe^ 
culiar to no one age. This struggle is concerned with morality in its 
broadest sense; that is, internal as well as external morality. Pulpits 
and theatres today are concerned with the same problems which con- 
fronted Othello and Lear. Macbeth wears a gray flannel suit and An- 
gelo's specious virtue is investigated in a Congressional hearing, but 
the basic issues are the same. In general, the Romantic sees this strug- 
gle from the individual, first-person point of view; others, whatever 
name tag they bear, approach the same issues from a broader third- 
person point of view. Shakespeare offers both points of view; and criti- 
cal approach is a matter of personal orientation. Matthew Arnold ex- 
pressed the opinion that "the dramatic form exhibits, above all, the 
actions of man as strictly determined by his thoughts and feelings; it 
exhibits, therefore, what may be always accessible, always intelligible, 
always interesting." ^ The currency and universality of Shakespearean 
drama is the snare which catches the unwary; and the common weak- 
ness of finding Shakespeare's "own thoughts" reveals the unconscious- 
ness of the error. No one can deny the right of a critic to express his 
own conclusions; but the same critic should be denied, and vigorously, 
the right to present his conclusions as "Shakespeare's own." 

The contribution of the moral and religious critics to Shakespeare 
criticism should not be underestimated, and no disparagement is in- 
tended. It appears, however, that the irrelevant hair-splitting between 
moral and moralistic weakens the positions taken on relevant issues. 
Perhaps L. C. Knights, the ghost layer, will come up with a Much Ado 
About Nothing and administer the coup de grace to this issue as he did 
with the personal character analyses of the Romantics. 

5 "On the Modern Element in Literature," Matthew Arnold: On the Classical Tradition, 
ed. R. H. Super (Ann Arbor, N4ichigan: University of Michigan Press, 1960), p. 34. 





"The division of power in a tederal system is a matter often requir- 
ing delicate adjustment. At times the division is very uneasy, the subject 
of a continuing squabble between power wielders on a national and a 
local level of government."' 

Federal theory, as Dr. V. O. Key suggests, implies the existence of 
territorial differences among the people of the nation. It assumes the 
existence of more or less autonomous politics within each of the units 
of the system. However, some sectional problems will become issues 
for the central government. ^ These territorial differences, based on the 
political and social culture peculiar to each of the constituents of the 
federal system will necessarily prejudice a political community as it 
considers the responsibilities of its government. These local attitudes 
must be reflected in the policies of the local governments. A federal 
system, however, implies more than sectional differences. It also sug- 
gests a recognition of a need fo*" unity, a coherence and cohesion of 
these different territories into a whole country. It involves a kinship 
for fellow Americans, or Australians, or Canadians, or Germans, even 
though they had the "misfortune" to be born in another land, province 
or state. Again, this feeling of unity must find reflection in attitudes 
towards the responsibilities of the government of the whole country. 

The positive powers of government, such as the power to tax and to 
spend for the public welfare, are necessarily held concurrently by the 

*The author expresses his appreciation to Dr. Lynwood Holland for his guidance in the 
preparation of this paper. Mr. Wise is Director of Training for the Georgia Municipal 

' Arthur S. Miller and Ronald F. Howell, "Interposition, Nullification and the Delicate 
Division of Power in a Federal System," The Journal of Public Law, V (1956), 4. 

2 V. O. Key, Jr., American State Politics, An Introduction (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 
1956), pp. 19-20. 


constituent units of a federated country and by the nation as a whole. 
Exercise of these positive powers involves the personal liberty of the 
citizens. It stirs their emotions, their fears of tyranny, their hopes for 
happiness and their expectations of what is due them by dint of their 
mere existence. Exercise of these positive powers also directly involves 
the different levels of government and affords the greatest area for fric- 
tion between the national government and the constituent parts. 

This paper is a study of the political ramifications when a small 
city in New York challenged the welfare policy of the nation and tried 
to exercise what it felt was its right of government in this federal union. 
The paper will attempt to discover how federal theory is put into prac- 
tice, and how and why the balance of government in the federal system 

Newburgh, New York, is a ciiy of 32,000. It is in Orange County, on 
the banks of the Hudson River. It is a shipping port for coal, fruit, farm 
and dairy products. Local industry includes shipbuilding, manufacturing 
artificial leather, textiles, carpets and rugs, handbags, lawnmowers and 
some machinery. Stewart Air Force Base is located nearby. ^^ Median in- 
come in 1962 was $5,363, while total government expenses amounted 
to $2,887,000. 4 

Newburgh is in the Twenty-seventh Congressional district. Since 
1946 it has been represented by Mrs. Katherine St. George, a Republican 
and a member of the Civil Service, the House Rules, and the Post Of- 
fice committees.^ 

In June, 1961, the Republican City Council and the Republican 
City Manager, Mr. Joseph Mitchell, established a new thirteen-point 
welfare reform due to go into effect on July 15, 1961. The new program 
was not so much an administrative reform as it was a challenge to the 
concept of welfare established in the Social Security Act as it is admin- 
istered throughout most of the United States. The program affected 
two areas of welfare, namely, public assistance and aid to dependent 
children. The former provides wherewithal to the poor, and the latter 
provides financial assistance to children under 18-years old who are 

3 Webster's Geographical Dictionary (Springfield: G & C Merriam, 1949), p. 796. 

4 (J. S. Bureau of the Census, County and City Data Book, A Statistical Abstract Sup- 
plement (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1962), pp. 536-545. 

5 Congressional Quarterly, XIX (November 7, 1961), 1873, 1871, 1462, and 1539. 


deprived of parental support because of the death, continued absence, 
physical or mental incapacity, or unemployment of a parent. The child 
must live in the home of a parent or specified relative. 6 

The national welfare program as it developed out of the depression 
years of the 1930's and as it has been implemented and amended is de- 
signed to help those individuals and families who are not able to meet 
their essential needs. The Act is based on the philosophy that since the 
economic system is a product of the people and since education is the 
responsibility of the people, wherever lack of education and economic 
handships conspire to deprive a man of his basic livlihood, the people, 
through the government, have the responsibility to provide his basic 
needs. The onus of poverty, as seen in the federal program, rests on 
society rather than on an individual who is poor. Newburgh may have 
been attacking this principle itself. Senator Hubert Humphrey in a speech 
in Congress on August 29, 1961, felt this to be the case. In any case, 
Newburgh was not willing to pay the costs of the federally established 
program. Welfare costs money. Since 1949 public welfare costs have in- 
creased 131 percent.^ The rising costs have caused concern all over the 
country. Many feel that welfare is as expensive as it is because the wel- 
fare rolls are loaded with chiselers who are too lazy to earn their own 
livelihood, and women who produce illegitmate babies for fun and 
profit. Newburgh certainly felt this way, and was willing to place the 
onus of poverty on the poor and abrogate the dignity of the relief clients 
if this could reduce the costs of welfare. Their program was as follows: 

1. That payments of welfare funds to parents of the children 
on the Aid to Dependent Children Program and to those 
on relief would be voucher payments, not cash. 

2. All able-bodied men on relief would be required to work 
a forty-hour week. 

3. Those who were physically capable and were offered gain- 
ful employment and refused it would not be eligible for re- 

4. Mothers of illegitimate children on ADC should they have 
another illegitimate child, would no longer be eligible for 

6 42 United States Code, Sec. 606. 

7 U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Public Assistance, 1962 (Wash- 
ington: Government Printing Office, 1962), p. 2. 


5. Those who quit their jobs voluntarily are not eligible for 

6. The allotment for a family on relief shall not be more than 
the salary of the lowest paid city employee with a compar- 
able sized family. 

7. All families new to the city who apply for relief must show 
that they have prospects for employment (as do immigrants 
to the United States). Any who do not have such prospects 
are limited to one week's relief, and those who have are 
limited to three weeks relief. 

8. Aid to persons except the aged, the disabled and the blind 
is limited to three months in any one year. 

9. All persons (except the above mentioned) must report monthly 
to the department of public welfare for a conference re- 
garding their case. 

10. The welfare budget established for a year shall not be ex- 
ceeded without approval of the city council. 

11. There will be a monthly category budget limit to welfare 

12. All ADC cases will be examined prior to payments. In any 
family which does not provide beneficial atmosphere for a 
child, the child shall be put in a foster home. 

13. ADC cases were to be reviewed each month. 

Discussion within Congress and throughout the country was con- 
cerned with two questions: 1) Was Newburgh right in what it was doing? 
Did it have the right approach to welfare? 2) In our federal system could 
Newburgh do what it wanted with welfare in Newburgh? If it could not, 
who could? who would? what would they do? and when? 

8 U. S., Congressional Record, 88th Cong., 1st Sess., 1963, CVII, Part 1, A. 5184. 


The federal government's program in welfare began in 1935 with 
the Social Security Act. Since that time, if a state wishes to have a wel- 
fare program throughout the state, an acceptable procedure of adminis- 
tering welfare, and of deciding who is eligible for welfare, and of pre- 
venting fraud, the federal government will supply 50 per cent of the 
administrative costs of such welfare and, depending on the financial 
status of a state and the extent of the welfare program in the state, 80 
per cent of the dollar costs. '^ In the areas of welfare with which this 
paper is concerned, the federal government does not set a dollar mini- 
mum for a state program. In June, 1962, average monthly payments 
per recipient on Aid to Dependent Children ranged from $9.15 in Mis- 
sissippi to $47.52 in New Jersey. The national average was $31.48.''^ 
The monthly payment is set by the state. However, the nature of the 
federal participation in welfare, in the act itself and in several rulings 
by the federal agency, has substantially prevented attempts by the states 
to experiment with the scope and the philosophy of their welfare policies. 
Two states, Missouri and Pennsylvania, had to have passed through 
Congress special bills to accommodate the welfare programs in their 
states.^' When Newburgh instituted its program, the state of New York 
stood to lose $210 million dollars in federal welfare grants. 12 

To recapitulate, after July 15, 1961, the balance of state and nation- 
al governmental authority and responsibility for action, perhaps that 
which we can call the nature of federalism in public welfare, stood thusly : 
payments to recipients and the administration of welfare rested with the 
several states. The philosophy, the extent, the possibility for experi- 
ment and reform rested in the federal program. That which bound the 
two together was the power of the federal grant-m-aid dollar. This paper 
will show that the political pressures for greater flexibility within the 
states coupled with a desire for reform in the welfare program itself 
spread from New York to the whole nation, that this pressure as it en- 
larged in scope created a situation wherein the government of the whole 
people had to act, and to show that this political activity changed the 
balance of federalism in this area of governmental responsibility. 

On June 23, 1961, Mrs. St. George spoke to the Congress in favor 
of the action taken in her district. "With a great deal of pride I call at- 

9 42 U. S. C, Sec. 602. 42 U. S. C, Sec. 603. 

10 Public Assistance in 1962, p. 74. 

n U. S., Congressional Record. 87th Cong., 2nd Sess., 1962, CVI, Part 2, 4270. 

12 Ibid., 1st Sess., 1961, CVI, Part 1, 15415. 


tention to the lead editorial in today's New York Daily News, 'From 
Welfare to Work — Newburgers Get Tough.' If more communities would 
take the attitude of assuming responsibility themselves, this country 
would be a lot stronger." i^ On July 12 she spoke of "the many laudi- 
tory articles that have been appearing all over the country in praise of 
this city's efforts to reform our welfare laws."'"* In the interim such 
articles as The Chicago Daily News\ "Bites the Hand that Feeds," were 
introduced to Congress. This particular one said, in part: 

Get back in line, play the game, get America moving again. Don't 
bite the hand that feeds you or you'll find it rammed down your 
throat. You can't secede from the welfare state. ^^ 

On June 28, Rep. Bruce Alger (R., Texas) introduced an article from 
the Wall Street Journal on Newburgh, "Obligation and Abuse. "'^ Sen- 
ator Strom Thurmond (D., S.C.) spoke against the growth of centraliza- 
tion, praised the action taken by Newburgh, and introduced two ed- 
itorials: "Lesson in Home Rule," from the Greenville (S.C.) Piedmont, 
and "Same Old Chant" from ihe Augusta [Go..) Journal. ^'^ July 12, Rep. 
John Ray (R., N.Y.) spoke for Newburgh and entered "Welfare War, 
Newburgh, N.Y. Fights to Trim Its Welfare Rolls," from the Wall Street 
Journal, i^ Then came a petition from the Declaration of Independence 
Committee of Nebraska through their Congressman speaking against 
federal intervention in the welfare program, i"* Senator Barry Goldwater 
made a speech in which he called on every city to follow the lead of 
Newburgh. IhtNew York Times called the whole thing a political foot- 
ball, and the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, Abraham 
Rubicott, issued a statement 

Believing as I do in the home rule principle, I am hopeful that in the 
future the responsibility for work relief and for all relief programs 

13 Ibid., p. A 4694. 

14 Ibid., p. A 5205. 

15 Ibid., p. 11370. 

16 Ibid., p. A 4930. 

17 Ibid., p. A 5149. 

18 Ibid., p. A 5196 and p. A 5197. 

19 Ibid., p. A 5975. 


will as far as possible be left to the individual community rather than 
be dictated by Washington. 20 

Articles showing the national concern with the costs of welfare 
kept coming into Congress. From Maine, from Ohio, from Kansas, from 
South Carolina,-' letters and articles and petitions appeared in the 
Congressional Record. 

In the latter part of August there were two relatively important 
speeches in Congress on Newburgh and on the problem Newburgh had 
raised. August 23, Senator Kenneth Keating (R., New York) spoke of 
the "unfortunate juxtaposition of the federal government in an area 
which traditionally has involved the locaUties," and introduced a reso- 
lution from the boards of supervisors of five counties which stood against 
the federal government's maximum control and the everpresent threat 
with loss of reimbursement. 22 Senator Humphrey spoke of his fears that 
Newburgh was not an attempt at administrative reform but an attempt 
to overthrow the whole welfare program. On December 11, Abraham. 
Ribicoff, Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare, announced a 
proposed change in welfare. This proposal, HR 10606, allowed states, 
if they wished, to use their federal money for work relief programs; it 
permitted them to move a child from a house they felt to be an unhealthy 
influence; and it permitted a certain number (five percent) of welfare 
payments to be made under a protective payment program whereby 
the state courts could establish a legal guardian for a child receiving 
A.D.C. money, and money would be disbursed to that guardian rather 
than to the child's mother. It provided for state experimentation with 
welfare programs by removing a prohibition on anything but a uniform 
program throughout the state. It also provided federal incentive to the 
states to develop training and service programs to get people off the 
rolls. 23 

On January 28, an NBC White Paper brought the Newburgh issue 
into the homes across the Nation. On February 11, Secretary Ribicoff 
wrote an article on HR 10606 for the This Week magazine, a Sunday 
supplement with a circulation of 14,270,753. On March 15, 1962, the 
House discussed and passed HR 10606. On June 20, the Bill was placed 

20 Ibid., p. 12818 

21 Ibid., pp. A 5653, 5827, 5855, and 6013. 

22 Ibid., p. 16654 and p. 16655. 

23 U. S., Congress, House, Public Welfare Amendments of 1962, 87th Congress, 2nd Ses- 
sion, 1962, H. R. 1414, sections 102-a, 108, 122, and 123. 


on the Senate calendar. Its process through the Senate was hampered 
by the Javits-Anderson Medicare amendment, but on July 17, without 
medicare. Senate action was sucessfuUy concluded. The bill went to 
a conference committee for a day and a half and on July 19, 1962, the 
report was accepted and the bill passed. 

Newburgh's action most certainly brought welfare to the public 
eye and the public told Congress that it wanted action. In the ten-year 
period preceding Newburgh there had been amendments to the Social 
Security Act, but there had been no reform. The amendments served 
to extend the scope and the dollar amount of coverage. They cost the 
states and the federal government more money. In effect, they involved 
the federal government more deeply in the states' welfare program. 
In the past, however, there was no major national impetus for change. 
Proposed amendments lingered from Congress to Congress. Not many 
bills were introduced. Not many people spoke to the issue. Congress 
did not receive many letters, or memorials. Not many people were in- 
terested enough to be vocal. In the ten-year period preceding Newburgh 
there were only thirteen articles on public welfare published in period- 
icals in the United States. The largest number of these were published 
in the specialized journals and magazines which claim a circulation of 
less than one million. From 1956 to 1960 there were but nine newspaper 
and magazine articles specifically concerned with child welfare entered 
in the Congressional Record. Although welfare was a national program, 
the who, the why and how of welfare was not a national issue. All this 
changed with Newburgh. In the later period, just a little over a year 
in duration, the total number of articles jumped to forty-three, a 331 
percent increase. In the previous ten-year period eight periodicals car- 
ried welfare articles, whereas in 1961-1962, twenty-three magazines 
printed welfare articles and ten of these claim circulation of over one 
million. ^'^ 

An examination of the Congressional Record provides another 
helpful index to the concern of the nation on welfare after Newburgh 
as compared with the preceding five years. Figure 1 is a comparison of 
material on child welfare and relief in the Record from 1956 to 1962 
in seven categories: Addresses made to Congress, newspaper and per- 
iodical articles entered in the Record, bills introduced in Congress, 
letters received by Congress, resolutions and Memorials from State 
Legislatures, and statements received from interested parties. Even with- 

24 From Ulrich's Peridical Directory, ed. Eileen C Graves (10th ed.; New York: R. R. 
Bowker Co., 1963). 


out being able to weigh the relative importance of the various bits of 
data, one can note the tremendous increase after Newburgh. Clearly, 
the country had become politically interested. The scope and the free- 
dom from state activity on welfare had become an issue and the Con- 
gress was called upon to change the existing Federal-State relationship. 





Addresses to Congress, 

Newspaper or Periodical articles printed 
in the Congressional Record 

Bills introduced in Congress 
Letters sent to Congress. 

40 ^^^ Remarks in Congress. 

Resolutions or Memorials sent to Congress 
Statements to Congress. 

25 U. S., Congressional Record, Index: CI, Part 11; CII, Part 12; CIII, Part 13; CIV, Part 
16; CV, Part 16; CVI, Part 15; CVII, Part 17. The comparison is of the Second Session of 
the 84'th, the 85'th and the 86'th and 87'th Congresses 1956-1962. 


It is difficult to determine the position of the poHtical parties on 
welfare. H. R. 10606 passed the House on a roll call vote of 320 yeas 
to 69 nays, 47 not voting. The Democrats definitely voted for the bill, 
317 yeas to 3 nays. The Republicans also voted for the bill, but with far 
less degree of party cohesion. The Republican vote was 96 yeas to 66 
nays. Republicans in the House moved to recommit the bill to commit- 
tee and offered an amendment. Both parties displayed a strong sense 
of internal cohesion on this motion to recommit. The Democrats voted 
223 to 11 to defeat the motion and the Republicans voted 214 to 3 to 
pass. 2^ An analysis of the Republican amendment brings to light that 
which can most properly be called the minority position on the whole 
welfare program. The Republicans were in favor of the intent of the 
bill. They objected to two major portions: an increase in the amount 
of money that Congress would give to the states, and an increase in the 
percent of federal money to state money in the matching grants. The 
bill raised the dollar amount that the states could get from the Federal 
government by a total of $140 million. It did not insist that this money 
be passed directly on to the welfare recipient. The Republicans believed 
the states would use this money for their existing programs, thereby re- 
ducing the state percentage of the cost. The minority report said that 
such a "windfall" was most unadvised with the budget out of balance 
and the national debt climbing over $300 billion. 

The second, and for the purpose of this paper the most important, 
objection was to the new percentage of federal participation in the 
grants-in-aid. As reported by the Senate Committee on Finance, the 
bill would increase federal sharing to 75 percent of administrative costs 
if a state would institute a rehabilitation and training program for the 
welfare clients. As extra incentive, it proposed reducing the federal 
participation to 25 per cent of total administrative costs if a state would 
not institute such a program. 27 The Republicans felt this added incen- 
tive created more pressure on the states to conform to the federal policy, 
and that this new money would further indebt the already unbalanced 
budget. 28 Very few Republicans accepted the position that welfare 
was strictly charity, and it properly belonged to the churches and the 
neighbors in the local community. -"^ Apparently, the thesis that there 

26 Congressional Quarterly, XX (1962), 466. 

27 U. S., Congress, Senate, Committee on Finance, Public Welfare Amendments of 1962, 
87th Cong.. 3rd Sess., 1962, H. Rept. 10606, p. 7. 

28 House Report, H. R. 10606, p. 82. 

29 Ibid., p. 85. 


is a substantial degree of federal responsibility for public welfare is 
not an issue which the parties are willing to contest. 

When the House Republicans saw that they could not reduce the 
dollar amount that the Federal Government was going to spend, they 
voted to pass the bill. The Republicans in the Senate also offered amend- 
ments to the dollar amounts of Federal spending, but when an amend- 
ment removed a penalty clause which would reduce federal participation 
to 25 per cent, the bill passed the Senate without a roll call vote. 

Newburgh raised questions which appealed to the nation. How 
could a city protect the money it was paying to its welfare clients? What 
were they to do with the able-bodied, unemployed on relief? How were 
they to protect the children from immoral and unhealthy homes? What 
could be done to reduce this evergrowing cost of welfare? When New- 
burgh tried to answer these questions it found that its way was blocked 
by the national government. The issue Newburgh raised was not restrict- 
ed to an upstate city in New York. It struck a sympathetic note all a- 
cross the country. It seemed to the people that the national government 
had overstepped its legitimate boundaries and had imposed an unhealthy 
limitation on authority of the states. Public desire for change became 
political pressure for reform. The provisions for public relief and child 
assistance which had grown as a project of the national government had 
placed the federal system in an "unbalanced" condition. H. R. 10606 
was proposed and passed to redress this state of unbalance. 

The issue of welfare, although it is only one of the areas of decision 
making substantially involving all levels of government, has strong local 
tradition and local responsibility. Yet in the case of Newburgh, a city 
found it had almost no room to move in opposition to a nationally estab- 
lished federal program. It was not that the national government ever 
forbad Newburgh to implement its program. It merely threatened the 
State of New York with a loss of $210 million dollars in welfare assis- 
tance. New York state was unwilling to face a loss one hundred times 
greater than Newburgh's entire operating budget; and, since a city is 
the child of the state, the state forbad the city's program. Had New- 
burgh been alone in its trouble with welfare, the whole matter would 
have ended when New York forbad Newburgh's action. Such was defi- 
nitely not the case. Newburgh's frustration generated nationwide in- 
terest and acted as a catalyst to crystalize nationwide dissatisfaction 
with the Social Security Act. Newburgh never was able to make law of 
its restrictive welfare policy, but its inability to change local welfare 
struck a sympathetic chord throughout the nation and ended ten years 
of failure in Social Security reform. 


The relationships of the different levels of government in a demo- 
cratic federal union must be that which the people feel to be legitimate. 
When the people feel that the system is out of balance, they will try to 
change it and this change will be reflected in and affected by their po- 
litical activity. 






The Dutch Constitution stipulates that education is a subject of 
constant care and attention to the government. In each Education Act 
since 1848 it was stated that a sufficient number of pubHc schools must 
be maintained and that all children have the right to attend these schools, 
irrespective of their religion. 

Socio-historic Determinants of Educational Organizations 

The present organization of the Dutch schools is largely the result 
of a century-long controversy between church and state over the con- 
trol of schools. The result was the inclusion in the Constitution of a 
statement that "education is free;" that is, private schools may be es- 
tablished provided they meet legal requirements. The principle of sep- 
aration of state and church, which was adopted after the French Revolu- 
tion, also led to a separation of religion and schools. Public schools were 
seen as institutions which could be attended by all children, regardless 
of faith or denomination. This position was not acceptable to parents 
of Calvinistic and Roman Catholic denominations. The solution came in 
1920, when a new Education Act became law. Under this Act it was 
provided that private schools would be reimbursed from public funds 
at the same rate as pubHc schools. This privilege has been guarded 
jealously by Catholic and Protestant organizations and politicians ever 
since its enactment. 

Private schools may be established if a school board can guarantee 
that a sufficient number of children will be in attendance. The school 
board is not necessarily a representation of the parents, but of the mem- 
bership. Public schools are established by governmental administrative 
units, most often the county or city, and governed by the county or city 
board. Public schools are non-religious in the sense that no specific 
religious teaching may be presented in the classroom by the teachers. 

*Professor of Education, Agricultural University, Netherlands. 
**Professor of Education, West Georgia College. 


However, most public schools have certain hours set aside which may 
be utilized by local ministers of the church to teach religion to those 
children whose parents desire such instruction. Proponents of the pri- 
vate schools usually claim that public schools are "neutral," while their 
own instruction is permeated by the religious principles to which they 
adhere. Dutch school systems have no attendance areas and no public 
transportation of pupils. The parents are free to select any school they 
wish for their children, which often results in the attendance of school 
in the proximity of the residence. 

By and large it may be said that the role of the national government 
is restricted to legislation and inspection. The inspectorate, established 
by the national government, makes sure that a certain quality is main- 
tained in education and that legal provisions are met by public as well 
as private schools. Furthermore, they play an advisory role in the nomi- 
nation of teachers and principals. Quite often inspectors spearhead in- 
novations in instruction or in curriculum development, and provide a 
motivating force for the progressive teacher. 

The Dutch do not have comprehensive high schools. Consequently, 
one finds different school types, each with a function of its own, and 
quite often serving a specific population of pupils. In all school types 
there is great emphasis on formal knowledge. 

To the American, Dutch schools are rather small in size. Table 1 
gives an idea of what is considered a "small" or a "large" school in the 




Total No. 

100 pupils 



300 pupils 

of Schools 

or less 



and over 















Roman Catholic 






Non -denominational 













Compulsory School Attendance 

Prior to 1950 compulsory school attendance was required for a 
period of at least six years. Children entered the elementary school in 
their sixth year of age and stayed in school till their twelfth or thirteenth 
birthday. In 1950 compulsory attendance was changed to eight years. 
Pupils must leave the elementary school at the end of the school year 
in which they reach their fifteenth birthday. Since most elementary 
schools did not change their six-year attendance pattern when the new 
law became effective in 1968, the students needed to complete two more 
required years of schooling elsewhere. Prior to 1968 they had a great 
variety of schools from which, to choose. The simplest form was a two 
year school for general education which was really a continuation of the 
elementary school. For those who wished to continue their education 
there were many options. Most school categories at the secondary level 
were separate entities, which compelled the student to choose a career 
in his 12th or 13th year of age. Change from one category to another 
was very difficult and caused considerable loss of time. Special educa- 
tion for exceptional children was not included in elementary or secon- 
dary education, but given in separate schools. 

Grouping and Curriculum 

The structure of the lesson plans, the courses of study and the 
curricula in the Dutch educational system leave little time for subjects 
such as physical education, arts and crafts. Few Dutch schools have 
special teachers for such subjects. Thus, the classroom teacher is re- 
sponsible for all subjects. Since the admission to the elementary school 
and the various stages of progress throughout the period of compulsory 
instruction are based on chronological age, there is no differentiation 
according to individual abilities. The value attached to knowledge makes 
heterogeneous grouping a hazardous undertaking. But each year a very 
significant number of pupils cannot pass to the next grade. The reten- 
tion problem is therefore a perennial one. Because classrooms are self- 
contained, it is impossible to have students pass one subject and fail 
one or two others. Consequently, a student who has to repeat a grade, 
must take all subjects again for the whole year. There is no need to elab- 
orate on the undesirable educational aspects of this practice. How seri- 
ous a problem this constitutes, may be seen from Table 2. 
































































Dutch teachers have carried on a long tradition of assisting pupils 
who have difficulties in hours after school time, quite often without 
remuneration. Generous as this attitude may be, it cannot hide the seri- 
ous problems of those pupils who fail their classes. 

New Trends in Teaching 

Ever since the Pedagogical Sciences in the universities of the Nether- 
lands began to develop in the 1930's, there has been a gradual but per- 
sistent trend toward improvement in teaching. This is most evident in 
a subject like reading, where it has become rather habitual to divide 
classes into small groups of pupils who have approximately equal read- 
ing achievement levels, so that more able students can advance at a 
faster rate than less able students. The teacher moves from group to 
group and certain students play the roles of group leaders. Efforts toward 
a more individualized type of instruction in arithmetic have resulted in 
adding enrichment materials to the already existing methods. Accelera- 


tion for very able students, though not unknown, is not a commonly 
used strategy. More and more, basic readers and arithmetic books offer 
tasks at different achievement levels simultaneously, so that the teacher 
can utilize the type of grouping mentioned above. 

As far as the legal provisions allow, it may be said that Dutch teachers 
make indeed an effort to meet the purposes of education, which are 
described in the Education Act as the acquisition of basic knowledge, 
of technical skills, and of positive social dispositions necessary in a 
modern society. 

However, the difficulties experienced in trying to meet these goals 
of education have motivated teachers to demand more freedom in in- 
struction and improved legislation. These problems were particularly 
felt by secondary educators. The various categories of secondary schools 
which gradually came into existence in the last one hundred years during 
the transition from an agricultural economy to a modern technological 
society appeared completely inadequate for modern needs. 

Edu ca tio nal Legisla tio n 

Taking the year 1920 as a base line, no less than four different edu- 
cation acts prescribed the legal provisions for the Dutch educational 
organization. There was the Elementary Education Act mentioned 
above which became effective in 1920. One year earlier, in 1919, a law 
had been enacted which regulated vocational-technical instruction. The 
same Minister of Education who successfully introduced these two acts 
also proposed a new law replacing the Secondary Education Law of 
1863. However, this piece of legislation had a rough road ahead of it. 
It was revised in 1924, withdrawn in 1927, replaced by another one in 
1928, which again was revised in 1932, and finally completely withdrawn 
in 1937. A new effort was made in 1939, but the Dutch Parliament was 
not favorably inclined toward this effort. A plan in 1940 was interrupted 
by the second World War, and ultimately withdrawn in 1946. In 1947 a 
new proposal was prepared, but it did not even reach the Dutch Parlia- 
ment. Still another effort was made in 1952, to be withdrawn in 1958. 
And thus, the magical year 1967 arrived with a completely overhauled 
Secondary Education Act, which was accepted by the Dutch Parliament 
and went into effect in September, 1968. 

The fourth law regulated higher education; it appeared for the first 
time in 1876. This law, although amended from time to time, was still 
the legal basis for higher education in 1920. 


The practical problems stemming from such a diverse legislation 
were increased considerably because of overlapping functions of the 
various categories of educational institutions which were created to 
implement these laws. Prior to 1950, preparatory education for the 
Dutch universities fell under the Secondary Education Act. But the 
education of a student who continued in a three or four year school 
known as "extended elementary education," was determined by the 
Elementary Education Act. Since teachers were trained mostly for 
elementary and for extended elementary education, teacher training 
also came under the Elementary Education Act. A boy might wish to 
continue in a vocational-technical school; a girl might wish to continue 
in a two or four year's Home Economics School. Both schools fell under 
the Vocational-Technical Education Act. Or a student might wish to 
go on to an agricultural school, which was partly covered by the Voca- 
tional-Technical Act, but also had affiliations with the Ministry of Agri- 
culture. Each of these schools had its specific requirements for teachers 
and instructors, which led to a series of independent diplomas, all regu- 
lated by some type of national legislation, for which examinations were 
held once a year. These teaching diplomas guaranteed that the holder 
had adequate knowledge and understanding in a subject field to teach 
that subject or subjects in specific types of schools. Though the entrance 
examination required by the preparatory schools was meant to eliminate 
undesirable students from these rather difficult schools, it may be seen 
from the second part of table 2 that this examination by no means guar- 
anteed success in secondary schools. Only about 20 to 25% of the students 
completed the curricula in the prescribed number of years. It is there- 
fore not surprising that the teachers were dissatisfied with the organi- 
zation. In particular the transition from elementary to secondary schools 
was a subject of concern and study. It compelled many elementary 
schools containing the socio-economically more favorable groups of 
children to offer additional courses during the fifth and sixth year, so 
that these pupils could successfully pass the entrance examinations to 
the preparatory schools. These examinations covered such subjects as 
grammar, arithmetic, geography and history; quite often French was 
required, and sometimes English. Even if French and English were not 
required, these elementary schools would usually spend a good deal of 
time on one or both of these subjects, so that their students would ad- 
just better to the rigor of the preparatory schools. Many times it was 
suggested that these admission exams should be replaced by psycho- 
logical tests, but the Dutch teachers and legislators have resisted this 
trend successfully. It was in particular the dissatisfaction about the whole 
matter of transition from elementary to secondary education which led 
to the new legislation of secondary education. This new legal organiza- 


tion became possible under a new Secondary Education Act which is 
generally known as the "Mammoth Act." 

The New Organization of Secondary Education 

The most significant change in the organization is the institution 
of a seventh year which is known as the "bridge class." This is a tran- 
sitional year between the elementary and the secondary school, which 
will give the teachers an opportunity to observe and test all pupils in 
order to get a more valid process of selection for the categories of 
schools ahead. This implies that the old entrance examinations are no 
longer given. However, there is a more important impUcation. The 
"bridge classes" lead to two "families" or secondary schools. Although 
different categories of secondary schools are still maintained, it is now 
intended that there will be a close relationship between categories of a 
more or less similar nature, so that it will be possible to offer students 
a greater choice of study possibilities and a better chance to switch from 
one program of studies to another. Thus, instead of the entirely separate 
categories which used to abound in the Dutch secondary education sys- 
tem, one now finds one family of schools which could be labeled "practi- 
cal," in the sense that their curricula are geared toward professions and 
trades which require skills. The second family is more "theoretically" 
directed, in that their primary purpose is to provide a liberal arts edu- 
cation, either preparing the student for the university or for positions 
in society which demand a rather broad liberal arts preparation. Each 
family has a "bridge class," which has the same curriculum for the first 
year. After that year certain differentiations may take place. This en- 
ables the student to select the school type he prefers at the end of that 
"bridge" year. Intensive study of the student's accomplishments in the 
bridge class as well as the recommendation of the principal of the ele- 
mentary school which he attended, will help teachers in counseling their 
students as to what school types seem appropriate for him. In addition, 
the bridge classes will use testing programs in order to assist teacher 
and student in making decisions. Figure 1 illustrates the new organiza- 
tion; it may be well to enumerate the various categories and to discuss 
their functions briefly. 

Liberal Arts Schools 

In the family of liberal arts schools one finds first three categories 
preparing students for the university. For the benefit of the reader it 
may be noted that Dutch "universities" should be equated with "gradu- 
ate schools" in the United States. The three schools in this family are 
the gymnasium, the atheneum and the lyceum, all of which extend their 


curricula over a six year's period. The bridge year in this group includes 
instruction in the Dutch language and literature, in at least two, but 
usually three, modern languages (one of which must be French), in 
social sciences, mathematics and the physical sciences. Following this 
year, the gymnasium offers a heavy dose of the "classics," Latin and 
Greek. In addition, the students will continue to study subjects such as 
Dutch history, world history, and geography, mathematics, physics, 
chemistry, biology, three foreign languages and Dutch language and 
literature. Those students who desire to go into the ministry of the church 
take Hebrew from about the fourth school year on. The last two years of 
the gymnasium are divided into an alpha and beta curriculum. The alpha 
curriculum maintains heavy stress on Latin and Greek; the beta cur- 
riculum places emphasis on mathematics and the physical sciences. 
The atheneum differs from the gymnasium in that it stresses three modern 
languages in addition to Dutch language and literature, a heavy em- 
phasis on mathematics and physical sciences, but no classics. It dif- 
ferentiates the fifth and sixth year into an A and B curriculum. The 
A category emphasizes economic and social sciences, while the B cur- 
riculum stresses the study of mathematics and physical sciences. The 
lyceum is essentially a combination of the gymnasium and the atheneum 
is one school. (See figure 1 at end of article.) 

Why three different categories of schools to prepare students for 
entrance to the universities? The answer contains one set of determinants 
for the organization of secondary education. Dutch universities are 
organized in "faculties," which are the equivalents of the American 
"colleges" or "schools:" the faculties of theology, law, literature and 
philosophy, physical and mathematical sciences, and medicine. After 
the second World War some new faculties were added. Thus, one now 
finds in some universities a faculty for economic sciences, and some- 
times a faculty for the social and pedagogical sciences. The admission 
requirements for each of these faculties are different. A "classic" edu- 
cation is required for admission to the faculties of theology, law, and lit- 
erature and philosophy, but to physical and mathematical sciences and 
to medicine one may be admitted with the "modern*' as well as 
the "classic" curriculum. Furthermore, in agricultural and in technical 
sciences, which are organized in separate universities, one may be ad- 
mitted on the basis of either the classic (beta) or the modern (B) cur- 
riculum. Since the modern curriculum, up to 1968, extended over a 
period of five years while the classic curriculum lasted for six years, 
it is evident that most students who planned to go in the direction of 
medicine, agriculture, technical sciences, or the physical and mathe- 
matical sciences, took the fiv3 year's curriculum. By combining these 


curricula into one family ot schools there is now a much wider choice 
for the student, while a switch in study direction has become less costly. 
Undoubedly, this is ? considerable improvement over the previous 

The next division within the liberal arts program is the School for 
General Secondary Education. This school has a five-year's curriculum, 
entirely directed toward a liberal arts education. The function of the 
school may be compared with that of the bachelor's programs in liberal 
arts in the United States. At the same time this school also offers prepa- 
ration for higher technical and vocational training comparable to under- 
graduate or masters programs in U. S. schools of engineering, agricul- 
ture, social work, business administration, and teacher training. The 
liberal arts, school has a very flexible program, which allows for a great 
deal of combination of subjects and permits the student to gear the 
program toward his own interests and professional ambitions. 

Finally, this family mcludes the secondary school for General Con- 
tinued Education. This school has two different curricula, one for a 
four-year period and one for a three-year period. In function and char- 
acter, this school-type comes closest to the American hiah school. The 
school is not meant to provide preparation for professional purposes 
but to prepare the student for other courses and school types, such as 
technical schools with a two-or three-year curriculum, home economic 
and agricultural schools with a two-or three-year curriculum, schools 
for business administration and for economics and similar programs 
which are required in many of the functions of society. 

Vocational Schools 

The family of "practical" schools contains two categories. First, 
there is a two-year category which is simply a continuation of the ele- 
mentary school and intends to provide the student with an educational 
opportunity for completing his compulsory eight years of education. 
Second, and much more important, is the group of trade-and-vocational 
schools, which embraces three school types. First, there is the voca- 
tional-technical school, which, like its equivalent in the United States, 
intends to prepare skilled craftsmen. Second, there is a group of agri- 
cultural and home economics schools. These schools, directed to the 
needs of the farmer, the vegetable grower, and similar agricultural oc- 
cupations, usually have a four-year curriculum. Finally, there is a group 
of schools directed toward the administrative sector of society, pre- 
paring students for secretarial and managerial office positions. 


Societal Adaptation of Secondary Education 

In addition to a new organization there are other aspects which 
should be mentioned. These aspects reflect the sincere concern of the 
Dutch to better adapt the school system to the needs of a modern society. 
For instance, there is a new required subject in all secondary schools, 
equivalent to the arts and crafts courses of American high schools and 
colleges. Another required subject for the secondary schools is study 
of the most important institutions in society. It is clearly the intention 
that the problems ot such mstitutions as the family, the school, the youth 
group, the church, the community, the suburb, the county, the region, 
as well as international aspects such as the NATO, the UNO, UNICEF, 
the Peace Corps, be studied. Attention is given to some generalized 
problems, such as racial problems, colonialism, war and peace, and the 
like. In the discussions around these curricular innovations, the govern- 
ment clearly indicated that their thoughts went into the direction of 
instructional conferences, class discussions, case methods, and similar 
eclectic educational strategies. In addition, it was clear that the govern- 
ment hoped that schools would direct students to observe social situations 
in the field, gather data from reports and statistical publications, tele- 
vision and film programs, so that certain projects may be worked out. 
Another innovation in the secondary schools is the institution of guidance 
for the students, which did not exist other than in the form of informal 
contacts between students and teachers. One antiquated characteristic 
which remains in this new law is that the school period will be concluded 
with a comprehensive final examination. But even here the selection 
possibilities of subjects within each of the school types prevents the 
faculty from making this a uniform final examination. In fact, the Minis- 
ter of Education proposed that the subjects to be included in the final 
examination should not exceed six. This makes study in depth a real 


The Dutch government has made a concerted effort to break through 
the old traditions in secondary education. Certainly, under the new 
organization school types which had virtually nothing in common, are 
now able to consolidate their efforts. This can only be beneficial to the 
student. Undoubtedly, it also means an increased attention to individual 
differences among pupils. Furthermore, the law breathes a new aware- 
ness of social concern and expresses the desire to prepare students for 
a society whose dominant characteristic is rapid change. Finally, the new 
organization opens possibilities for an entirely different relationship 
between the instructor and the student. Rather than being the super- 


visor and inspector of all that the student produces, the instructor may 
develop into the partner who guides and supports the student. Whether 
the new organization will indeed bear these fruits cannot be predicted 
at this point. But it must be recognized that the Dutch government has 
taken a big step. It is up to the teaching profession to meet the challenge. 




(i\ IIIIKIsilllll 


l,\ C't'lllll 



l iu\eisii\ 

(iOiioi;il Sot()iul;ii\ 
i (.liK'Mlion 

C oiHiiuhhI 

higher 1 ;iiu 
Voc:ilionMl 1 1 :iii)iiiu 


1 ei iiiiiKil 1 



1 r:iinini; 





\ in.;ili()iKil Schools 


1 r:ulc Schools 
Business Schools 


I conomics 


( onliiuictl 
1 lemeiil;ii\ 
I iliicjtion 

Special I iliic.ilion 



Crijns, J. M., de Hey, W., Joosten, L. M. H., and Pelosi, E. De Mammoet 
Wet (The Mammoth Act). (Roosendaal; De Koepel, 1967). 

Idenburg, Ph. J. Schets van het Nederlandse Schoolwezen (Sketch of 
the Dutch Educational System). (Groningen; Wolters, 1964). 

Nederlandse Onderwijs Vereniging. Rapport: Nieuwe Onderwijsvormen 
voor Vij'f tot Dertien a Veertienjarigen (Dutch Teachers Associa- 
tion. Report: New Educational-Organizations for Children from 
Five to Fourteen). (Groningen; Wolters, 1966). 

Press and Publicity Department, Dutch Ministry of Education, Arts and 
Sciences. Bill for Regulating Continued Education. (The Hague, 
Ministry of Education, Arts and Sciences, 1960). 

Wiardi Beckman Stitching. Rapport: Structuurplan voor het Onderwijs. 
(Wiardi Beckman Foundation. Report: Plan for Educational Organ- 
ization). (Amsterdam; Wiardi Beckman, 1965). 




"Tis an ill wind that blows no good" is a saying that could be used 
to describe the inflation that is presently occurring. Many suffer from 
its cruel blast, but others receive windfalls from it. 

First, a rather simple definition of inflation. It occurs when the gen- 
eral price level is rising and thus the value of money is declining. There 
must be a reason for these price increases, and the most usual cause is 
an addition to the money supply without a corresponding increase in 
the amount of goods that can be bought. This is the classical case of 
"too much money chasing too few goods," or "demand-pull" inflation. 
Although there are other types of inflation, this is the most common 
type, and without it other types would eventually collapse. It is immedi- 
ately apparent who is hurt by this type of inflation, those on fixed in- 
comes, because their dollars buy fewer goods as prices to up. Whoever 
acquires the extra dollars has enhanced buying power, since his money 
income and his real income have both gone up. In this case the owner 
of the extra dollars in the market picked up the purchasing power for- 
feited by the person on a fixed income. 

Another case where one person's gain is exactly offset by another's 
loss is the debtor-creditor relationship. If inflation is underway, money 
that is borrowed has a higher value than the money that is repaid. Thus 
the debtor received dollars with more value than the depreciated dollars 
with which he repays the debt, and the creditor loses exactly the pur- 
chasing power gained by the debtor. When this happens, monev is per- 
forming imperfectly two of its desired functions, i.e., as a "standard of 
deferred payment" and as a "store of value." The latter means that one 
does not have to spend his wealth (money) immediately but can exercise 
the option later, trusting that it will not lose any of its value during the 

Now we examine a case where the reallocation of purchasing power 
is not haphazard, but deliberate. An Australian Economist, Colin Clark, 
in studying how governments get their income has come to the con- 
clusion that they will tax by inflation rather than levy a direct and rec- 
ognizable tax at some point. This point usually occurs when the govern- 
ment requires 20-25% of the National Income for government expendi- 
tures. Governments can levy this tax via inflation by virtue of the fact 
that they have the power to "create" money for their own use. A rather 
crude way would be to use a printing press (in the U.S. we still have 

*Assistant Professor of Economics, West Georgia College 


$322,539,016 of U.S. Notes or "Greenbacks'" in circulation that were 
created this way during the Civil War)' but a modern government with 
the aid of a Central Bank can do the same thing without being so ob- 
vious. The mechanics of how the money is brought into the economy 
need not concern us here, the results are the important thing, and the 
following example will illustrate this point. 

Imagine that the entire Gross National Product of a nation is sym- 
bolized by 100 units of production and cannot be increased for a period 
of four years. We will set the money supply at $100, making the price of 
each unit one dollar ($1.00). The first year there are no taxes, so the 
people can buy the entire output with their $100. The second year the 
government requires 20 units, so it imposes a direct tax of $20 and is 
able to purchase 20 units and the taxpayers buy the remaining 80 with 
their $80. The third year the government expands its programs and de- 
sires 30 more for a total of 50 units, so it imposes additional taxes of 
$30. The fourth year the government decides to forego so much open 
taxation, and uses inflation as a tax to acquire the additional purchasing 
power. By this method it simply "creates" an additional $60 which it 
adds to the $20 raised by taxes. This increased amount of money drives 
prices up to $1.60 per unit, which allows the people to buy 50 units with 
their $80 and the government buys 50 with its $80. Thus, whether the 
government removes purchasing power from the people by direct taxa- 
tion (3rd year), or indirectly through inflation (4th year), it achieves 
its goal. 
















People Gov't. 















80 20 








50 50 









50 50 

So far inflation has not influenced the level of production (in the 
above example production was held at 100 for all four years), it has 
simply redirected the ability to buy from one buyer to another buyer. 
We now examine another facet of inflation, that is its influence on en- 
couraging or discouraging production. This is very important to our 
economy, for ultimately our standard of living depends on our production 
of goods and services and their distribution. If rising prices calls forth 
greater production, then we should not only accept but welcome them, 
but if they cause a reduction in output, then we should avoid them. 

1 The 6-F Messenger, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, March, 1969, p. 8. 



Accepting an oversimplified Keynesian viewpoint that deflation in 
industrialized nations (with excess productive capacity), is caused by 
a lack of aggregate demand (total buying in all markets), then it is easy 
to see why some economists urge mild inflation to prod and stimulate 
buying. Saving by some income recipients may be the reason for the lag 
in buying, and inflation discourages saving and encourages spending 
for several reasons. The most obvious is that one would buy now to 
"beat the price rise" that is occurring. Another is that during inflation 
the "store of value" function of money is eroding and people tend to 
spend rather than save. People are also tempted to make marginal pur- 
chases or investments, depending on higher prices later to remedy any 
mistake in judgment that they might make. A quick look at the housing 
market today will verify this. People are buying houses that they con- 
sider overpriced, but are confident that inflation will protect the equity 
they have in their purchase, and probably even provide a profit if they 
should want to sell sometime in the future. Thus if increased spending 
(and decreased saving) calls forth additional production to satisfy ad- 
ditional demand, then a rather persuasive case can be made for a little 
inflation to stimulate this extra demand. 

It would appear that a slight and continuous price rise would be 
good if it could continually provoke this additional production. How- 
ever, over time, the stimulus of rising prices seems to weaken, and in- 
flation has to be stepped up to get the desired response in spending. 
When this happens, and inflation ceases to "creep" and begins to "leap", 
other problems arise, and production may well be curtailed rather than 
increased. In an advanced market society, much business is contracted 
for future delivery, and a fairly firm knowledge of future prices is es- 
sential for these contracts to be consummated. Stable prices are most 
favorable, but slight inflation at a steady rate can be tolerated. But when 
prices are sky-rocketing at unpredictable rates, then producers cannot 
make logical decisions. They then tend to become conservative and re- 
tard production, rather than engage in commitments that might prove 
disastrous. A clear example would be that if suppliers, uncertain of 
future prices, refuse to give Sears Roebuck & Co. firm prices on their 
goods, Sears would have to close out their catalog sales, since they in 
turn would be unable to guarantee delivery of goods at quoted prices 
by the time the catalog left the printers. Another side-effect of rapid 
inflation is that workers spend an inordinate amount of time in the mar- 
ket place, trying to unload their depreciating money, and buy any goods 
available in order to preserve their wealth. Time thus spent is diverted 
from work, and the production of goods and services is reduced. The 
collapse of the German economy after World War I serves as a hor- 
rendous example of how most production is halted by such hyper-inflation. 


What, then, can an individual do about inflation? Probably nothing 
other than taking whatever actions he can to conserve and protect his 
"real" income (actual buying power) or wealth. This is done by not put- 
ting capital in claims of fixed dollar amounts (bonds, debentures, etc.), 
but in "things" whose prices appreciate with the general price level (land, 
and most recently art objects, etc.). The worker without capital is in an 
exposed position and must depend on some form of "escalator clause" 
or continuous wage increase. 

If inflation is to be constrained, then it must be done by those who 
control monetary policy (The Federal Reserve System) and fiscal policy 
(federal government). The Federal Reserve System controls the size of 
the money supply (usually defined as currency outside of banks plus 
demand deposits) by its actions which allows or prevents the creation 
of demand deposits through commercial bank loans. This is the crucial 
point at which the number of dollars in the economy is influenced. 
But monetary control by the Federal Reserve System will be futile if 
the federal government persists in deficit spending that is financed by 
"created" money rather than borrowing accumulated savings. For in 
this case (as in the 4th yr.) the federal government with the help of the 
Federal Reserve System creates the extra money to finance the deficit, 
thereby causing prices to rise and the inflation to continue. This will 
probably be the trend for the immediate future because the federal 
government benefits from inflation in several ways. First, it is a tax that 
legislators can impose on their constituents without an actual tax bill. 
Second, because of the use of a progressive income tax, the tax revenue 
of the government is increased as prices and incomes go up. Third, as 
the price of real estate increases, owners of property who sell after 
several years of inflation realize large "paper" profits and these are 
subject to the capital gains tax. 

How long will inflation continue? No one knows, but surely it will 
go on as long as we demand programs from government, and yet refuse 
to finance them with direct, recognizable taxes. Under such circum- 
stances our legislators will continue to fulfill our demands, and finance 
them through the creation of money which is the basis of the inflation. 




Awarded in 1968 




The frequency with which the poems of Howard Nemerov are in- 
cluded in anthologies, the references to his work in critical commen- 
taries, and the numerous reviews of his volumes of poetry all attest to 
the fact that Howard Nemerov is a poet of considerable merit. However, 
no serious and detailed study of his poetry as a collected body of works 
has previously been made. Such a study is justified since reviews of 
single volumes are generally shallow and references to specific poems 
do not explain his encompassing themes. 


Nemerov's poems which most readily catch the reader's eye are of 
a satiric nature, and many of these poems make commentaries on modern 
society. In fact, one who reads all seven of his volumes of verse will 
find that poems of social commentary outnumber those on any other 
subject. In writing about modern society, he treats such traditional 
social subjects as war, politics, religion, education, and art. However, 
he is also concerned with issues which have special significance or em- 
phasis for his age, such as racial strife and the rapid growth of scientific 
and technological knowledge. 

Mr. Nemerov's own critical essays indicate that he assumes for him- 
self a didactic role as poet, and it is in the area of social criticism, an 
area in which his knowledge is apparently vast, that he is best able to 
fulfill his didactic fundtion. A central theme in Nemerov's work is one 
of disharmony between man and nature which results from modern man's 
inability to understand nature. The frequency of the social poem em- 
phasizes the fact that man is responsible for the disharmony. Conse- 
quently, the subjects most often treated critically are man-made in- 
stitutions or concepts which are, obviously, unnatural. Nature is, for 
Nemerov, the permanent reality in the world. Because he, like most 
poets, is concerned with the knowledge of reality, an understanding of 
his concept of nature is essential to an understanding of his encompas- 
sing social theme. 



Although Mark Twain's final artistic view of life was more pes- 
simistic than his earlier view, his determinism was merely a more ex- 
tended statement of a belief he had held since young manhood. Devel- 
oped through personal experience and his reading in science, Twain's 
early determinism influenced isolated passages in Innocents Abroad 
(1869) and Roughing It (1872). Deterministic ideas became prime agents 
of plot action in Pudd'nhead Wilson (1893). 


The three deterministic symbols which Twain used increasingly 
in his works after 1890 are the diminution of man, the dream life, and 
the mysterious stranger. One or more of these appear in "3,000 Years 
Among the Microbes," "The Great Dark," "Which Was the Dream?," 
"Which Was It?," and "Indiantown." The Mysterious Stranger, which 
at his death Twain left in three manuscript fragments, contains all three 
of the symbols. These fragments afford unique insight into his philoso- 
phy in the final stages of development. Herein is revealed Twain's hesita- 
tions between the view of complete determinism, which released one 
from personal responsibility, and the idea of the world as thought, of 
which the individual is the determining agent. 



The present study was designed to investigate the relationship 
between spelling ability and the personality dimension of repression- 
sensitization. It was hypothesized that sensitizers are better spellers 
than repressers. 

A group of 40 repressers and a group of 40 sensitizers were selected 
from a pool of 350 college undergraduates on the basis of scores re- 
ceived on the Byrne Repression-Sensitization Scale from the MMPI, 
and these S's were administered a spelling test. 

Analyses of covariance yielded significant Fs which indicated that 
the two groups differed significantly in spelling ability and that the dif- 
ference could not be accounted for by difference in intellectual ability 
or by sex differences. The results were in the hypothesized direction, 
and the experimental hypothesis was supported. 




This study attempts to define more precisely one of Shakespeare's 
early tragedies Romeo and Juliet, specifically, to isolate certain ele- 
ments within the play usually considered romantic, and to demonstrate 
that the presence of these elements helps to account for the most sig- 
nificant aspect of any work, its effect upon and meaning for an audi- 
ence then or now. Following the statement of such a purpose, the open- 
ing chapter is devoted to an examination of the problems involved in 
clearly establishing the genres: tragedy, romance, and— since in Renais- 
sance literature a definite affinity exists between the comic and the 

Chapter II develops the idea that while most Shakespearean tragic 
plots contain a mixture of the tragic, comic, and romantic, the plot of 
Romeo and Juliet is exceptional in that the comic and romantic elements 
are predominant. Not until Act III, with the deaths of Tybalt and Mer- 
cutio, does the play even vaguely tend toward the tragic. There are 
basically two reasons for the play's having more in common with ro- 
mantic comedy and romance than with tragedy. First, the subject is 
love and obstacles to love, the basis of most Shakespearean comedy 
and many medieval and Renaissance romances. Second, the structure 
of the plot is not like that of most tragedies; it lacks tragic inevitability. 
Two full acts are comic, and the outcome is due to chance, rather than 
to tragic cause and effect; therefore the structure of Romeo and Juliet 
has more in common with comedies and romances than it has with 

The third chapter is a discussion of the romantic as opposed to 
tragic character-types who populate the world of Romeo and Juliet. 
In the entire play there is no single character who can be labeled "tragic." 
Old Capulet, for example, as well as his counterpart Montague, appears 
as the hen-pecked husband from Roman comedy. The Nurse who figures 
prominently in the play is a stock character, the confidante of the mis- 
tress and intermediary between the lovers, from romance. Romeo fails 
to fulfill the role of tragic hero not only because he is, as lover, neces- 
sarily romantic but also because he is decidedly immature. Juliet, al- 


though wiser than Romeo, more nearly resembles the capable girls of 
Shakespeare's romantic comedies than a heroine of tragedy. 

The language and themes of Romeo and Juliet, analyzed in the final 
chapter, are both highly romantic. Petrarchan imagery, synonymous in 
Renaissance minds with romance, pervades the play: oxymoron and 
extended, elaborate metaphors of conceits to describe the lover's emo- 
tions and proclaim the beauty of the beloved abound. A permanence- 
mutability theme, often found in romance and productive of pathos, 
but not, however, of tragic awe and pity, constitutes a basic idea of the 
play. Finally, the ending of the play substitutes the note of irrecoverable 
loss identified as conventional to tragedy with the emphatically romantic 
consolation that love triumphs. 



The present study was designed to investigate the relationship 
between sexual arousal and food consumption. It was hypothesized 
that such a relationship existed. 

This hypothesis was tested at a small drive-in theater under two 
conditions: during the showing of routine motion pictures, and during 
the showing of pornographic motion pictures, on eleven Saturday nights. 
A z-test of proportions was used to test the relationship between con- 
cession stand food sales and admission ticket sales under the two con- 

The difference between the proportions proved to be statistically 
significant; the hypothesis was thus supported. 

Audience comments under the conditions investigated indicated a 
brief elation and hunger during the pornographic films, which were not 
noted during the showing of the routine motion pictures. 




The study investigated the interrelationship among measures of 
creativity, personaHty, and achievement of college freshmen enrolled 
in the freshman-level composition courses. Sixty-one students enrolled 
in an advanced composition course and 26 students enrolled in the 
second composition course were administered the Torrance Test of 
Creative Thinking and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. 
Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficients are reported for all 
variables. A Least-Squares Regression Analysis was employed to ex- 
amine the relationships of the creativity measures to English grade point 
average and cumulative grade point average at the end of the freshman 
year. This Profile Similarity Coefficient was utilized to test for signif- 
icant differences in personality profiles. There were no significant re- 
lationships found between measures of creativity and the English grade 
point averages or the cumulative grade point average. The personality 
factor of general intelligence (Factor B) proved to be significantly re- 
lated to both English grade point average and cumulative grade point 
average. The dominance factor (Factor E) correlated negatively with 
the cumulative grade point average of the advanced composition group 
at a statistically significant level. 


AS OF JANUARY 1, 1969 

Adams, James W. 

"The Role of Economics in Community Development." West Georgia 
College Studies in the Social Sciences, VII (June, 1968), 21-30. 

Ahn, Chee Soon 

"A Comparative Study of the Political Ideas of Two Contempory 
Theologians: Reinhold Niebuhr and Jacques Maritain." Unpub- 
lished PhD dissertation (government), Florida State University, 

Allison, Rosalie N. 

"Children's Concepts of Form and Color in Relationship to Selected 
Variables." Unpublished EdD dissertation (educational psychol- 
ogy). University of Georgia, 1964. 

Arons. Myron M. 

"Perte de la Notion du Temps," in Hors du Temps by M. Siffre. 
Paris: Rene Julliard, 1962. pp. 303-305. 

"Le Probleme de la Creative: Reaction dans la Psychologic Amer- 
icaine." Unpublished PhD dissertation (psychology), Sorbonne 
University, Paris, 1964. 

"Research and Legislation: Study of the Effects of Legislation on 
Drug Research in the U.S. and Canada." Paper read before 
Banking and Commerce Committee of the Canadian Senate. 
Official Publication #11, Ottawa: Senate of Canada, Novem- 
ber 22, 1967, pp. 53-64. 

"Drugs and Youth." C.F.C.Y. Radio Broadcast, Charlottetown, 
Prince Edward Island: March, 1968. 

"Outside — In." (producer) Ottawa: Film Board of Canada, 1968. 
(Winner 2nd prize at Canadian Film Festival for psychological 
experimental films) 

"Nailing Down the Windstorm." ylwm, I (1968), 2-6. 


"Talking to Ghosts." Paper read before Southeastern Psycholog- 
ical Association, New Orleans, La., February 28, 1969. 

"The Philosophy of Humanistic Psychology and the Structure of 
the Humanistic Psychology Program." Paper read before South- 
eastern Psychological Association, New Orleans, La., March 1, 

Austin, Roger S. 

"Mafic Intrusive Rocks of Southeast Elbert Country, Georgia." 
Geological Society of America Southeastern Section, Program 
Annual Meeting, 1966. p. 14. (Abstract) 

"A Stratigraphic Section in the Metamorphic Little River Group 
in East Central Georgia." Bulletin, Georgia Academy of Sci- 
ence, XXVII, no. 2, 1969. (Abstract) 

Barbero, Livia V. 

"The Free Transit of Bolivia." Unpublished PhD dissertation (in- 
ternational law), Sorbonne University, Paris, 1963. 

Bennett, Jan 

"Revolving Offense." Athletic Journal, XLVII (October, 1966), 
26, 54-55. 

"Fundamentals, A Must." Coach and Athlete, XXIX (December, 
1966), 28-29, 32. 

"Fundamentals." Beacon Falls Coaches' Digest (August, 1967), 
pp. 3-4, 49. 

Bisland, Cornelia E. 

"The Relationship of Reasons for Enrolling in an Effective Study 
Course to Self Concept." Unpublished EdD dissertation (edu- 
cation). University of Mississippi, 1967. 

Bowdre, Paul H. 

"Aspects of the Linguistic Approach to Reading." Paper read be- 
fore the Linguistics Institute, Mount St. Agnes College, Balti- 
more, December, 1968. 

"A Study of Eye Dialect." Unpublished PhD dissertation (English), 
University of Florida, 1964. 


"A Brief Look at Linguistics." Georgia English Counselor, XVII, 
no. 2 (November, 1968), 3-4. 

Boyd, Ernest L. 

"Critical Analysis of Persuasion Doctrine in the Fields of Adver- 
tising and of Speech, 1900-1953." Unpublished PhD dissertation 
(speech). Northwestern University, 1954. 

Boyd, Herman W. 

"The Decay of Iodine 132 and E 2 Conversion Coefficients in Sa- 
marium 152 and Xenon 132."' Unpublished PhD dissertation 
(physics), Vanderbilt University, 1964. 

Bryson. Jewell G. 

"The Effectiveness of an Individualized Mechanical Pacing Device, 
the Strong-Pacer, in College Typewriting." Unpublished EdD 
dissertation (education). University of Tennessee, 1965. 

"Mechanical Pacing Devices Used in Typewriting." Georgia Busi- 
ness Education Association Armchair Bulletin (Fall, 1968), 
pp. 9-11. 

"Learning Principles Tested in Business Education." Accepted 
for publication by Georgia Business Education Association 
Armchair Bulletin (Winter, 1969). 

Bryson, Thomas A. 

"Woodrow Wilson, the Senate, Public Opinion and Armenian Man- 
date Question, 1919-1920." Unpublished PhD dissertation (his- 
tory). University of Georgia, 1965. 

"The Ironies of a Georgia Gubernatorial Race," The DeKalb Lit- 
erary Arts Journal, I (Spring, 1967), 22-21 . 

"Admiral Mark Lambert Bristol: His Influence on the Armenian 
Mandate Question." The Armenian Review, XXI (Winter, 1968), 


"The Tsarist and Soviet Siberian Exile System: A Comparison and 
a Continuum." The DeKalb Literary Arts Journal. II (Spring, 
1968), 25-31. 


"An American Mandate for Armenia: A Link in British Near East 
Policy." The Armenian Review, XXI, (Summer, 1968), 23-41. 

"Woodrow Wilson and the Armenian Mandate: A Reassessment." 
The Armenian Review, XXI, (Autumn, 1968), 10-28. 

"John Sharpe Williams: An Advocate for Armenia." Accepted 
for publication by Journal of Mississippi History. 

Bunting, Kenneth E. 

"The Poetry of Juan Boscan." Unpublished PhD dissertation (Ro- 
mance languages), University of North Carolina, 1966. 

Burbage, Jr., Jesse S. 

"Some Aspects of the Effects of the Minimum Program Fund in the 
State of Alabama." Unpublished EdD dissertation (education), 
University of Alabama, 1963. 

Byars, Harry S. 

"Early French Influence on Choctaw Subsistence Patterns." Paper 
read before the Georgia Sociological and Anthropological As- 
sociation, Atlanta, October, 1967. 

"Negro Self-Esteem in a Transitional Society." The Personnel and 
Guidance Journal, XLVII, no. 2 (October, 1968), 120-125. 

"The Effect of Academic Integration on the Self-Esteem of South- 
ern Negro Students." Accepted for publication by Journal of 
Social Psychology. 

Caplan, James R. 

"The Relationship between the Content of Short Essays on a Sub- 
ject and Associations to that Subject: More on Knowledge." 
With W. S. Verplanck, W. N. Jennings and R. L. Krueger. Paper 
read before the Psychonomics Society, St. Ix)uis, October, 1966. 

"Associations and Connected Discourse: Further Results." With 
W. S. Verplanck, F. Brown, R. Fleischer, and J. Shelnutt. Paper 
read before the Psychonomics Society, St. Lx)uis, October, 1967. 

"The Relationship between Strength of Verbal Associates, Their 
Occurrence in Connected Discourse, and the Rigor of Classifi- 


cation of Associates." Paper read before the Southeastern Psy- 
chological Association, Roanoke, Va., April, 1968. 

Chandler, Donald G. 

"A Study of the Differential Responses of Young Adults within 
the Church to Customary Approaches and Conditions of Strate- 
gic Leniency in Leadership Education." Unpublished PhD dis- 
sertation (sociology), Emory University. 1967. 

Clarke, George W. 

"The Unionist Party and Tariff Reform: 1903-1906." Unpublished 
PhD dissertation (history), University of North Carolina, 1964. 

Cleere, William R. 

"A Comparative Analysis of Selected Psychological and Educa- 
tional Characteristics of State Teacher Scholarship Recipients." 
Unpublished EdD dissertation (guidance and counselling). Uni- 
versity of Georgia, 1967. 

Coe, Robert M. 

"A Comparative Analysis of the Music Programs of Selected Teach- 
er's Colleges, Liberal Arts Colleges and State Universities and 
the Rating of These Programs by Public School Music Teachers." 
Unpublished EdD dissertation (music), Colorado State College, 

Coffeen, Richard O. 

"An Evaluation of Certain Factors Relating to the Qualification of 
Elementary School Principals in Selected School Districts 
throughout the United States." Unpublished EdD dissertation 
(elementary education). Auburn University, 1961. 

Coker, Homer 

"An Investigation of the Effects of a Cross-age Tutorial Program 
on Achievement and Attitudes of 7th Grade and 11th Grade 
Students." Unpublished EdD dissertation (education). Univer- 
sity of South Carohna, 1968. 

"Restoration and Innovation: Alabamians Adjust to Defeat, 1865- 
1867." Unpublished PhD dissertation (history). University of 


Alabama, 1968. Accepted for publication by Lousiana State 
University Press. 

Corriere, Alex 

"French Tragedy, 1800-1850." Unpublished PhD dissertation (Ro- 
mance languages). University of North Carolina, 1954. 

"Alexandre Soumet, Minor Dramatist of the Early Nineteenth Cen- 
tury." Kentucky Foreign Language Quarterly, IX, no. 4 (1962), 

"Pierre LeBrun's Adaptation of La Estrella De Sevilla."" Xavier 
University Studies, III, no. 1 (March, 1964), 11-18. 

Crawford, Thomas J. 

"Geology of Part of Indian Mountain, Polk County, Georgia, and 
Cherokee County, Alabama: Georgia Geological Survey." 
Georgia Mineral Newsletter, X, no. 2 (1957), 39-51. 

"Compilation of Coal and Petroleum Production Data for Ken- 
tucky." Kentucky Geological Survey Report. Inv. 1, ser. 10. 

"Preliminary Oil and Gas Map of Taylor County, Kentucky." With 
D. J. Jones and Edmund Nosow. Kentucky Geological Survev, 

"Oil and Gas Map of LaRue County, Kentucky." Kentucky Geo- 
logical Survey, 1959. 

"High-silica Sandstone and Conglomerate on Pine Mountain near 
Elkhorn City, Kentucky." With Preston McGrain. Kentucky 
Geological Survey Information Circular, no. 1, ser. 10, 1959. 

"High-silica Sands in Calloway and Carlisle Counties, Kentucky." 
With Preston McGrain. Kentucky Geological Survey Informa- 
tion Circular, no. 2, ser. 10, 1959. 

"A Physiographic and Stratigraphic Profile in Kentucky — Lexing- 
ton to the Mammoth Cave Region." With Preston McGrain. 
Kentucky Geological Survey, 1969. (Guidebook for Southeastern 
Section GSA 1960 Field Excursion) 

"Oil and Gas, and Subsurface Structure Map of Halls Gap Quad- 
rangle, Lincoln County, Kentucky." Kentucky Geological Sur- 
vey, 1962. 


"Porcellanous Halloysite Beneath the New Albany Shale in Lin- 
coln County, Kentucky." With Preston McGrain. Geological 
Society of America, Special Paper 76, 1963, pp. 241-242. (Ab- 

"Exploration for Mineral Deposits in Habersham County, Georgia." 
With Vernon J. Hurst. Department of Geology, University of 
Georgia, 1964, p. 180. 

"The Danburg Granite." With L. D. Ramspott. Georgia Academy 
of Science Bulletin, XXVIII, no. 2, (1965). (Abstract) 

"Extrusive Volcanics and Associated Dike Swarms in Central-East 
Georgia." With V. J. Hurst and L. D. Ramspott. Guidebook 
for Southeastern Section Geological Society of America, Geol- 
ogy Department, University of Georgia, 1966. 

"Mineral Resources of the Central Savannah River Area." Vols. I 
and II. With Vernon J. Hurst and John Sandy. Geology Depart- 
ment, University of Georgia, 1966. 

"Geologic Map, Glascock County, Georgia." With John Sandy. 
Central Savannah River Area Planning and Development Com- 
mission and Geology Department, University of Georgia, 1968. 

"Geologic Map, Burke County, Georgia." With John Sandy and 
Willis A. Holland. Central Savannah River Area Planning and 
Development Commission and Geology Department, University 
of Georgia, 1968. 

"Geologic Map, Columbia County, Georgia." Central Savannah 
River Area Planning and Development Commission and Geol- 
ogy Department, University of Georgia, 1968. 

"Geologic Map, Lincoln County, Georgia." Central Savannah River 
Area Planning and Development Commission and Geology 
Department, University of Georgia, 1968. 

"Geologic Map, McDuffie County, Georgia." Central Savannah 
River Area Planning and Development Commission and Geol- 
ogy Department, University of Georgia, 1968. 

"Geologic Map, Taliaferro County, Georgia." Central Savannah 
River Area Planning and Development Commission and Geol- 
ogy Department, University of Georgia, 1968. 


"Geologic Map, Warren County, Georgia." Central Savannah River 
Area Planning and Development Commission and Geology 
Department, University of Georgia, 1968. 

"Geologic Map, Wilkes County, Georgia." Central Savannah River 
Area Planning and Development Commission and Geology 
Department, University of Georgia, 1968. 

Daniel, Leonard R. 

"The Effect of Pressures Below One Atmosphere on the Perfor- 
mance of a Packed Column." Unpublished PhD dissertation 
(chemical engineering), Georgia Institute of Technology, 1952. 

DeHoop, Wietse 

"Effects and Interaction of Speaking Rate, Visual Limitation and 
Intelligence Level on Aural Acquisition and Retention of Sen- 
tences." Unpublished EdD dissertation (special education), 
University of Georgia, 1965. 

"Hoe Moet Research-Literatuur Beoordeeld Worden?" Pedagogisch 
Forum, II (1968), 295-296. 

DeVillier, J. Lincoln 

"The Effects on Comprehension of Selected Variations in Organiza- 
tion and Physical Presentation of Administrative Communica- 
tions." Unpublished PhD dissertation (management and market- 
ing), Louisiana State University, 1967. 

De Villie r, Ma ry Anne 

"Stardust." Southern Literary Festival Journal, XV (1959), 13-33. 

"The Related Imageries of King Lear."" Southern Literary Festival 
Journal, XV (1959), 47-60. 

"Procedures and Techniques Effective in the Teaching of Com- 
position." Paper read before Louisiana Council of Teachers 
of English, Hammond, La., October, 1965. 

Diestel, Joseph 

"A Prototype Selection System for the Optimal Choice of an In- 
strument Package." With S. B. Rosen and R. M. Barnes. Tech- 
nical Operations Research NAS 12-515 (September, 1967). 


"Orlicz Spaces of Lebesgue-Bochner Measurable Functions and 
the Representation of Linear and Multilinear Operators on 
Such Spaces to Any Banach Space." Unpublished PhD disserta- 
tion (mathematics), Cathohc University of America, 1968. 

"Generalized Lebesgue-Bochner Integral for Orlicz Spaces." With 
W. M. Bogdanowicz and V. Zander. Notices of American Math- 
ematical Society, XV (October, 1968), 918. 

"On the Representation of Operations into Bochner Spaces." Paper 
read before Annual Meeting of American Mathematical Society, 
Eugene, Ore., January, 1969. 

"Representation of Bounded Linear Operators from a Banach Space 
into an Lp-Space of Lebesgue-Bochner Measurable Functions." 
Accepted for publication by Bulletin of Academy of Polish 

Doxey, William S., Jr. 

"The Poetry and Early Prose of Ernest Hemingway." Paper read 
before Tennessee Philological Society, Murfreesboro, Tenn., 

"Concerning Fortunado's 'Courtesy.'" Studies in Short Fiction, 
IV (Spring, 1967), 266. 

"The Future and Dr. Love." Motive, XXVIII (October, 1967), back 

Kwashiorkor. Play produced in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, No- 
vember, 1967. 

"Tell it to Gath." Readers & Writers, I (Nov.-Jan., 1968), 18-23. 

"The Racer." Southwest Review, LII (Winter, 1968), 46-55. 

"SailingyVestward.''' DeKalb Literary Arts Journal, II (Spring, 1968), 

"Love by the Books." Matinee, V (March-May, 1968), 10-13. 

"William Blake, James Basire, and the Philosophical Transactions: 
an Unexplored Source of Blake's Scientific Thought?" Bulletin 
of the New York Public Library, LXXII (April, 1968), 252-260. 

"In the Days of Joseph." Cimarron Review, I (June, 1968), 52-66. 


"The Gentle Way." Accepted for publication by Broadside. 

"The Quality of Love." Accepted for publication by Michigan Quar- 
terly Review. 

"William G. Simms' The Yamassee."" Accepted for publication by 
the Emerson Quarterly Review. 

DuQuette, Alfred 

"The Analogue of the Pisot Vijayaraghavan Numbers in Fields of 
Formal Power Series." Unpublished PhD dissertation (mathe- 
matics), University of Colorado, 1960. 

Ess linger, William G. 

"Conformational Effects on Reactions at Exocydic Positions of 
Cycloalkylcarbinyl Derivatives." Unpublished PhD dissertation 
(chemistry), University of Alabama, 1966. 

"Kinetics of Reactions of Methylenecycloalkane Oxides with Thio- 
sulfate Ion in Aqueous Ethanol." Accepted for publication by 
Journal of Organic Chemistry. 

Frank, Harry 

"Community Development in West Georgia: An Introductory Note," 
West Georgia College Studies in the Social Sciences, VII (June, 
1968), 3-7. 

Finnie, Gordon E. 

"The Antislavery Movement in the South, 1787-1836: Its Rise and 
Decline and Its Contribution to Abolitionism in the West." 
Unpublished PhD dissertation (history), Duke University, 1962. 

Fitz-Simons, Theodore B. 

"History's Relation to Sociology and Community Development." 
West Georgia College Studies in the Social Sciences, VII (June, 
1968), 60-72. 

Flanagan, W. Malcolm 

Problems Unique to the Rehabilition of the Psychiatric Patient. 
Revised edition. Edited with Brockman Schumacher. St. Louis: 


St. Louis State Hospital, 1963. (Printed with assistance from 
Smith, Kline, and French Laboratories) 

"The Counselor in the Hospital Setting," in Problems Unique to 
the Rehabilitation of the Psychiatric Patient. 

"Strengthing Controls in Acting Out-Patients," in Problems Unique 
to the Rehabilitation of the Psychiatric Patient. 

A Rehabilitation Facility in Transition: A Case History of the St. 
Louis Half-Way House. Edited with Robert Meuther. St. Louis: 
The Mental Health Association of St. Louis, 1965. 

"Ordinary and Ideal Preceptions of Students' Rights by Students, 
Faculty, and Student Personnel Workers." Unpublished EdD 
dissertation (psychology). University of Mississippi, 1967. 

Freeman, Bernice 

"Georgia Short Stories: A Collection with a Critical Introduction 
Giving the Modern Regional Approach to Literature." Unpub- 
lished EdD dissertation (teaching of Enghsh), Teachers College 
of Columbia University, 1952. 

"Teaching Form and Organization to Elementary School Children." 
Classroom Practices in Teaching English. Champaign, Illinois: 
National Council of Teachers of English, 1968. 

Gardner, Arthur W. 

"A Study of the Breeding Behavior of the Ewe." Unpublished PhD 
dissertation (genetics), Kansas State University, 1956. 

Garmon, Gerald M. 

"On the Origin and Evolution of Language." Aspects, II (1963), 

"Continuity of Eighteenth-Century Realism." Paper read before 
The English Hour, Auburn University, April, 1967. 

"William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury.'' The Explicator, 
Item 6 (September, 1967). 

"Existentialism and Modern Drama." Paper read before West Geor- 
gia College English Faculty Club, February, 1968. 


"Development of Tragic-Realism in English Literature, 1720-1820." 
Unpublished PhD dissertation (English), Auburn University, 

"Mirror Imagery in The Sound and the Fury-'' Notes on Mississippi 
Writers, II, no. 1 (Spring, 1969), 13-24." 

"Theodore Roethke's 'Open House.'" Accepted for publication by 
The Explicator. 

Garmon, Lucille B. 

"Experimental Studies of the Electrodeposition of Metals in Nar- 
row Crevices." With H. Leidheiser. Technical Proceedings of 
the American Electroplaters' Society, XLVI (1959), 50-60. 

"Electron Microscope Studies of Thin Nickel Electrodeposits on 
Copper Single Crystals." Virginia Journal of Science, XI (1960), 

"The Structure of Thin Films of Nickel Prepared by Electrodeposi- 
tion onto Copper Single Crystals." With K. R. Lawless and H. 
Leidheiser. Proceedings of European Regional Conference on 
Electron Microscopy. Delft, Holland: 1960, pp. 396-399. 

"Studies of the Electrodeposition of Metals in Narrow Crevices." 
With H. Leidheiser. Plating, XLVIII (1961), 1003-1012. 

"Transmission Electron Microscopy of Electrodeposits of Nickel 
on Copper." With K. R. Lawless. Proceedings of Fifth Inter- 
national Congress for Electron Microscopy. Boston: Academic 
Press, 1962, pp. 100-107. 

"Formation and Epitoxy of Nickel Oxide on Nickel." Published 
PhD dissertation (chemistry). University of Virginia, 1966. 

"Electron Diffraction." Paper read before Southeast Electron Mi- 
croscopy Society, Auburn University, December, 1967. 

Gott, Prentice 

"Selected Factors Associated with the Success or Failure of School 
Bond Issue Campaigns in Kentucky." Unpublished EdD dis- 
sertation (education), Peabody College for Teachers, 1962. 

"Desegregation and the Curriculum," in School Desegregation, 
Educational Change and Georgia. Athens: Georgia Association 


for Supervision and Curriculum Development and School De- 
segregation, Education Center, University of Georgia, 1968. 
pp. 39-50. 

Griffin, J. David 

"Savannah, Georgia, During the Civil War." Unpublished PhD 
dissertation (history). University of Georgia, 1963. 

Review of Plantation Slavery in Georgia, by Ralph Betts Randers. 
Georgia Historical Quarterly (March, 1968), pp. 101-102. 

"Medical Assistance for the Sick Poor in Antebellum Savannah." 
Accepted for publication by Georgia Historical Review. 

Guy, Marjorie P. 

"Study of the Earnings of Member Banks of the Federal Reserve 
System, 1927-1937." Unpublished PhD dissertation (economics), 
Ohio State University, 1941. 

Statistical Abstract of Ohio. Columbus: Ohio Department of In- 
dustrial and Economic Development, 1960. 

Ohio Population: Growth and Development, 1950-1960. Columbus: 
Ohio Department of Industrial and Economic Development 
and Miami University, 1961. 

Ohio Population: Growth and Development, by County, 1803-1960. 
Columbus: Ohio Department of Health, 1963. 

Annual Reports. Columbus: Ohio Department of Health, 1954-1959. 

Hahn, Hwa S. 

"On the Relative Growth of Differences of Partition Functions." 
Unpublished PhD dissertation (mathematics). University of 
Illinois, 1961. 

"On a Sum of Sets of Natural Numbers and Integers." West Geor- 
gia College Review, I (May, 1968), 39-51. 

"On a Conjecture of Fekete." Journal of Korean Mathematics 
Society, V (November, 1968), 13-16. 


Higgins, David J. 

"Possibility in Peirce and Heidegger: A Propaedeutic for Syn- 
thesis." Unpublished PhD dissertation (philosophy), Uni- 
versity of Missouri, 1968. 

Huck, Eugene R. 

"Colombian-United States Commercial Relations 1821-1850." 
Unpublished PhD dissertation (history). University of Alabama, 

(ed.) West Georgia College Studies in the Social Sciences, VI 
(1967), -. 

(ed.) West Georgia College Review, I (1968), — . 
Jewell, Jack L. 

"Practical Contribution of Geography to Local Planning." West 
Georgia College Studies in the Social Sciences, VII (June, 
1968), 38-42. 

"Geographic Factors of Office Building Location." West Georgia 
College Review, I (May, 1968), 16-27. 

Kennedy, W. Benjamin 

"French Projects for the Invasion of Ireland, 1796-1798." Un- 
published PhD dissertation (history). University of Georgia, 

Lampton, Robert K. 

"Development and Experimental Morphology of the Ovule and 
Seed of Asimina Triloba Dunal." Unpublished PhD disserta- 
tion (botany). University of Michigan, 1952. 

Lightsey, Tom J. 

"Reactions of Georgia School Board Members and Superinten- 
dents to the Role of the Superintendent." Unpublished EdD 
dissertation (educational administration). University of Geor- 
gia, 1964. 

"The Role of Education in Community Development." West 
Georgia College Studies in the Social Sciences, VIII (June, 
1968), 43-48. 


Lim, Hy Sop 

Study on Social Stratification of Korean Traditional Society 
(Ti dynasty). Seoul, Korea: Seoul National University Library, 

Lockhart, William L. 

"Rate Studies: Part I. Kinetics of the Teriodate Oxidation of Glycol 
Esters of Ortho-Telluric Acid: Part II. Kenetics of Decomposi- 
tion of the Fluorosulfate ion in Aqueous Solution: Part III: 
Decoposition of the Hexafluoroarsenate Ion in Acidic Solu- 
tions." Unpublished PhD dissertation (chemistry), Vander- 
bilt University, 1967. 

Maclean, John 

"Symphony In Memoriam." Unpublished DMus dissertation (music), 
Indiana University, 1968. 

Maples, William P. 

"The IntramoUuscan Stages of Dasymetra Confera Nicoll, 1911." 
Unpublished PhD dissertation (zoology). University of Georgia, 

Martin, Georgia 

"Differences in Evaluation of College Climate between Freshman 
and Senior Women." Unpublished EdD dissertation (student 
personnel), University of Georgia, 1966. 

Martin, John M. 

"William R. King: Southern Moderate." Unpublished PhD disserta- 
tion (history). University of North Carolina, 1955. 

"The Early Career of Gabriel Moore." The Alabama Historical 
Quarterly, XIX (Fall and Winter, 1967), 89-105. 

"Atticus G. Haygood: Social Critic of the New South." West Geor- 
gia College Review, I (May, 1968), 28-38. 

(ed.) West Georgia College Studies in the Social Sciences, I- VI 


Mathews, James W. 

"Hawthorne and Howells: The Middle Way in American Fiction." 
UnpubHshed PhD dissertation (English), University of Ten- 
nessee, 1960. 

"Antinomianism in 'Young Goodman Brown.'" in A Source Book 
on Young Goodman Brown. Edited by Thomas E. Connolly. 
Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merril Co., 1969. 

Mathis, L. Doyle 

"The Role of Government in Community Development." West 
Georgia College Studies in the Social Sciences, VII (June, 1968), 

McCutcheon, Stephen C. 

"Trends in Financial Aid Services to College Freshmen." South 
Carolina Guidance News, XIV (November, 1965), 10-11. 

"The Role of Institutional Research in Long Range Planning in 
Colleges and Universities." Paper read to the Tenth Annual 
Information and Development Workshop, Indiana University, 
June, 1968. 

"Seven Ways to Distinguish Comprehensive Planning from Other 
Institutional Management Functions." College and University 
Business, XLVI (February, 1969), 42-46. 

McMichael, Charles T. 

"Aldous Huxley's Island: The Final Vision." Studies in the Literary 
Imagination, I, no. 2 (October, 1968), 73-82. 

McTeer, John H. 

"The Relationship of Principal-Teacher Likeness to the Principal's 
Rating of Teachers." Unpublished EdD dissertation (higher 
education), University of Florida, 1963. 

Medlin, Jack H. 

"Petrography of Rocks of Northeast Greene Country, Georgia." 
Academy of Science Bulletin, XXII, no. 2 (April, 1964), 21. 
(Abstract ) 


'Geology and Mineral Resources of the Bethesda Church Area, 
Greene County, Georgia." With V. J. Hurst. Georgia Depart- 
ment of Mines, Mining and Geology: Information Circular 35. 

'Comparative Petrology of Two Igneous Complexes in the South 
Carolina Piedmont." Unpublished PhD dissertation (geology), 
Pennsylvania State University, 1968. 

'Geologic Map of Jefferson County, Georgia." With J. Sandy. Cen- 
tral Savannah River Area Planning and Development Com- 
mission and Geology Department, University of Georgia, 1968. 

'Mineralogy and Petrology of the Buffalo Mafic Igneous Complex, 
Union Co., S.C." With G. P. Thornton and D^. P. Gold. Paper 
read before Southeast Geological Society Association Con- 
vention, Raleigh, N.C., April, 1968. 

'Petrology of Two Mafic Igneous Complexes in the South Carolina 
Piedmont." Paper read before SEGSA Convention, Columbia, 
S.C, April, 1969. 

'Atomic Absorption Analysis of Silicates Employing LiBO? Fusion " 
With N. H. Suhr and J. B. Bodkin. Atomic Absorption News- 
letter, VIII, no. 2 (Spring, 1969), 25-29. 

'Investigation into Increasing the Precision of a Rotating Disk- 
Solution Technique for the Analysis of Silicates." With C. W. 
Ondrick and N. H. Suhr. Accepted for publication Applied 

Meehan, Virginia 

"English Propaganda Tracts and North American Colonization." 
Paper read before National Convention of Phi Alpha Theta 
(History honorary), Williamsburg, Va., December, 1958. 

"Cleopatra: Queen, Household Dove and Second Spirit." Paper 
read before Faculty Lecture Series, Columbus College, Novem- 
ber, 1965. 

"Christopher Marlowe, Poet and Playwright: Studies in Poetical 
Method." Unpublished PhD dissertation (English), University 
of Rorida, 1966. 


"Festival's Faculty 'International.'" Sunday Magazine, Columbus 
Ledger, April 16, 1967, pp. 18-19. 

"Macbird and Modern Satire." Paper read before English Faculty 
Club, West Georgia College, March, 1968. 

"Walk-in Restaurant," "Temporary Run-Around." and "More on 
Totalled." Accepted for publication by American Speech. 

Miller, J. Mark 

"Consideration of Selected Environmental Factors Which Affect 
Managerial Decision Making." Unpublished PhD dissertation 
(business administration), Louisiana State University. 1964. 

"The Role of Good Communication in People Management," and 
"The Psychology of Good Communication." Papers read be- 
fore the Columbus Area Personnel Association Workshop, 
Columbus College, April, 1968. 

"A Rationale for Community Development" West Georgia College 
Studies in the Social Sciences, VII (June, 1968), 8-12. 

Miller, Robert 

"Sense and Transcendence. A Study in the Language Philosophy of 
Johann Georg Hamann." Unpublished PhD dissertation (philo- 
sophy), Tulane University, 1966. 

Mixon, Val 

"Merits of Unicameralism." Georgia County Government Magazine 

(December, 1966), pp. 11-12. 
"Power Called Key to Merger." The Atlanta Journal, January 13, 

1968, 2A. 

Moore, Henry 

"Effects of Fear-Arousing Communications on Driving Safety At- 
titudes and Driving Behavior." Unpublished PhD dissertation 
(psychology). University of Florida, 1965. 

"A 'Scientific' Attempt to Study Phenomenon Dowsing." Paper 
read before the Southeastern Psychological Association Meet- 
ing, New Orleans, February, 1969. 


Moore, W. Glenn 

"Economic Coercion as a Policy of the United States, 1794-1805." 
Unpublished PhD dissertation (economics), University of Ala- 
bama, 1967. 

"Why Clad Coins?" West Georgia College Review, I (May, 1968), 

"Recent Progress in Economic Education." Georgia Business Edu- 
cation Association Armchair Bulletin (Winter, 1969), pp. 19-22. 

Morehead, Marcus B. 

"A New Use of the Kendall rho Rank Correlation Coefficient (Non- 
Parametric)." i^acw/^i'PwZ?//ca?/on5 (Appalachian State Teachers 
College), XLIV, no.' 4 (April, 1966), 73-84. 

"Antiscientism, Evolution, and the Future of Man." Faculty Pub- 
lications, XLIV, no. 4 (April, 1966), 91-95. 

"Taxonomy and Ecology of Recent Foraminifera from Neuse River, 
Pamlico Sound, Core Sound, North Carolina." Unpublished 
PhD dissertation (geology). University of North Carolina, 1967. 

"Observations on the Distribution of In-shore Foraminifera as a 
Possible Key toward a More Accurate Phylogeny." Accepted to 
be read before the Georgia Academy of Science. 

Morgan, Lucretia P. 

"The Influence of Byron on Villiers de I'lsle-Adam." Unpublished 
PhD dissertation (comparative literature). University of Georgia, 

Mykkeltvedt, Roald Y. 

"The Selective Incorporation of the Bill of Rights: XIV Admend- 
ment. Due Process and the Procedural Rights." Unpublished 
PhD dissertation (government) University of Florida, 1966. 

Neb left, Lucy A. 

"Valores Positivos y Negativos del Teatro Romantico Espanol." 
Unpublished PhD dissertation (Romance languages). Inter 
American University, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, 1963. 


Nix, Alice P. 

"An Evaluation of the Contributions of Four Selected Personality 
Factors to the Prediction of First Quarter Grades of University 
of Georgia Freshmen in Selected Curricular Areas." Unpublish- 
ed EdD dissertation (education), University of Georgia, 1959. 

Novell, Lemuel 

"The Cuckold in Restoration Comedy." Unpublished PhD disserta- 
tion (English), Florida State University, 1962. 

Parsons, Fred 

"The Community as a Social System." West Georgia College Studies 
in the Social Sciences, VII (June, 1968), 49-54. 

Paulk, Jr., Lee 

"The Relationship Among Fifth Grade Students' Perceptions of 
Their Achievement and Teachers' Perceptions of Students' 
Achievement after a Standardized Testing Program and In- 
service Training." Unpublished EdD dissertation (education), 
University of Georgia, 1968. 

Penz, Eric H. 

"Der Zeitroman in Gottfried Keller's 'Martin Salander.'" Unpub- 
lished PhD dissertation (philosophy). University of Frankfort, 

"The Position of Gottfried Keller in German Literature." State 
Publication of the M.L.A. (Nebraska) (Apr., 1967). 

"Der Deutsche Realismus, Soziologisch Gesehen." Shadow (May, 

Pershing, John J. 

"Evaluation of Student Personnel Program at Georgia Institute of 
Technology." Unpublished EdD dissertation (education), In- 
diana University, 1952. 

Pittman, Chatty 

"Paracompactness and Ordered Spaces." Unpublished PhD dis- 
sertation (mathematics). University of Georgia, 1965. 


Pope, Hughlan W. 

"The Swamping Catalyst Effect in Bromination of Aromatic Car- 
bonyl Compounds." Unpublished PhD dissertation (chemistry), 
Vanderbilt University, 1957. 

Porter, Dwain 

"Morphogenetic Migration of the Buccal Cavity of Paramecium 
Arureha Studied by Means of Compression." UnpubUshed PhD 
dissertation (biology), Emory University, 1962. 

Powell, Bobby E. 

"Higher Order Isothermal Elastic Constants." Unpublished PhD 
dissertation (physics), Clemson University, 1967. 

"Measurement of Higher-Order Elastic Constants." Physical Re- 
view, CLXXIV (October 15, 1968), 977-983. 

Reynolds. Robert C. 

"The Operation of Destiny in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar.'' Un- 
published PhD dissertation (English), University of Florida, 

Roberts, Elmo 

"The South and United States Foreign Policy, 1933-1952." Unpub- 
lished PhD dissertation (history), University of Chicago, 1954. 

Scott, Carole E. 

"An Urban Nation with Sick Cities: Typical or Atypical?" Atlanta 
Economic Review (Hereafter yi^"/?), XV (August, 1965), 6. Also 
in Georgia County Government Magazine (March, 1969), p. 43. 

"Revolution in a Generation: The Rebirth of a Region." AER, XV 
(September, 1965), 17. 

"Southeastern Corner: Southeastern Cities: Typical or Atypical?" 
AER, XV (October, 1965), 19. 

"Southeastern Corner: Manufacturing — South vs. North." AER, 
XV (November, 1965), 19. 


'Revolution in a Generation: Increasing Skills of Manufacturing 
Workers Presage Secondary Development." AER, XV (Decem- 
ber, 1965), 6. 

'Creeping Socialism, Fact or Fancy?" AER, XVI (January, 1966), 

'Are the Mills Going to Head West?" AER, XVI (April, 1966), 9. 

'New Life in an Old Industry." AER, XVI (February, 1966), 10. 

'Why a New Cotton Program? The Subsidy Syndrome" AER, XVI 
(February, 1966), 11. 

'News from the Desk" (3 articles) AER, XVI (March, June, July, 

'Automation: Friend or FoqT AER, XVI (May, 1966), 5. 

'A Matter of Reality." Analog (September, 1966), p. 37. 

'Georgia State Begins New Business Administration Building." 
AER, XVI (May, 1966), 6. 

'Outside Employment More Important to Southern Farmer." AER, 
XVI (July, 1966), 16. 

'The Roller Coaster Effect in Louisiana." Monthly Review (Here- 
after M/?), (Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta) (September, 1966). 

'Mississippi Pauses to Enjoy Its Gains." MR (December, 1966). 

'Georgia's Climb Runs into Air Pockets." MR (March, 1967). 

'Tennessee Comes Out Ahead." MR (May, 1967). 

'Atlanta Business Activity." AER, XVII (October, 1967), 15. 

'La Revolution Economicade Mexico." yl£'i?, XVII (October, 1967), 

'Georgia in 1977." AER, XVIII (February, 1968), 16. 

'States Employ Different Formulas for Growth." AER, XVIII (Au- 
gust, 1968), 12. 

'State vs. State." AER, XVIII (March, 1968), 9. 

"Major Cities Fail to Fit Stereotypes." AER, XVIII (September, 
1968), 13. 

Sills, Thomas W. 

"The Effect of Classroom Observations on Teacher Satisfaction 
and on the Teacher's Perception of the Supervising Principal." 
Unpublished EdD dissertation (education), Colorado State 
College, 1960. 

Stewart, Horace 

"A Study of the Relationship between Certain Personality Measures 
and Hallucinoidal Visual Imagery." Unpublished PhD disserta- 
tion (psychology), University of Florida, 1962. 

"Kindling of Hope in the Disadvantaged: A Study of the Afro- Amer- 
ican Healer." and "E.S.P. Aspects of the Afro- American Healer." 
Papers read before the Southeastern Psychological Association 
Convention, New Orleans, 1969. 

Talukdar, Asgar A. 

"Agricultural Marketing Problems in East Pakistan," Enterprise 
(Decca, Pakistan) (May 16, 1955). 

"Cooperative Marketing of Farm Produce in East Pakistan." Paper 
read before Training Program, Organized for the Field Office of 
the Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan. 

"An Evaluation of Marketing in Pakistan." Unpublished PhD dis- 
sertation (economics). University of Florida, 1969. 

Thomas, James D. 

"An Assessment of Some Psychological Factors Involved in Brain 
Injuries." Unpublished PhD dissertation (counseling). Univer- 
sity of Indiana, 1962. 

Varnado, Jewel G. 

Approximately one hundred children's stories published in various 

Highschool English Worktexts, 1, 2, 3, 4. Austin, Texas: Steck- 
Vaughn Co., 1960-1962. 

English Essentials. Austin: Steck-Vaughn Co., 1962. 


Basic Science for Adults, 1, 2. Austin: Steck- Vaughn Co., 1963- 

Basic Adult Education (Pilot Program). Washington, D.C.: Govern- 
ment Printing Office, 1965. 

English for Adults, 1, 2, 3. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 

"Methods and Materials in Adult Education." Unpublished EdD 
dissertation (adult education), Florida State University, 1967. 

Learning Our Language, 7, 2. Austin: Steck- Vaughn Co., 1967-1968. 

Viclias. Robert P. 

"External Financing of the Nicaraguan Development Experiment." 
Unpublished PhD dissertation (economics) University of Flori- 
da, 1967. 

Walker, George W. 

"The Personal and Literary Relationships of Sir Walter Scott and 
James Fenimore Cooper."" Unpublished PhD dissertation 
(English), University of North Carolina, 1950. 

"The Treatment of Spelling in Freshman Composition." Paper read 
before the English Section of the Georgia Association of Junior 
Colleges, Macon, October, 1957. 

"Modern Short Stories." A 15 week series over ETV Station, Au- 
burn University, Alabama, 1958. 

"Literary and Other Subjects."" A Weekly radio program, WLBB 
Radio, Carrollton, 1958. 

"The Use of Controlled Research Materials in Freshman English." 
Paper read before the South Atlantic Modern Language Associa- 
tion, August, 1958. Abstract in The South Atlantic Bulletin, 
XXIV (January, 1959), 7-8. 

"The Dean of Students and the Academic Dean: A Partnership 
in Academic Advising."" Paper read before Conference for Univer- 
sity System of Georgia Student Personnel Workers, Atlanta, 
July, 1963. 

(ed.) Institutional Self Study, West Georgia College, 1963. 


'Some Administrative Problems Connected with a Five- Year and/ 
or a Fifth- Year Pre-Service Program for Teachers in Georgia." 
Paper read before the general session of the Georgia Council 
for Teacher Education, Athens, April, 1967. 

"Grading Practices in the University System." A study presented 
at the Council of Academic Deans, Atlanta, April, 1967. 

'The Academic Budget." Paper read before the University System 
of Georgia Conference of Academic, Administrative, and Per- 
sonnel Deans, Atlanta. October, 1967. 

'Admission and Exclusion Policies for Transfer Students in the 
University System." A study presented at the Council of Aca- 
demic Deans, Atlanta, October, 1968. 

'Protection against Capricious and Prejudical Evaluation." Paper 
read before the Second Annual Conference of Academic and 
Personnel Deans, and Vice-Presidents, the University System of 
Georgia, Atlanta, August, 1968. 

Walker, Warren A. 

"Does the Businessman Have a Vested Interest in Community De- 
velopment." West Georgia College Studies in the Social Sciences. 
VII (June, 1968). 31-37. 

Wash, James A.. Jr. 

"An Experiment in the use of Programed Materials in Teaching High 
School Chemistry." Unpublished EdD dissertation, (psychology). 
University of Georgia, 1964. 

Welch, Robert M. 

"A Developmental Analysis of the Lethal Mutant 1 (2) gl of Drosoph- 
ila Melanogaster Based on Cytophotometric Determination of 
Nuclear Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Content." Unpublished 
PhD dissertation (zoology), University of Texas, 1936. 

"A Cytochemical Analysis of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and 
Protein in Salivary Gland and Gut of the Lethal Mutant Igl of 
D. melanogaster.'" With K. Resch. The University of Texas 
Publication 6818 (1968), pp. 49-70. 


"DNA and Protein in the Mouse Growtii Mutant Pygmy." Paper 
read before the Genetics Society of America, Boston, November, 
1968. Abstract in Genetics, LX. 236. 

West. Larry E. 

"A Descriptive Analysis of the Prose Word Order of Das Heiligen- 
leben by Hermann von Fritzlar." Unpublished PhD dissertation 
(German). Vanderbilt University. 1969. 

Whittemore, Kenneth R. 

"The Local Community and Mental Health." West Georgia College 
Studies in the Social Sciences, VII (June, 1968), 55-59. 

Zander, Vernon E. 

"The Generalization of the Fubini-Jessen Theorem to Orlicz Spaces 
of Bouhner Measurable Functions with Applications to the 
Infinitely-linear Vectorial Integral." Unpublished PhD disserta- 
tion (mathematics). Catholic University of America, Washington, 
D. C, 1968. 

"Infinite Products of Probability Volume Spaces." With Witold 
Bogdanowicz. Paper read before the American Mathematical 
Society, Madison, Wisconsin, August, 1968. 

"A Fubini-Jessen Theorem for the Generalized Lebesgue-Bochner 
Integral." With Witold Bogdanowicz. Paper read before the 
American Mathematical Society, Baltimore, Md., October, 

"Generalized Lebesque-Bochner Integral for Orlicz Spaces." With 
Witold Bogdonowicz and Joseph Diestel. American Mathe- 
matical Society Notices, XV (October, 1968), 906. 



Volume II November, 1969 Number 2 

Published By 


A Division of the University System of Georgia 




James E. Boyd, President 

George W. Walker, Vice-President 

John M. Martin, Dean 

Faculty Research Committee 

Floyd L. Blanton Carole E. Scott 

Herman W. Boyd Robert P. Vichas 

James W. Mathews James A. Wash, Jr. 

L. Doyle Mathis Robert M. Welch 

Eugene R. Huck, Chairman and Editor 
Gerald M. Garmon and William L. Lockhart, Assistant Editors 

The purpose of this publication is to provide encourage- 
ment for faculty research and to make available results of 
such activity. 

The Review, published annually, accepts original scholarly 
work and creative writing presented on the authority of the 
author. West Georgia College assumes no responsibility for 
contributors' views. The style guide is Kate L. Turabian, A 
Manual for Writers. Although the Review is primarily a 
medium for the faculty of West Georgia College, other sources 
are invited. 

An annual bibliography includes doctoral dissertations, 
items in print or accepted for publication, recitals, art objects, 
all in chronological listing. Papers, theses and all items 
known to be "in progress" are not listed. The annual bibliog- 
raphy includes comprehensive listings for those who are being 
cited for the first time. The ultimate purpose of this inventory, 
which appears as the first number in any year, is to record 
accomplishments and encourage further research leading to 


Vol. II, No. 2 November, 1969 





Is College English Relevant? 

By Darwin T. Turner 3 

Do You Know the Score? 

By William L. Lockhart and William G. Esslinger 16 

Hugh Henry Brackenridge: Thoughts and Acts of a 
Moderate Democrat 

By W. Benjamin Kennedy 26 

Power Structure of Democratic Groups and Its Changes 

By Hwa S. Hahn 39 

Naturalism and The Damnation of Theron Ware 

By Gerald M. Garmon 44 

Reading of Underachieving Gifted Children 

By Wietse DeHoop 52 

Copyright © 1969 by 
West Georgia College 

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used or 
reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written per- 
mission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in 
critical articles and reviews. For information address the Dean 
of the College, West Georgia College, Carrollton, Georgia, 

Printed in the United States of America 



If anyone wanted to charge English teachers with irrele- 
vance, all he would need to do is to take note of any profes- 
sional meeting. The wise people of the world spend Saturday 
mornings making money, making love, recovering from hang- 
overs and bad trips, preparing for football and baseball games, 
cleaning house, sleeping, or merely lounging. But many English 
professors travel hundreds of miles to discuss the teaching of 
English. How irrelevant can one be? 

English teachers need to be asking themselves whether 
or not we are relevant; for this charge is one of the most ego- 
shattering which students, teaching assistants, and legislators 
can spit at the be-spattered head of a teacher. Communist, 
atheist, racist — even these abusive epithets at least suggest 
that the teacher has taken a positive stand, although a mis- 
guided one. But "irrelevant" conjures up the image of a wispy- 
haired lecturer droning into obsolesence, an Edsel of the 
human species. Therefore, professional associations through- 
out the nation are psychoanalyzing themselves to determine 
whether they should follow the lemmings to the sea. A recent 
issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education announced that, 
in separate meetings, three different social science associations 
had concluded that they were not relevant. And this year, 
students have declared even the National Students Association 
to be irrelevant. 

But the charge of irrelevance is not new to the teacher of 
language and literature. In earlier days, when Lx)u Costello, 
Donald O'Connor, and Clark Gable were enrolling in Holly- 
wood's cinematically concocted colleges, there existed two 
popular images of English teachers— a nice but senile antiquity 
whom the president retained because he was harmless or a 
too suave, too charming boob, who recited poetry but never 

*Professor of English and Dean of the Graduate School, North Carolina 
A. and T. State University, Greensboro, North Carolina. 

won the fair lady. A few years later when Sputnik terrified 
American businessmen, members of the PTA, and the federal 
government, English courses seemed even less relevant to 
those concerned about higher education. "Who needs English 
to go to the moon?" asked the dolers of dollars. While Ameri- 
cans reverently placed funds on the altars of science and 
attended to the needs of foreign languages, the most that 
English teachers could anticipate was the continuous reminder 
that they could not teach Americans to read or write or an 
occasional encouragement from someone calling for a poet 
to interpret the age. Even this call seemed ironic, for many 
English teachers had conceded that people no longer read 
poetry. They merely hoped to preserve novels against the 
intrusion of television. As fears of Russian space control 
ended, the cult of novelty assumed control. Scientists led the 
way with their boasts that any textbook four years old was 
outdated. Then came new methods in foreign languages, new 
mathematics, new social sciences. English teachers desperately 
offered new criticism, new rhetoric, and new linguistics. Un- 
fortunately, the first two proved not so new, and many linguists, 
as soon as they became famous, seemed to deny any affiliation 
with English teachers. Surveying the history of attitudes 
America has taken towards English and English teachers with- 
in the past twenty years, one cannot be surprised if a student 
born and nurtured during this era of contemptuous dismissal 
should prejudge English to be irrelevant, despite the valiant 
efforts of Mr. Novak to prove the contrary. 

The critics are not always right. The study of the English 
language and of literature written in English need not be 
irrelevant, but some English teachers may make it seem so. 
Students at different colleges have explained with disgust 
that they wasted their time in the required two years. English 
majors have, in some bewilderment, confessed that they could 
not specify any way in which they had benefited from their 
work in college or what they would be able to do after grad- 
uation. Let me turn more seriously to the question of what 
the English professor can do to assure that he is relevant. 
To avoid pointing an accusing finger at innocents this time. 

let me phrase my remarks as a series of questions. Call it, if 
you wish, a check list of twenty questions which faculty mem- 
bers, department heads, and delegates to professional English 
meetings should ask. They are not new questions, but I believe 
that they are worth asking again. 

The first and most obvious questions focus on the teacher 
as a human being, an individual, and as a member of a pro- 

1. Do we know to whom we wish to be relevant? Or, 
phrased in different words, "To whom are we teaching English 
and why?" I have known English professors who teach because 
teaching is a habit; others who teach because, if they do not, 
the university will not pay them; others who teach because the 
occupation finances their research. But most of us, I suspect, 
teach language and literature because that is the way we like 
to spend our lives. Failing to question the actual reason or 
need for our existence, some of us complacently begin to pre- 
sume that all right-thinking people love the discipline as we 
do and that our primary responsibility is to perpetuate our 
image by preparing others who will succeed us. But we may 
forget that we are facing an increasingly diversified popula- 
tion in the classroom. Less than two decades ago, English pro- 
fessors, even at state-supported institutions, might have antici- 
pated relatively homogeneous classes of middle-class or upper- 
class parents. Today, however, a class may include not only the 
traditional group but also students previously isolated from 
the mainstream of American culture, students who have 
economically impoverished parents, mature veterans of the 
armed services, and even a few foreign students. Traditional 
subject-matter, conventionally taught, is inadequate for the 
needs and desires which these students bring to their classes. 
Instead, English teachers must consider fully the implications 
of the hackneyed admonition to meet the students where they 

2. Do I want to teach? That is, do I consider my responsi- 
bility ended when I drop my pearls, or do I actually want to 
talk with young people and to guide them into clearer compre- 
hension of the skills and understandings of the field? Despite 

the fame which has come to some, indifferent lecturers are 
irrelevant to the needs of most students, graduate or under- 

3. Can I talk with young people about the world of 1970, 
or do I, like Miniver Cheevy, confuse the past with the present? 
The English professor must be prepared to discuss with his 
students— outside of class or, where relevant in class— the 
issues of concern to many of them: Vietnam, draft laws, 
needs of black students, new attitudes toward morality. The 
teacher should even know where to locate hterature about 
these issues which he can use in his classes. 

4. Do I respect English language and literature as a 
discipline sufficiently that I can distinguish between what 
can be taught in a classroom and what should be discussed 
outside? This question must follow immediately. Failure to 
answer this question satisfactorily is a critical problem for 
many new instructors. An English class is not, or should not 
be, a "rap" session, an hour of group therapy, a course in 
economics, politics, religion, or have what you will. Generally, 
the instructor who so distorts it is trying to relate to students, 
to be relevant, but he fails to realize that he has failed to be 
relevant to his responsibility to assist a student in the study 
of language and literature. 

5. Do I respect myself sufficiently as a trained professional 
that I realize that I must be a guide and leader within the class- 
room and cannot be merely a fellow student in a general 
discussion? I recently talked with a professor of an English 
methods course at a large university who informed me that, on 
the second day of class, senior English majors advised him that 
he was not needed. They proposed to discuss the material and 
teach themselves. Some young teachers have assumed the same 
stance. For them, there are no rules, regulations, or preferred 
procedures governing the study of language and literature. 
All is a matter of discussion, debate, and individual or majority 
preference. In such a chaotic course, a professor doubtlessly 
would be irrelevant. The relevant professor, however, must 
believe that he can assist students because he has read more 
widely, practiced his profession more diligently, and perhaps, 
thought more critically than they have. 

To be honest, this check list should end here. A teacher 
who concerns himself with being relevant to the needs of the 
diversified population unique to his institution but who simul- 
taneously respects himself and his profession — this is one whom 
I would trust to make relevant any course which he has the 
knowledge and training to teach. 

But, for the record, let the checklist be extended into 
specific courses and into the major program itself. 

Almost all colleges provide a year of freshman English 
for students. At most colleges that is a course in composition, 
which occasionally becomes the most ludicrously irrelevant 
course on the campus. An instructor and the departmental 
committee should ask themselves the following questions 

6. Does the composition course provide adequately for 
the needs of students who will not teach college? Most teachers, 
I suspect, continue to require written compositions on various 
subjects, book reviews, and research papers. These provide 
excellent preparation for the future teacher of college English. 
But are they satisfactory for the future high school teacher, 
whose responsibility may require frequent reports but no 
research papers? Does practice in writing compositions pre- 
pare engineers, scientists, and historians? Is it satisfactory for 
the student whose future formal writing may be limited to 
letters to the editor? In short, do we provide a sufficient variety 
of writing experiences? 

7. Can we do anything to insure sense in grading composi- 
tion on the freshman level and in advanced courses? We all 
know that the same composition can receive widely varying 
evaluations from different instructors on our faculties, a fact 
easily discovered by any students sufficiently ingenious and 
ingenuous to submit the same composition to two instructors. 
We console ourselves that a sense of style, a response to 
language, and experience enable us to distinguish the "A" 
from the "C" from the "F'\ And, believe it or not, as a member 
of the English establishment, I think that, generally, we are 
reasonably accurate. But is this reasonable accuracy sufficient 
if we can never explain to concerned students how our evalua- 

tion is more than an intuitive guess? I refuse to play a game 
of cards if I do not know the rules in advance. Should we 
expect students to continue to play a game in which we assure 
them that their winning or losing depends upon rules which 
flow spontaneously from our souls after the students have 
completed the game? 

Freshman Composition will not be completely relevant 
until a partial solution has been reached; for that which is 
relevant must have meaning, but composition cannot be 
meaningful to students as long as the method of evaluating 
is incomprehensible. 

8. Do we destroy potential writers by our predetermined 
preference for particular styles? One English professor once 
stated flippantly that Ernest Hemingway and Eugene O'Neill 
would never pass his freshman course. The anecdote no longer 
amuses me, for I recall a parallel experience. When I wrote 
my master's thesis, my adviser insisted that I change my style. 
My sentence structure was not satisfactory, he said. I was 
not writing fragments or run-on sentences. I was not violating 
the chastity of grammar. But I wrote sentences beginning with 
"but," and I let long nonrestrictive clauses and phrases swim 
into the flow wherever they had a mind to. I saw nothing wrong 
with my style, but I wanted the master's; so I studied the style 
of my department chairman as revealed in his book, imitated 
it, but was admonished once again. Finally I learned what was 
expected by my adviser, a man respected and feared in the 
department because of his knowledge of writing. Then, when 
I wrote the first draft of my doctoral dissertation at a different 
university, a new adviser, whom critics praised for his style, 
again insisted that I change my sentence structure to make my 
style satisfactory. This time I knew the game. The same day I 
withdrew one of his books from the library and happily dis- 
covered that I could imitate him by approximating the very 
style which I had been required to abandon previously. All 
of this was absurdity to me, for I knew that both advisers 
were correct: both of their preferred styles were good. Further- 
more, I knew that I would continue to modify my own style 
as I continued to write. But is it fair, is it rational, is it relevant, 
to subject a freshman to such arbitrary harassment? 

At the other extreme, is it relevant to excuse obvious 
errors in grammar and mechanics with the rationalization that 
such deviations represent the characteristic expression of a 
particular ethnic group? Or is it rational to excuse such errors 
by twenty individuals in a class in a hope that one of the twenty 
will become a Thomas Wolfe? I trust you realize that these 
last two are rhetorical questions requiring one of Thomas 
Carlyle's resounding No's. 

9. Does a course concentrated solely on reading and 
writing prepare a student adequately to communicate with 
his society? Do we need to consider means of introducing 
formal instruction in speaking and listening, communicative 
tools which a student will use more frequently than he uses 
the tools of writing? For some. I have revived a monstrous 
corpse — the dead and unlamented communications course. 
But no one who has endured a faculty meeting will deny his 
wish that some of the professors had been taught to speak 
clearly and logically to an issue and that others had been 
trained to comprehend what they hear. 

10. Can we make composition courses more relevant by 
offering one semester during the freshman year and a second 
semester during the junior year, when the student, preparing 
papers for his major, begins to realize his need for assistance 
in effective expression? Surely a course is the most relevant 
when a student wants it the most. 

11. Can we ever persuade students that such courses are 
relevant while we continue to safeguard our senior professors 
from being contaminated by the courses? I assume that some- 
thing which is relevant is important. If it is important, important 
people do it. If important people never do it, it cannot be 
important; hence it cannot be relevant. My parallel syllogism 
is obvious. If senior professors, who are important on their 
campuses, never teach Freshman Composition, the course 
cannot be important; hence it cannot be relevant to educa- 
tional needs. Even freshmen can and do draw such a syllogism. 

Most institutions have an introductory literature course, 
either on the freshman or sophomore level. Part of the check- 
list is about the relevance of this course also. 


12. Does the professor distinguish between the needs of 
English majors and non-English majors? English majors — 
potential teachers of English — need specialized instruction 
in the technicalities of literary study. They need — Heaven 
help them — to learn the jargon of the profession, the techniques 
of prosody, the systems of criticism. These are the tools of 
their profession. But they may be irrelevant foolishness for the 
chemistry major, taking the course because it is required. He 
needs primarily to learn how to read literature, and he needs 
to discover that authors have intended literature to be enter- 
taining and instructive. 

13. Do we provide students with a means of evaluating 
literature for themselves? Currently, some young Afro-Ameri- 
can writers are rejecting all standards which they identify with 
Western Civilization. Hollywood is continuing to produce 
sentimental Funny Girls, while television offers the Beverly 
Hillbillies. Frank Yerby and Harold Robbins remain high on 
best-seller lists. What are we doing to provide readers with 
bases for understanding and evaluating such literature — the 
literature of their society? If we are proposing criteria, are 
they relevant? Do we arbitrarily tell the black student, for 
example, that black Don L. Lee is inferior because he does 
not follow the tradition of either Percy Shelley or Ezra Pound, 
or do we re-examine ourselves to determine whether we are 
any more rational in evaluating literary works than in eval- 
uating freshman composition? 

14. Closely related to the previous question, do we ex- 
pose students to diverse kinds of literary materials, or do we 
imply that the only literature worth studying is that which reeks 
with the mold of age and is Anglo- European in origin? For 
example, Cavalier poets are taught in most surveys of English 
literature as examples of an historical, literary period. In an 
introductory course, however, would it not be more relevant 
to use a contemporary American poet or a contemporary 
black poet? Certainly, several can be found to illustrate any 
style or theme one would discover from the Cavalier poets. 
Why not use contemporary ballads, novels, films, and drama 
as the illustrative content of our introductory literature courses? 
If we ignore these materials familiar to students, we confirm 


their suspicion, developed in high school, that English teachers 
are not concerned with what exists in their world. If we are not 
concerned, then we are not relevant to that world or to them. 

15. Do we actively seek ways to make the literary materi- 
als relevant to students? I do not go as far as the teacher who, 
I understand, is currently arguing the relevance of Silas Marner 
by explaining that it shows the tragic consequences of taking 
drugs. But I believe that even literature of the past can be 
made relevant to students if they see the problems of protagon- 
ists in terms which are relevant or meaningful to them. 

Let me cite two examples. Suppose you were to try to 
teach Hamlet to a group of articulate, outspoken black students. 
Why not approach it as I once introduced it to a class? "Sup- 
pose you, a black kid in college, were called home because 
your father had been killed. Suppose that when you got there, 
you learned that your mother was living with the white sheriff. 
And suppose someone sent you a letter telling you that the 
sheriff had killed your father. What would you do?" Believe 
it or not, that's a way into Hamlet which raises questions 
relevant to the play and to the students of a minority group. 
Or suppose Romeo and Juliet were approached as a story of 
miscegenation. A black Romeo brings Shakespeare to life 
for black students and white students, too, without damaging 
Shakespeare in any way. 

Finally, what about the curriculum for our majors? I believe 
we need to re-examine each literature course we require so 
that we may evaluate its relevance. 

16. Do we evaluate the writers whose works we select, 
and do we clarify our reasons for teaching particular works 
of those writers? 

Because literary fashions change, a writer popular in one 
generation may be unpopular in another. Why, therefore, 
should we continue to teach writers whom we introduce 
apologetically, "He was considered great once, but he is not 
respected today"? If the writer's skill seems so inferior that 
we must warn the student not to consider the writer a crafts- 
man, let us help the student by leaving the writer asleep in 
the Kingdom of Dullness. 


Let us determine also the reason for teaching a particular 
work, and let us dispense with nonsense. The selections from 
Alexander Pope which have gained the most popularity among 
editors of anthologies are An Essay on Man, An Essay on 
Criticism, and The Rape of the Lock. Some teachers explain 
that, m An Essay on Man, Pope reflects the philosophy of 
Leibnitz but that Pope did not understand the philosophy and 
that the philosophy was disputed by some men generally 
thought to be more perceptive than Leibnitz was. Many teachers 
introduce An Essay on Criticism by stating that it illustrates 
neo-classical standards but that some passages are ambiguous, 
probably because the youthful Pope had not crystallized his 
ideas. Others introduce The Rape of the Lock by stating that 
Pope was criticizing the indolence and pettiness of eighteenth- 
century genteel society — a society foreign to most of our 
students — and that the work exemplifies the mock epic, a type 
the students probably will never see again unless they write 
one. Each approach seems to negate the wisdom of selecting 
that particular work for class study. A teacher should select 
a work because of specific and positive values rather than 
because of its stature as an example of an obsolete type or an 
outdated philosophy. 

If, in a survey course, we wish merely to persuade students 
that literature can be exciting or amusing, let us do that. Let 
us not, however, devote several class periods to a discussion 
of the style and thought and characterization of a work no more 
significant than a current episode of "Mission Impossible". 
Not all literature worth reading is worth studying; students 
must be guided to understand this axiom. 

17. Can we correlate literature with culture by restuc- 
turing some of our period courses? An examination of college 
catalogues suggests that literature can be taught only as the 
survey of a region or of a period or of a type. If literature 
reflects the culture of a generation — and I believe it does, 
the teacher must present the culture and the history of that 
generation more satisfactorily than he does when he merely 
requires a student to read an introductory chapter on which 
the student is examined. The teacher of literature must regain 


breadth by becoming a teacher of historical culture, truly 
cognizant of the best that has been thought and said. 

Obviously, I believe that we need to give more attention 
to courses and programs fitting literature into historical and 
cultural contexts. I, therefore, favor programs in Humanities, 
American Studies, Afro-American Studies, and Non-Western 
Studies. Although not a revolutionary by nature, I would 
like to overthrow violently the departmental kingdoms, in 
English even, which prevent the establishment of inter-disci- 
plinary courses which may provide a student with the breadth 
which he considers relevant and which will require teachers 
to maintain a breadth which they need. 

We pride ourselves upon the guardianship of cultural heri- 
tage. I believe that we have such a responsibility, but we must 
determine that heritage. It is not merely the culture of a par- 
ticular period or even of a particular region of the world. In- 
stead, it is the treasure house of ideas mined by sensitive men 
and women who attempted to understand their world. Many 
of these men were gifted with insight; others who desired such 
insight suffered the limited perception characteristic of most 
people. Although, we teachers naturally concentrate on the 
ideas of the more perceptive, we may assist students also by 
exposing them to the ideas of writers who failed to under- 
stand their world. Perhaps the reason that Moby Dick perplexes 
and frightens the reader is that the author, perplexed and 
frightened himself, had not found an answer to his questions 
about life. The confused student may derive consolation from 
viewing the confusion of others. The teacher who assists the 
student in this way, however, must be willing to admit that 
the fact of publication does not transform a human author 
into an infallible prophet. 

18. Can we re-introduce drama into the curriculum for 
majors? We consider as literary the drama of Greece, of 
seventeenth-century France, and of sixteenth-century England. 
But somehow, many of us assume that drama subsequently 
became unruly and resigned from the discipline. Perhaps 
it became too modern. Regardless of the reason, most teachers 
of literature ignore television or the motion pictures except 


to ridicule the products. We teacli Aristoplianes' comedy; 
yet many current satires are equally sharp. We teach John 
Webster; yet an Alfred Hitchcock production represents the 
terror story of our century as effectively as one of Webster's 
plays represent the melodrama of his. If we divorce ourselves 
from the entertainment media familiar to the students, we 
will affirm for them the fact that literature is enjoyed by those 
who do not enjoy normal activities in life. 

I realize the problems of obtaining scripts of current shows. 
Perhaps we teachers cannot solve this problem without the 
assistance and advice of producers. But we need to consider 
a start toward a solution. 

19. Have we conscientiously planned a curriculum for 
our majors, or have we merely accepted twenty-four to thirty- 
six hours indifferently selected from a list of Teachers' Fa- 
vorite Seminars? For example, do we in any single introductory 
course for majors provide an understanding of the jargon of 
the profession? In a specific introductory course do we help 
the student to read perceptively and critically, or do we assume 
that the high school has prepared the student sufficiently? Do 
we, in any single course, provide students with opportunity— 
or better still, require them — to read the Biblical literature and 
classical mythology which have furnished the allusions relied 
upon by hundreds of writers of modern as well as older lit- 
erature? Do we insure variety of study by requiring the student 
to take at least one period course, one survey, one author 
course, one genre course? Do we familiarize our majors with 
linguistics and with the uses of linguistics in analyzing litera- 

20. Can we agree whether Matthew Arnold was correct 
in contending that literature, substituted for religion, must 
be the new salvation of modern man? If he was correct, then 
we need to concentrate upon the spiritual and philosophical 
values of literature. If he was not, if we seek primarily to offer 
entertainment and diversion through literature, we need to 
clarify our position before our students. We must make them 
understand that we are not attempting to tell them authorita- 
tively what is good and why they are ignorant; instead, we are 


guiding them to materials wliich entertain us or wliich cause 
us to think. Perhaps, if I am not too facetious, we need to pub- 
lish a directory of the interests and prejudices of the members 
of the staff. Since the teacher will be guiding the student along 
a path of personal interests, the student has the right to know 
in advance the trip that he will take. In some manner, we need 
to make it clear in advance that one teacher will conduct a 
student to literature as the study of transitions in the develop- 
ment of an art form, whereas a teacher down the hall will lead 
a student through that literature which represents the thoughts 
of human beings struggling to understand life. Such a tolerant 
approach in the curriculum planning will permit Dante to 
stride into one classroom but to refuse to poke his head into 
another. Then the student might select that class experience 
which is more relevant to him. 

As stated earlier, the key to relevance is the teacher. As 
long as he believes that his is the only way to teach the only 
materials worth teaching, literature will remain apart from 
life; it will not be relevant. Let the teacher revitalize himself 
by regaining his breadth while discarding his mantle of a priest 
teaching a sacred mystery. Then let us assure the relevance of 
our studies by teaching them as though they are something 
more than the pastime of dilettantes, fragile glassware to 
be admired from a distance, or Sunday sermons for the bored. 





It seems to be logical that a man has a right to do damn near 
anything he chooses until he interferes with the rights of 
others to do damn near anything they choose to do. The excep- 
tions to this must, of course, be where violence or coercion 
are [sic] involved. 

If doing your thing involves vegetating or becoming so depen- 
dent on any stimulus (booze, drugs, religion) that you are 
unable to function as a human being, then it appears someone, 
somehow, shoidd have a right to restrain you. We would not 
like to have the job. We would not like to say when you have 
gone too far. 

Doing your thing should be considered as a contribution to the 
welfare of yourself and your fellowman. If it does not do either 
of these it would appear to be a "bummer". 

Editorial, Haight Ashbury 
Freepress, January 2, 1968 

All of our lives we are concerned with and depend upon 
materialism, people, and their relationships to us as individuals. 
Materialism is a tangible entity, but social interactions are 
very nebulous. One can becQme an integral part of society, 
or he can defy society; nevertheless, no man is able, nor should 
he try, to escape society by isolating himself from others. 

Each of us is a social product, nurtured by the whole family 
of man, loved by parents and grandparents, taught by 
teachers and clergy, protected by policemen and soldiers 
and judges, encouraged by universities, inspired by artists 
and poets. None of us sprang forth untended, unheeded, 
a random by-product of some indifferent mating process. 

*Assistant Professor of Chemistry. West Georgia College 
**Assistant Professor of Chemistry, West Georgia College 


Each of us contains the cumulated investment of thousands 
of years, and is the product of a multitude of hopes. We 
have no right to squander this long-term inheritance with- 
out consultation of the future. ^ 

Our rights, therefore, end where the other fellow's rights 
begin. To paraphrase a line from the Broadway show Hair— 
"Kids, do what you want to do; be what you want to be, as 
long as you don't hurt anybody." We have heard it said, 
"It's my life, isn't it? It's none of your business if I drink 
alcohol, pop pills, drop acid, or smoke weed. I don't hurt 
you or anyone else, and so what if I destroy my body or mind, 
it's mine." Analysis of those statements shows that we are 
often hunting an "excuse to be selfish — to indulge ourselves, 
or to avoid living up to our promise. We say that we don't 
want to interfere, or to be interfered with, but what we really 
mean is that we don't want to get involved or to admit that 
we, too, must leave a bequest to mankind as it did us. "2 

The burden we could cause society by misuse of chemical 
agents should linger long in our thoughts. If we develop 
cirrhosis of the liver from alcohol, we become unable to keep 
a job and are uninsurable. If we experience a psychotic episode 
from chemical agents and are confined in a mental institution, 
we are affecting others by burdening them with enormous bills. 
Society subsequently pays for our sowing wild oats, and the 
cost to future generations might be tremendous through 
teratogenic and mutogenic damage. We are, therefore, not 
allowed to say blithely, "It's my life, isn't it?", because if we 
accept the responsibility of living, a Httle of our lives belongs 
to all with whom we come in contact. We are influenced by 
others and we certainly influence others, whether openly or 

Let's face it, our society is a pill-taking society. We use 
birth control pills, aspirin, antihistimines, decongestants, lax- 
atives— you name them and someone is using them, and children 

1 Evan Hill, "It's Mv Life, Isn't It?" Reader's Digest, LXXXXIII (Oct., 1968), 



persist in doing as ttieir parents do and not as they say. Many 
parents are pill hypocrites. They take pep pills to get them 
through a rugged day at work. They drink strong coffee followed 
by cigarettes to keep them going. In the evening they need 
tranquilizers and alcohol to relieve tensions and, chances are, 
sleeping pills to let them sleep. But they lose control when 
they find out that their children are using drugs. 

In a day when people believe there is a pill, capsule, or 
shot to cure almost every ailment, does it not seem logical 
that young people, lacking maturity and education about 
drugs, would "turn on" to cure their problems or at least 
postpone them? People who are pro-drug are a very noisy and 
attractive group when they offer cures for a dismal life (war, 
inflation, difficult courses at school, problems at home, crime, 
corruption in government). However, the well-being of our 
society would benefit from a positive factual approach to 
drug education rather than dogmatic proclamations. 

Young people can find plenty of reasons to experiment 
with drugs, while shrugging off reasons not to. "It is a simple 
matter for a teen-ager seeking a 'high' to ignore an obvious 
lack of quality and quantity control in the drug he buys on 
the street. '"3 In Salt Lake City, police apprehended a sixteen- 
year-old boy who was selling asthmatic tobacco and claiming 
it was cannabis (marijuana). Some two hundred people had 
purchased from this boy, and they were so eager to have the 
drug that they did not know it was merely a substitute. They 
got their "high", although for some it was more than they 
bargained for. The substitute he gave them contained sub- 
stances that were extremely toxic if used in large quantities. 
They were capable of producing a "high" complete with hal- 
lucinations and, for some, toxic psychosis. 'i 

Drugs purchased without prescriptions are illicit and usually 
channeled through criminal outlets, chemical purity is un- 

3 John Pennington, "Drugs and Youth," The Atlanta Journal and Constitu- 
tion Magazine, (Nov. 2, 1959), p. lU. 

"^E. R. Bloomquist, Ma/V/wflna (Beverly Hills. Calif.: Glencoe Press — Division 
of Macmillan Company, 1968), p. 55. 


certain, strength unpredictable, and conditions of preparation 
as to hygiene are questionable. We are taking a very serious 
gamble when we ingest such drugs — we are betting our lives 
on someone who is out to make a fast dollar. 

Dr. Allan Cohen, former associate of LSD high priest 
Timothy Leary, says "in the drug community, I saw that drugs 
do not make better people. There was still laziness, arguments, 
fears; it added up to psychedelic hypocrisy. I saw that LSD 
users did not live any more spiritual lives, although they thought 
they were very spiritual people. "^ 

In an article such as this, it is impossible to discuss all 
drugs or chemical agents that abnormally induce psychologi- 
cal and physiological actions to the body, but some pertinent 
facts about several are worth mentioning. 

When considering LSD although a variety of complications 
have been reported in the medical literature, three appear to 
be most prevalent. 

1. Reapparance of the hallucinated, disorganized state 
without further ingestion of an hallucinogen is one type 
of complication. This has occurred in subjects within 
two months after a series of relatively few exposures. 
It also has occured more than twelve months after a 
series of more than 200 exposures that had extended 
over a period of years. 

2. Panic is a frequent complication and hospitalization 
may be sought by the user or his companion, neither 
of whom can cope with the sense of terror. 

3. A third relatively common complication is the develop- 
ment of an extended period of psychosis, sometimes 
after a single exposure, and usually involving a person 
who was prepsychotic or had a history of current or 
previous psychosis. There is no available evidence to 
suggest that the massive, disorganizing experience 
resulting from the taking of hallucinogens has been 

5S. Reice, "But, Mom, Everybody Smokes Pot!" McCall's. LXXXXV (Sep., 
1968), 68. LSD is the acronym for Lysergic Acid Dietiiylamide. 


therapeutic for any psychotic patient. Quite the con- 
trary I^ 

The prohallucinogenic drug cHque argues that research 
showing genetic damage has been conducted only in animals 
and is, therefore, unreliable. Dr. Maimon Cohen of the Division 
of Human Genetics at State University of New York in Buffalo, 
together with his associates, studied the chromosomal breakage 
rate in mental patients who had taken LSD treatments. His 
results showed chromosomal breakage rates were 3-1/4 times 
higher (12% compared with 3.7%) on those treated with LSD 
when compared with those who had not taken the drug.^ 

Chromosomal damage induced by experimentation with 
LSD might not affect us significantly, but how will it damage 
our children or their children, who innocently are included 
in our fun? "It's my life, isn't it?" Is it really or do we plan to 
terminate our family tree? 

A large number of hippies have begun a campaign against 
"Speed" (methadrine or methamphetamine), because they 
have seen death occur in a significant number of users. They, 
therefore, have begun a campaign against the drug by wearing 
buttons which read "SPEED KILLS''.^ Few voices are raised 
promoting the widespread use of drugs with the single excep- 
tion of marijuana, and the remainder of this paper will be 
devoted to a discussion of this chemical agent. 

Cannabis sativa L., the technical name given to the hemp 
plant, requires both male and female plants to reproduce. 
Pollination depends upon the wind since insects steadfastly 
refuse to visit the plant. Even swarming locusts avoid it for 
food. The female plants produce the most resin which is the 
active ingredient necessary to cause psychotoxic effects. 
Curiously enough, the female is hardier than the male. Those 

^ "Dependence on LSD and Other Hallucinogenic Drugs," Journal of the 
American Medical Association, CCII (Oct. 2, 1967), 47. 

'^Pennington, "Drugs and Youth," (Nov. 2, 1969), p. 10. 

^ Albert Rosenfeld, "Drugs That Even Scare Hippies," Life, LXIII (Oct. 27, 
1967), 81. 


who use cannabis for its psychotoxic effects use all portions 
of the plant containing resin, including the tops, flowers, 
leaves, and stalks. The resin, hashish, contains tetrahydro- 
cannabinols (THC), which are responsible for the euphoric 
effects. The more resin, or THC, cannabis contains, the 
greater the physiological stimulation. This accounts for the 
different responses obtained from using cannabis grown in 
India compared to that of the United States. Indian cannabis 
has five to six times more THC than U.S., and therefore, the 
stimulation is much stronger. 

In the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries in Arabia, 
Hasan-Ibn-Sabbah, a well-educated, ambitious, religious 
fanatic, developed an agnostic philosophy intended to over- 
throw the then-existing "establishment". This philosophy 
encouraged young people to accept nothing and dare all. 
Hasan enticed a small band of his followers to commit murder 
by feeding them hashish, a drug capable of lowering their 
inhibitions, producing euphoria, and decreasing their ability 
to think for themselves. Life without cannabis became so 
colorless and dull that they joyfully embraced its use and 
eargerly committed the deeds suggested to them by Hasan. 
Since "hashish" and "assassin" appeared in history during 
the time of Hasan, it is believed that these words are related 
and are associated with Hasan and his mass murders. ^ 

In India, cannabis has been referred to as the "Happy 
Plant," being promoted by groups who use it in religious prac- 
tices. Use of the drug produced complications, however, 
because cannabis was all important to those dependent upon 
it. The Indian government has now accepted the argument that 
cannabis use has deleterious social consequences and has 
legislated against the drug.^o 

Cannabis arrived in America in the early 1600's, and hemp 
from the plant was used extensively for clothing. Use of its 
exhilirating effects was generally confined to people of low 

^ Bloomquist, Marijuana, pp. 25-27. 
^^Ibid., pp. 18-20. 


income in the larger cities of the United States. Then, in the 
1960's cannabis became the "in" thing. 

The general nature of cannabis intoxication according to 
the World Health Organization is as follows: 

Among the more prominent subjective effects of can- 
nabis . . . are: hilarity . . . carelessness, loquacious euphor- 
ia .. . distortion of sensation and perception . . . impairment 
of judgement and memory; distortion of emotional respon- 
siveness; irritability; and confusion. Other effects which 
appear after repeated administration. . .include: lowering 
of the sensory threshold, especially for optical and acous- 
tical stimuli . . . illusions and delusions that predispose to 
anti-social behavior; anxiety and aggressiveness as a possible 
result of various intellectual and sensory derangements; 
and sleep disturbances. ^^ 

In 1968, a report was published indicating the relationship 
between the amount of cannabis used by an individual and 
the effects experienced. A minimum of approximately 25 
ug/kg of cannabis (six one hundred thousandths of an ounce 
for a 150 pound man— this amount of gold would cost less than 
half a cent) causes individuals to feel happy, gay, silly, and 
relaxed. With a dosage of about 200 ug/kg, alterations in time- 
sense become evident and perceptual distortions occur. These 
appear as changes in body image and intensification of color 
sensations. At doses of about 400 ug/kg, the majority of sub- 
jects exhibit "psychotomimetic effects" including hallucina- 
tions. ^2 'pjie Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory in Boston 
using pure THC corroborated that doses of 200 to 250 ug/kg 
produced psychotomimetic effects in most chronic users. ^^ 
These psychotomimetic effects include visual hallucinations 

^1 N. B. Eddy, H. Halbach, H. Isbell, and M. H. Seevers, "Drug Dependence: 
its Significance and Cliaracteristics, " Bulletin of the World Health Organi- 
zation, XXXII (1965), 721. 

^ J. M. Benforado, "Hallucinogens and Marijuana," Wisconsin Pharmacy 
Extension Bulletin, XI (June, 1968), 2. 

1^ A. T. Weil, N. E. Zinberg, and J. M. Nelsen, "Clinical and Psychological 
Effects of Marijuana in Man," 5c/ence, CLXII (Dec. 13, 1968), 1234. 


(seeing things that are not there), illusions (seeing or imagining 
shapes in objects that are not there), or delusions (beliefs not 
based on reality). Rapid loss of coordination does not occur 
as with alcohol, but time and distance judgements are highly 
distorted. i"* This is accompanied by mental confusion. ^^ Ad- 
verse effects on any task involving good reflexes and clear 
thinking have been observed.!^ Thus, participation in athletic 
events and operation of any mechanical device such as auto- 
mobiles and airplanes becomes impossible from the standpoint 
of individual or collective safety. 

Behavioral patterns are altered unpredictably, creative 
activity is subdued, decision making is impaired, and the 
individual becomes more susceptible to the suggestions of 
others. Cannabis users are exposed to a variety of drugs through 
contacts with pushers and in an uninhibited, suggestible con- 
dition are vulnerable toward stronger chemicals. An atmos- 
phere is created which can be conducive to the use and abuse 
of other drugs. 

Cannabis comes under the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937. 
This Act was patterned after the Harrison Narcotic Act, which 
attempted to control the use of cannabis by imposing stiff 
penalties upon both buyers and sellers. To discourage the 
use of marijuana even further, the federal penalties were in- 
creased in 1951 and 1956. State laws are extremely severe and 
violators are charged as felons. Loss of voting rights and in- 
ability to obtain licenses as doctors, lawyers, teachers, and 
numerous other professions result from felonious arrests. 

A major test case concerning marijuana and the law in- 
volved the appeal of two defendents who had been tried and 
convicted under the marijuana laws of Massachusetts. This 
appeal was brought before Chief Justice of the Superior Court 
of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, G. Joseph Tauro, 

^^ H. L. Giordano, The Dangers of Marijuana: Facts You Should Know, 
Pubn. No. 20402 (Washington, D. C: Government Printing Office, 1969). 


^^ U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, National Institutes 
of Mental Health, Marijuana, Pubn. No. 1829 (1969). 


who denied the appeal and returned a lengthy judgement after 
three months of deliberation. His opinion is important because 
it constitutes the most recent high-level legal judgement on 
cannabis in the United States: 

To my knowledge, this has been the most extensive, judicial 
inquiry into the legal and factual aspects concerning the 
use of marijuana. At this hearing, many eminently well 
qualified experts on the subject from here and abroad have 
had their opinions subjected to searching cross-examina- 
tion and careful analysis by learned and thoroughly pre- 
pared counsel . . . While it is generally agreed that mari- 
juana does not cause physical addiction as do heroin and 
the other "hard" narcotics, there was ample and compel- 
ling testimony that its use causes psychological dependence. 
Its users may not be driven to its repeated use by a physical 
craving, but they may come to resort to it habitually in order 
to compensate for real or imagined inadequacies or to avoid 
real or imagined problems . . . 

It is a universally accepted fact that marijuana is a mind 
altering drug and is used for that specific purpose. It is also 
a generally accepted fact that the drug has no medically 
recognized therapeutic value. In addition to its adverse 
effect on ill-adjusted persons, at best it provides an insub- 
stantial crutch to its user, giving him a feehng of intoxica- 
tion in varying degrees. It provides a false sense of capa- 
bilities, strength, and courage . . . The use of the drug also 
tends to accentuate any tendency toward improper con- 
duct ... In any event, there is no indication from the evi- 
dence that the user of marijuana becomes, through its use, 
a better student, better worker, more dedicated to the 
public interest, or more productive in any undertaking. 
On the contrary, there is convincing evidence that the 
converse is true.^^ 

^'^Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. Joseph D. Leis and Ivan Weiss, Super- 
ior Court Nos. 28841-2, 28844-5, and 28864-5 as cited in Bloomquist, Mari- 
juana, p. 154. 


Knowledge obtained from thirty years experience by Dr. 
Dana L. Farnswortii in the field of student physical and men- 
tal health leads him to conclude on the benefits of marijuana: 

No evidence has yet demonstrated that extensive use of 
marijuana for self-realization, or increased creativity or 
attainments of mystical states of consciousness has been 
beneficial for more than a few individuals. Pot smokers 
work out great philosophical theories, but fail to record 
them. Great paintings are envisioned but nothing gets on 
canvas. With pot, everything draws to a halt.i^ 

^^ S. M. Spencer, "Marijuana: How Dangerous Is It?," Reader's Digest, 
LXXXXVI (Jan., 1970), 67. 






Hugh Henry Brackenridge, humorist, frontier lawyer, and 
unsuccessful political candidate from Western Pennsylvania, 
reveals in his writings in the 1790's and in his equivocal be- 
havior during the Whiskey Insurrection of 1794 the philosop- 
ical dilemma of a moderate, fully committed to democracy, 
yet critically sensitive to its excesses. His rollicking satire. 
Modern Chivalry, a quixotic commentary on contemporary 
life, accurately depicts his political faith and fears. The insur- 
rection translated his worst apprehensions into reality. He 
assumed the role of an ambiguous arbiter, seeking both to 
turn the mob from violence and the government from revenge. 
In this affair he learned the bitter lesson of the moderate: he 
who will not take one side or another is considered a traitor 
by both. 1 

Brackenridge was not an original pohtical thinker but 
formulated his ideas from experience. The Whiskey Insur- 
rection merely confirmed conclusions he had already reached 
while a member of the Pennsylvania Assembly in 1786-87. 
Although to win a seat Brackenridge made the usual campaign 
promises, he promptly contradicted them by voting against 
a land bill which his constituents thought in their interest. 
He aggravated the breach of faith by telling assembly men from 
his region that "the people were fools" and that he intended 
to explain his vote in the newspaper. WiUiam Findley, hence- 
forth a political enemy, reported the conversation. Brackenridge 
discovered that the more he attempted to defend himself with 
articles, the more suspicious his constituents became. No 
matter how many bills favorable to the region he introduced, 

•Associate Professor of History and Head, Department of History, West 
Georgia College, Carrollton, Georgia. 

^ Hugh Henry Brackenridge, Modern Chivalry, ed., Claude M. Newlin (New 
York, 1962), p. xxxiv. 


he could not overcome the fact that Findley was a "plain, 
simple man" while Brackenridge himself was a "profane 
lawyer. "2 

During the campaign to ratify the Constitution of 1787 
Brackenridge lost more popularity by firmly supporting it. 
Findley and most other politicians of the area echoed the 
opposition of their constituents. In the Assembly, Bracken- 
ridge moved for early ratification while Findley engaged in 
delaying maneuvers. When the electorate rejected Bracken- 
ridge for Findley as its representative in the state ratifying 
convention, Brackenridge turned his satirical skill against 
"Traddle the Weaver," i.e., Findley, and those who selected 

Will not a sample such as these 
With sense not half so much as geese 
Serve properly to represent 
The ignorance by which they're sent 
And show that in the common weal 
There is a head as well as tail?^ 

The subject of the poem became the basis of Modern Chivalry, 
the tale of the wanderings of Captain Farrago, who speaks 
for Brackenridge, and his "bogtrotting" Irish servant, Teague 

The themes of the satire, often repeated, are simple: the 
ambition of unqualified persons to climb to high places and 
the lack of intelligent action by people in general and voters 
in particular. This smacks of sour grapes, but Brackenridge's 
concern for the future of democracy appears genuine. The 
people needed men of ability who through wise moderation 
and even mild deceit would protect them from themselves 
and those who would exploit them. Both the demagogue and 
the funded aristocrat must be rejected. ^ 

2 Claude M. Newlin, The Life and Writings of Hugh Henry Brackenridge 
(Princeton, 1932), pp. 78-80, 84-85. 

^Ibid., pp.99, 101-103. 

"^H. H. Brackenridge, Modern Chivalry, pp. xxvii, 102; see also L. D. Baldwin, 
Whiskey Rebels: the Story of a Frontier Uprising (Pittsburgh, 1939), pp. 42-43. 


His concern for the choice of the electorate resulted from 
his concept of democracy. As a classicist, he preferred Per- 
icles's definition, a government with "respect ... to the multi- 
tude." Respect did not mean obeisance, however, and Bracken- 
ridge's democracy, like the Athenian, would not be one of 
perfect equality. He believed in equality before the law, but 
in inequality of ability, particularly in the exercise of public 
office. He voiced the apprehension that men, enjoying liberty, 
tended to flee its responsibilities. ^ 

In contrast to the Enlightenment's view of liberty as an 
absolute established by natural law, Brackenridge thought 
liberty was an adjustment of power in a social context. Men 
would be free as long as they protected their freedom, and this 
man-created state was both threatened and fostered by a "per- 
petual war" between the mob and the aristocrat. Although 
Brackenridge preferred that neither should win the conflict, 
the aristocrat seemed most likely to. Therefore he took the 
side of the people who were occasionally "greatly despotic, 
but in the main, just." Brackenridge gave the concept an 
economic base by noting that this was a contest between "opu- 
lent" and "indigent." Only wise leadership from political 
moderates could prevent the two contesting factions from 
destroying democracy in their struggle against one another. ^ 

A practitioner, Brackenridge's debt to theoreticians was 
slight. He called Rousseau and Godwin "visionary men" be- 
cause their works were full of contradictions. Harrington's 
Oceana was impracticable; Locke's plan for a new landed 
aristocracy failed in South Carolina. Although he subscribed 
to the "elementary principles" of Paine's Rights of Man, he 
did so only insofar as they coincided with his own.^ 

Brackenridge discerned quite early the influence of the 
frontier on American social and political life. In 1772 he 
predicted inevitable western expansion. He anticipated Fred- 
erick Jackson Turner's thesis that western settlements had a 

^H. H. Brackenridge, Modern Chivalry, pp. 29, 136, 530. 
^ Ibid., pp. 19,21, 135. 
Ubid., pp. XXXV, 312-314, 414. 


formative influence on American life by saying that the frontier 
served as a bastion of republicanism against the anti-democratic 
tendencies of the moneyed East and landed South. At the same 
time he lamented the lack of taste and artistic appreciation 
there but attributed this to the debilitating influence of Hamil- 
ton's system, not to frontier roughness. ^ 

Because of his experience on the frontier, Brackenridge 
did not share the eighteenth-century illusion of the "noble 
savage." To him the Indian was an ignorant brute, scarcely 
better than a wild animal. Therefore the government's policy 
of pacifying Indians with treaties and bribes was futile. One 
should only treat with savages from a position of strength. At 
one point in Modern Chivalry an unscrupulous agent offers 
Teague a handsome reward for posing as an Indian chief 
before War Department treaty-makers. Brackenridge was 
ridiculing a government policy which offered no protection 
for his region, the western country. In a more refined manner 
than his neighbors, he voiced their conviction that the Indian 
problem could be solved only by superior force. ^ 

The Negro evoked more sympathy. Brackenridge con- 
demned the institution of slavery on the grounds of moral 
conviction and political principle. As a lawyer he applied to 
the issue a legal argument from the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence: if all men were born equal, then slavery could not be 
justified on any lawful grounds. As a humanitarian Bracken- 
ridge, like the Quakers, thought that owning human beings 
was a crime. He scornfully ridiculed plans then being considered 
in Pennsylvania and Britain to abolish the slave trade gradually. 
One might just as well eliminate by stages murder, larceny, and 
burglary until the perpetraters could find another occupation, i*' 

Although Brackenridge supported the Federalists in the 
ratification of the Constitution, he opposed every provision of 
Hamilton's financial program. The establishment of the bank 

^ Ibid., pp. xi, 281; National Gazette (Philadelphia), Feb. 9, 1792, quoted 
in ibid., p. xvi. 

^Ibid., pp. 55-62, 225-227. 

^^Ibid., pp. 138-140. 


was an unconstitutional act and a dangerous precedent. The 
assumption of state debts was a calculated attempt to under- 
mine states rights but only "impolitic," not "unjust. "" His chief 
criticism fell on the funding of bonds at par and the whiskey 
tax which was to prompt his neighbors to rebellion in 1794. 

He attacked the funding system on legal and moral grounds. 
He offered the opinion of a lawyer that in an equity case tried 
by English common law the original bond holders would have 
a brief for a charge of fraud since the speculating bond buyers 
had depressed with propaganda the value of the issue before 
they bought it. To those who said the bond purchaser was 
more patriotic than the bond seller who sold at a low price, 
Brackenridge replied that the buyer demonstrated similar 
lack of faith in his government's credit because he purchased 
the bonds at less than face value. Thus by unscrupulous means 
the self-seeking speculators had cheated veterans, war widows 
and orphans. 12 

Brackenridge criticized the pretentious assumption of 
honorific privilege in the Order of Cincinnati more severely 
than the pecuniary misdeeds of the bond speculators. He 
feared that the Order, open only to officers of field rank 
who were veterans of the Revolutionary War, might develop 
into a military nobility. It was a "partial institution" that pro- 
moted an interest prejudicial to the people as a whole. Bracken- 
ridge apparently followed here the ideas of Mirabeau who had 
written a pamphlet deploring the dangerous precedent of 
aristocracy in the land of liberty. The frontier democrat said 
the Order was ironically misnamed, since Cincinnatus, the 
self-effacing Roman dictator, refused to accept for his service 
any special mark of honor. The members of the Order were 
doing just the opposite. ^^ 

Brackenridge, like most American democrats, equated the 
French Revolution with the contest for the rights of man. In 

^'^ Ibid., pp. 217, 223; Newlin, Life of Brackenridge, p. 125. 
12 H. H. Brackenridge, Modern Chivalry, pp. 215-216, 220-222. 
^^Ibid., pp.71, 175-178, 194. 


SO doing he cast aside reservations and made the French cause 
his own. He predicted in 1791 that the French crusade for 
liberty would eventually involve all of Europe, a perceptive 
forecast since the proselytizing victories of the revolutionary 
armies were years away. He corresponded with two members 
of the National Assembly and on one occasion had the honor 
of mention before the bar of that body.^'* 

The early excesses in France did not reduce his fervor. He 
flippantly greeted the news of Louis XVI's execution with an 
article in Freneau's National Gazette titled "Louis Capet lost 
his Caput." He was outraged when Washington issued the 
neutrality proclamation of 1793, declaring unequivocably in an 
open letter to the president: "The cause of France is the 
cause of man, and neutrahty is desertion. "^^ In a July Fourth 
oration at Pittsburgh he stated that the successful revolution 
in America had inspired the one in France. Americans loyal to 
liberty could not desert the cause. As for the "intemperature" 
of the French, this he dismissed as the result of enthusiasm, an 
element necessary to the success of the venture. ^^ 

Brackenridge's ardor for revolutionary vengeance quickly 
faded when he experienced an example of it on a much smaller 
scale in his own neighborhood. In the Whiskey Insurrection 
he played an equivocal role because he understood both the 
government's duty to enforce the law and the people's opposi- 
tion to it. Caught in a storm of popular fury, Brackenridge 
sailed with the wind, compromised himself with ambiguities, 
and learned first hand the dangers of popular intemperance 
and ambitious demagoguery which he had deplored in Modern 

1^ H. H. Brackenridge, 1791 Oration delivered to Pittsburgh Light Infantry 
Company, ibid., pp. 170-171. 

^^ National Gazette (Philadelphia), April 20, May 15, 1793, quoted in ibid., 
p. xvi. 

1^ Portions of the address are quoted in: Ibid.; C. D. Hazen, Contemporary 
American Opinion of the French Revolution (Baltimore, 1897), p. 246; and 
Hugh M. Brackenridge, History of the Western Insurrection in Western 
Pennsylvania (Pittsburgh, 1859), p. 222. 


Although he opposed the Hamilton system, Brackenridge 
did not join his neighbors in their early formal complaints 
against the federal excise tax in whiskey which threatened 
their livelihoods. He refused to attend meetings in August 
of 1791 and 1792 where petitions were drafted against the tax. 
At the latter meeting the frontier distillers adopted a resolution 
to ostracize all excise officers. Because the same disgruntled 
people attacked a federal tax officer during the 1794 rebellion, 
the government found in the 1792 petition the seeds of insur- 
rection. Albert Gallatin, who did attend the meeting, called 
this "my only political sin.''^'^ Brackenridge considered the 
resolution irresponsible, but he did not hesitate to write in 
1792 an article attacking the whiskey excise as unbearable. ^^ 

The insurrection erupted in the summer of 1794 for two 
reasons: the requirement that delinquent distillers be tried 
in federal court at Philadelphia, and the appointment of General 
John Neville, a prominent local citizen, as inspector of revenue. ^^ 
In the eyes of his neighbors Neville had cynically abandoned 
his outspoken opposition to the excise for a lucrative govern- 
ment post. The practice of trying delinquents in a distant 
federal court was tantamount to a fine because of the expense 
of the journey. It was also thought to be a violation of the "trial 
in vicinage" principle of common law. 20 These two grievances, 
combined with Neville's accompaniment of a federal marshal 

^'^ Henry Adams, ed., The Writings of Albert Gallatin, 3 vols. (Philadelphia, 
1879), III, 7; U.S. President, The Proceedings of the Executive of the United 
States Respecting the Insurgents (Philadelphia, 1795), pp. 99-101. 

18 National Gazette (Philadelphia), Feb. 9, 1792, quoted in Newlin, Life of 
Brackenridge, pp. 128-129. 

1^ Contemporary accounts as well as recent scholarship place major respon- 
sibility for the insurrection on Neville's conduct. See the report of the federal 
commissioners in Proceedings of the Executive, p. 19; William Findley, His- 
tory of the Insurrection in the Four Western Counties of Pennsylvania (Phil- 
adelphia, 1796), pp. 78-81; and Jacob E. Cooke, "The Whiskey Insurrection: 
a Re-evaluation," Pennsylvania History, XXX (July, 1963), 336-338. 

20 Adams, ed., Writings of Gallatin, III. 8-9; Hugh Henry Brackenridge. 
Incidents of the Insurrection in the Western Parts of Pennsylvania in the 
Year 1794, 3 vols. (Philadelphia, 1795), I, 95. 


to serve warrants on distillers, caused them to fire on the 
federal officers and shortly afterward to attack and burn 
Neville's house. 

The complaints which generated the insurrection also 
involved Brackenridge. He had been associated with the 
Nevilles, and he was also an expert on warrants. 21 Therefore, 
the rebels asked him for legal advice, but he decided to attend 
their first meeting only after Presley Neville, General Neville's 
son, persuaded him to do so. At the Mingo Creek meeting, near 
Pittsburgh, he took a rather courageous stand before men who 
were in open rebellion. He aroused ominous murmurings by 
saying their acts were "in construction of law . . . high treason" 
and advised them to seek an amnesty before committing fur- 
ther crimes. 22 

Perhaps fearing that Brackenridge's reasonable proposal 
would alienate those who had not already committed them- 
selves by violence, David Bradford and other rebel leaders 
engineered a robbery of the United States mail. They found 
evidence of anti-rebel sentiment in Pittsburgh, and spread 
the news with a call for an armed convocation at Braddock's 
field on the first day of August. Rumors of an attack on the 
city prompted Brackenridge to suggest to Pittsburgh citizens 
feigned acquiescence to the rebels' demands. He proposed the 
expulsion of the offending citizens (apparently with their 
consent) and led himself a delegation of citizens and militia- 
men to the meeting. The presence of approximately 5,000 
armed frontiersmen convinced the Pittsburgh delegation to 
continue the deception. Brackenridge expressed himself in a 
very warlike manner and attempted to dispel suspicions he had 
aroused at Mingo Creek. Even Bradford could not control 
the crowd. At one point he told Brackenridge that the attack 
on Pittsburgh had to take place because ". . . the people came 
out to do something, and something they must do." This 
illustrated a lesson in the fruits of demagoguery that Bracken- 
ridge had learned long ago. Nevertheless, he managed to trans- 
form the proposed attack into a rather disorderly parade 

2iNewlin, Life of Brackenridge, pp. 126, 136-138. 
22 H. H. Brackenridge, Incidents, I, 28-30. 


through the city. Afterwards he provided four barrels of 
whiskey for refreshment and was reheved that the demonstra- 
tion resulted in only one burned barn. 23 

At Braddock's field Brackenridge's exercise in equivoca- 
tion began. His role in expelling the undesirable citizens, 
his intemperate statements at the meeting, and his association 
with Bradford earned him the reputation as a leader of the 
rebellion. Senator James Ross, who was present at the meeting 
and later a member of the federal commission which offered 
the rebels an amnesty, observed that Brackenridge's subtlety 
there was obvious to him and essential to save Pittsburgh. 24 A 
few days later, however, Brackenridge aroused further suspi- 
cions about his loyalty by writing a letter to Tench Coxe in 
which he warned the government of the extent of the rebellion 
in terms that seemed to favor it. He included an attack on 
Hamilton's program in case his letter should fall into rebel 
hands. 25 This was taken as proof of his involvement in rebel- 
lion. His duplicity fooled the rebels, but the government also 
took him at his word. 

Brackenridge continued to play make-believe rebel at 
the Parkinson's Ferry meeting on August 14th. He and Galla- 
tin were the chief workers for submission at this meeting, 
but the latter attempted to achieve by forthright statements 
what Brackenridge sought through intrigue. 26 Their chief 
concern was with two committee resolutions: one to declare 
obedience to all laws except the excise, the other to arouse 
the countryside "to repel any hostile attempt." Both men 
unsuccessfully opposed the first resolution. Gallatin also spoke 
firmly against the second proposal, while Brackenridge "af- 
fected ... to oppose Gallatin" and went along with Bradford 

^ Ibid., pp. 63, 65-71; James Carnaham, "The Pennsylvania Insurrection of 
1794, Commonly Called the 'Whiskey Insurrection'," New Jersey Historical 
Proceedings, VI (1853), 125-129. 

24 H. H. Brackenridge, Incidents, I, 54, 63; H. M. Brackenridge, History, 
p. 176. 

^^ Ibid., p. 137; letter quoted in Newlin, Life of Brackenridge, pp. 151-152. 

26Findley, History, pp. 116-117; Henry Adams, Life of Albert Gallatin (Phila- 
delphia, 1879), p! 133. 


and the war party. He thought he could best undermine the 
violent temper of the crowd by this pretense. ^^ Finally, Brack- 
enridge and Gallatin managed to convince the rebel assembly 
to appoint deputies to confer with government commissioners 
who came with an offer of amnesty. Both men were selected 
and assisted in drawing up the terms of submission. 

Brackenridge's hopes for an amnesty, first expressed at 
Mingo Creek, were now a reality. He threw off the veil of 
deception at the August 28 meeting at Brownsville. The rebel- 
lious spirit had by no means disappeared, but partly through 
Brackenridge's efforts a vote on submission was postponed 
until the more violent rebels left. Both Gallatin and Bracken- 
ridge spoke at length advising submission. Bradford, still the 
demagogue, urged resistance. The deputies were so suspicious 
of one another that the vote was taken by secret ballot. The 
result was a majority for the amnesty, and from this moment 
rebellious sentiment melted away. The role of Brackenridge 
here is best summarized by Findley: "His argument was of 
the more importance that it was decisive; formerly he had 
temporized in such a manner as to induce the rioters to believe 
that he was a friend of their cause. "^^ 

The motive for military suppression after the Brownsville 
meeting is still a matter of dispute between Hamiltonians and 
anti-Hamiltonians,29 but as it concerns Brackenridge two 
matters must be considered. The first charge is that Bracken- 
ridge, a candidate for Congress in the October elections, 
concurred with rebellion in order to gain popularity. The 
second is that in the eyes of Hamilton, Washington, and the 
invading militiamen, Brackenridge was considered the chief 
instigator of the revolt. 

'^Ibid., pp. 130-133; H. H. Brackenridge, Incidents, I, 91. 

^ Findley, History, p. 124; Brackenridge's speech quoted in Newlin, Life of 
Brackenridge, pp. 158-161. 

2^ The chief issue is whether Hamilton planned and directed the military 
repression for political reasons. An anti-Federalist monograph is William 
Miller, "The Democratic Societies and the Whiskey Rebellion," Pennsyl- 
vania Magazine of History and Biography, LXIIl (Jul., 1938); a pro-Federal- 
ist study is Cooke, "The Whiskey Insurrection: a Re-evaluation." 


The charge that Brackenridge participated in rebelHon 
to win popular support for the election^o seems inconsistent 
and severe. His careful suggestions for submission at Mingo 
Creek and Brownsville were curious departures from a policy 
of courting the rebels' favor. After Brownsville many of his 
constituents thought he had sold out to the government. He 
sought to counteract these rumors with an article in the Pitts- 
burgh Gazette in which he admitted his popularity was low. 
However, in the election voters preferred candidates who had 
been most influential in halting the revolt, 3i and Bracken- 
ridge was in number of votes second only to Gallatin, an 
unwavering advocate of submission. Thus Brackenridge at 
first lost, then regained, popular support because he had 
worked against the rebellion. To impute to his admitted 
duplicity the motive of popularity is to ignore the result of 
his activities. For as Brackenridge reminded his contempor- 
aries, ". . . the intriguers here were all on the side of the govern- 
ment; there was nothing but open force against it. "32 

The charge that Brackenridge was chief intriguer in the 
rebellion was spread by General Neville, Presley Neville, 
and their associates. Deputies from the repentent rebels to 
the "water melon army" found sentiment among the officers 
that Brackenridge should be "skewered, shot, or hanged. "^3 
Washington was reticent when the deputies told him of Brack- 
enridge's efforts for submission, and Hamilton at first un- 

^Ibid., p. 343. 

31 Adams, ed., Writings of Gallatin. Ill, 34; Newlin, Life of Brackenridge, 
p. 166. 

32 Quoted in H. M. Brackenridge, History, p. 269. 

33 Tlie officers' remark is in Findley, History, p. 142, who was one of the 
deputies. The militiamen attributed to Brackenridge a disparaging insult 
which appeared in the Pittsburgh Gazette. It read in part: "...your water 
melon armies. . .would cut a much better figure, in warring with crabs and 
oysters, about the capes of Delaware." Both Brackenridges deny responsi- 
bility: H. H. Brackenridge, Incidents, II, 7; H. M. Brackenridge, History 
p. 266. Nevertheless, Brackenridge probably wrote it. Traces of the satire's 
theme — the government would surely make terms with rebellious citizens 
if it treated with the Indians — can be found in Modern Chivalry and in Brack- 
enridge's speech at Mingo Creek. See notes 9 and 22. 


critically accepted the Nevilles' accounts. When, however, 
they presented a damaging letter that Brackenridge allegedly 
wrote to David Bradford, leader of the insurrection, it was 
discovered that it was addressed to William Bradford, Attorney 
General of the United States. ^4 Henceforth Hamilton sus- 
pected their intrigues. He personally interviewed Brackenridge 
at Pittsburgh, found that his account of events totally removed 
him from suspicion, and admitted his conduct had been "hor- 
ribly misrepresented." 3^ 

Brackenridge's experiences in the Whiskey Insurrection 
inspired Incidents of the Insurrection, justifying his conduct, 
and another volume of Modern. Chivalry. In the latter he 
criticized Washington as a man who suffered from an excess 
of loyalty to his appointees, or perhaps an unwillingness to 
admit he had made a mistake. ^6 He further implied that Hamil- 
ton's military suppression was unnecessary and oppressive. His 
Incidents of the Insurrection became a major source for the 
traditional anti-Federalist interpretation of the rebellion. 

Brackenridge rediscovered in the Whiskey Insurrection 
the inconstancy of public favor. He now abandoned his flirta- 
tion with French radicalism and reaffirmed his earlier princi- 
ples of moderate democracy. He had seen "Jacobin principles" 
at work on the frontier and had no desire to see the "evils" 
of the French Revolution repeated in America. ^'^ In Modern 
Chivalry Captain Farrago flees from the insurrection to the 
cabin of a French emigre in the forest. There the two console 
one another by saying they are both refugees from ''sans 

^ H. M. Brackenridge, History, pp. 302-303. The Nevilles despised Bracken- 
ridge because he had forced one of their kinsmen to free a colored woman 
whom he had illegally sold, then took him to court on a charge of assault 
when he sought revenge, according to ibid., p. 179. Washington himself 
complained that the Nevilles had given him misinformation about the rebels. 
See Washington to Knox, August 8, 1794, in John C. Fitzpatrick, ed.. The 
Writings of George Washington. 38 vols. (Washington, D.C., 1940), XXXIII, 

35 H. H. Brackenridge, Incidents, II, 75-76. 

^ H. H. Brackenridge, Modern Chivalry, p. 300. 

37 H. H. Brackenridge, Incidents, I, 85-86. 


cullote rage and popular fervor." Although he deplores this 
excess, the captain still thinks revolution is essential to destroy 
depotism and establish liberty. ^8 

Brackenridge, then, remained a democrat, but a wiser 
and more cautious one. The experiences of 1786 and 1787 
which caused him to doubt the wisdom of the people had been 
confirmed by the Whiskey Insurrection which had forced his 
moderation into an uneasy ambiguity. His principles vindi- 
cated, if not his conduct, he had learned from experience that 
in times of crisis "the insatiable nature of the human mind . . . 
will not be contented with what is moderate. "39 

38 H. H. Brackenridge, Modem Chivalry, pp. 310-315. The emigre in the 
satire is called the Marquis de Mamessie. Newlin, Life of Brackenridge, pp. 
186-187n, says that this was probably inspired by the Marquis of Lezsey- 
Marnesia, a liberal nobleman and former member of the Estates-General, 
who emigrated in 1790 and probably met Brackenridge on his way to the 
French colony, Gallipolis. 

39 H. H. Brackenridge, Modern Chivalry, p. 315. 




Introduction: In a committee which is a decision making body, 
the power of individual members can be computed by con- 
sidering various ahgnments of the committee members on a 
number of issues. The k members are ordered mi, m2, . . . , mk 
according to how Hkely they are to vote for the measure. If 
the measure is to carry, we must persuade mi and xn^ up to mi 
to vote for it until we have a winning coalition. If the set 
mi, m2, . . . , mi is a winning coalition but mi, m2, . . . , mi-i is not, 
then mi is the crucial member of the coalition and we call mi 
the pivot. Therefore, it is reasonable to define the (voting) 
power of a member of a committee to be the number of align- 
ments in which he is pivotal, divided by the total number of 
alignments (k! for a committee of k members). 

Since in each alignment some one must be pivotal and the 
total number of alignments is k!, the sum total of the powers 
of members must be k!/k!=l. 

Suppose k=3, i.e., there are three members. 

(1) If each has one vote and a measure is passed by majority, 
then the second position in the sequence of mi, m2, m3 is 
pivotal and there are 2! ways each member may be pivotal 
(e.g., mi, m2, m3 or ms, m2, mi are only two occasions in 
which m2 becomes pivotal). Hence the power of m2, as 
with the other members, is 2!/3!=l/3.i 

(2) Suppose mi has three votes while m2 and ma have a single 
vote each. Then mi is always pivotal, regardless of his 
position, for every alignment. Thus he has the absolute 
power 1. In such a case mi is called a dictator. 

*Associate Professor of Mathematics, West Georgia College, Carrollton, 
Georgia. The author wishes to thank Dr. Edith Maxwell and Mr. James Del 
Valle for their reading and their corrections of this article. 



(3) Suppose nil has two votes and the other members have 
single votes. Then either m2 or m3 can be pivotal provided 
mi precedes both. Since there is only one sequence for 
which m2 (or ms) becomes pivotal, mg has the power 
1/3!= 1/6. The sequences for which mi is pivotal are m2, 
mi, m^; ma, mi, m2; m2, m3, mi; m3, m2, mi. Hence the 
power of mi is 4/3! = 2/3, and consequently the power of 
each m2 and ma shares 1/6. Thus their ratio is 4:1:1. Note 
that the number of votes one possesses is not necessarily 
directly proportional to his power index. 

Power Structure I: The Security Council of the United Nations 
previously consisted of the Big Five veto powers and six small 
nation members. In order that a measure be passed by the 
Council, seven members including all of the Big Five must 
vote for the measure. 

First we shall find the power of a small nation member by 
computing the number of alignments in which she becomes 
pivotal. Denote the Big Five and six small nations by Bi, Bg, 
B3, B4, B5; Si, S2, S3, S4, S5, Se. Now, suppose Si is pivotal. Then 
five Bj's and one sj must precede Si and the remaining four sj's 
must follow. After one sj has been selected (there are 5 choices), 
there are 6! ways to arrange (permute) the preceding members 
and 4! ways to arrange the following four members. Hence 
there are exactly 5 (6!) (4!) alignments in which Si becomes 
the pivot. Thus its power index, the same for all small nation 
members, is: 

5 (6!) (4!)/(ll!)=l/462=0.00216 
Also, since clearly the total power is 1 and the sum total power 
of six small nations is 6/462= 1/77, each of the Big Five shares, 

The above power indices show that nearly all the power is 
in the hands of the Big Five. 

Several years ago the Security Council went through its 
own structural change. And now it consists of the same Big 
Five, but with ten small nations, instead of six, and nine votes 
are needed to carry the measure (including, of course, those 
Big Five). 


Computing again as before we obtain as the power of a 
small nation: 

(93) 8! 6!/15!=4/2145=0.001862 
and as the power for each of the Big Five: 

(l-40/2145)/5=2105/10725 = 0.19627 
Thus each of the Big Five suffered a slight loss in power (an 
amount of 0.00113) by the change. 

Power Structure II: We consider this time an institution, 
similar to West Georgia College, in which five Division Chair- 
men, the Dean and the President form a policy-making or 
executive committee. Suppose that both the Dean and the 
President have veto powers and that five yes-votes, including 
those of the two veto members, are required to pass a measure. 
Then the power index of each Division Chairman is: 

(42)4!2!/7! = 2/35= 0.0571 
and that of either the Dean or the President is: 
(l-10/35)/2=5/14 = 0.3571. 

In case a Division Chairman's vote is determined by his 
own divisional meeting, prior to the meeting of the above 
mentioned committee, which is attended by several Heads of 
Departments, then the Chairman's power shall be weakened 
accordingly. For instance, if the divisional meeting, consisting 
of six Department Heads and its Chairman as the sole veto 
member, passes an issue by majority, then each Department 
will share (s^) 3! 3!/7!=3/28=10.7% of the above Division 
power, which is 2/35, i.e., each Head's voting power is (3/28) 
(2/35) = 0.00612 (less than 1%). In this case the Division Chair- 
man's power is reduced to (1-18/28) (2/35)= 1/49 i 0.0204 
from 0.0571. 

Even though the power of a Department Head is insignifi- 
cant with respect to the whole power structure of the institute, 
he can have an absolute power over professors who belong to 
his department, on certain matters. The relative power of a 
professor to that of his Department Head decreases obviously 
as his influence on departmental affairs diminishes. 

^ (93)=9!/3!6! is the number of combinations of taking 3 objects at a time out 
of 9 objects. In general(np)=n!/p! (n-p)! 


Now we investigate a structural change caused by creation 
of a Senate (to initiate constructive dialogues and thus to 
promote democracy) within the institute. Assume that the 
Senate is composed of eleven elected Professors, outside of 
the above mentioned executive officials, and most importantly 
assume that the President and the Senate alone can carry a 
measure on which both agree, independently from the execu- 
tive committee discussed above. Let us call the committee 
consisting of the President and the Senate the Presenate com- 
mittee. (It is considered to consist of two members.) Since the 
two committees are independent and exclusive of one another 
in their functions, each one shares precisely one half of the 
total power 1. Since the Senate clearly shares one half of the 
power that the Presenate committee can exert, the Senate 
enjoys 1/2 x 1/2= 1/4 of the total power, and thus each senator 
enjoys 1/44 = 0.0227. After this change a Division Chairman's 
power, without Divisional meeting, shall be decreased by 
half to 1/35 = 0.0285 (a bit greater than a senator, and that of 
the Dean to 5/28= 0.1786, whereas that of the President 
shall be increased to 0.4286 from 0.3571. 

In case the Dean joins the Presenate committee to form 
P-D-S (three member-) committee in which only the President 
has the veto power, the distribution of power for the President, 
the Dean, a Division Chairman, and a senator will be 0.5118, 
0.2618, 0.0285 and 0.0075, respectively. By this change, we note 
that the powers of the President and the Dean increase, whereas 
that of a senator falls from the level of a Division chairman to 
that of a Department head. 

Finally, we note that the power indices which appeared 
in Power Structure II are computed under either ideal or 
simplified situations based on several assumptions (e.g., in its 
decision making rules). Apparently, the President's power is 
immensely greater if we consider numerous measures which 
need not filter through any of the above mentioned channels 
(assuming this institution is completely autonomous). 

We assumed also, with a slight mystifying effect, that the 
two committees share equal power because simply they have 
equal potential. In reality, however, the relative power of one 


committee depends on its relative amount of activity, relative 
to the other committee. 

The proposed West Georgia College Senate, regardless 
of its final form, will not have any real power such as that 
described above. The Congress in Washington derives its 
power from the Constitution which provides, among other 
things, that the President, and all civil officers of the United 
States may be removed by impeachment and that it can over- 
ride a President's veto by a two-thirds vote in each House. 
Whereas the college Senate is utterly powerless against a 
President's veto and this is inevitable within the power struc- 
ture prescribed by the Faculty Handbook. Thus the Senate 
becomes merely an extension of the former Advisory Council, 
without attaining any more power. 

However, some usefulness of the Senate lies in the fact 
that it will have one much louder voice (or cry) than that of 
any one ordinary member of the College, and also in the hope 
that some of the President's power may be delegated to the 
Senate by letting it decide certain academic matters. For 
instance, the Senate may succeed in persuading the President 
to require the Senate's consent prior to his decision on certain 
academic matters. This way the Senate can create a veto power 
in a limited area. 

Another way of looking at the usefulness of the Senate 
under the proposed constitution depends too much on a Presi- 
dent's liking. The Senate, to have a real power independent 
of who the President is, requires a drastic amendment of the 
Handbook. This may not happen unless there is a confronta- 
tion between the Board of Regents and all faculties under the 
University System of Georgia which is a most unlikely event 
to expect now. 

Selected Bibliography 
Kemeny, John G.; Snell, G. Laurie; and Thompson, Gerald L. 
Introduction to Finite Mathematics. Englewood Cliffs, 
N. J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1956. 

Shapley, L. S. and Shubik, M. "A method of evaluating the 
distribution of power in a committee system." The Ameri- 
can Political Science Review, XLVIII (1954), 787-792. 




Harold Frederic's The Damnation of Theron Ware has 
received little attention in critical articles despite its being 
one of the most interesting novels in the naturalistic tradition. 
Wherever it has been considered, it has been treated as one 
of the better examples of naturalism. There is one notable 
exception: C. C. Walcutt says that Theron Ware is not a 
naturalistic novel when he argues that Theron is held respon- 
sible for his action, and "If there is any guiding idea behind 
his disintegration it is that his Methodism and his limited 
background have failed to give him a cultural tradition upon 
which he could base his conduct. "^ According to Professor 
Walcutt the fate of the naturalistic protagonist must be directed 
by "economic, social, and physiological" factors which control 
the man as a pawn on a chessboard; such a protagonist has no 
free will, and ethical responsibility should not be allowed to 
intrude into the novel. A novel is not naturalistic unless, 
somehow, "the philosophy of materialistic monism is applied 
to its conception of execution." Finally he concludes, "Theron 
Ware is not a naturalistic novel because the author could not 
eliminate ethical judgments and motivations in favor of ma- 
terialistic ones. "2 Professor Walcutt here, and elsewhere, 3 
acknowledges the flaw in such dogmatic insistence on defi- 
nition, and he admits that in most other respects Theron Ware 
is naturalistic. But even within the narrow limitations which 
he has set on the definition of the naturalistic novel, I think 
we may argue that Theron Ware is a naturalistic novel. 

*Assistant Professor of English, West Georgia College, Carrollton. Georgia. 

1 C. C. Walcutt, "Harold Frederic and American Naturalism," American 
Literature. XI (Mar., 1939), 21. 


3 C. C. Walcutt, "The Naturalism of Vandover and the Brute,"' A Grammar 
of Literary Criticism, ed. Lawrence Sargent Hall, (New York, 1965), pp. 293- 


Theron Ware is a young Methodist preacher who at the 
beginning of the novel is eager, confident, devout in his rehgion, 
and comparatively liberal, but he is also ambitious of recogni- 
tion and worldly riches. From the beginning then we are aware 
that Theron has a flaw in his nature which is particularly 
dangerous to a clergyman. We are also aware that Theron pos- 
sesses an as-yet-vaguely-defined longing for a richer intellectual 
life. There is then suggested to us in the very first glimpse of 
Rev. Ware a man whose veneer of Christian purity covers a 
materialistic soul. 

Theron and his young wife Alice are disappointed in their 
hopes of being assigned to the wealthy and comparatively 
sophisticated city of Tecumseh, New York. He is sent instead 
to the small, poor, and fundamentalist town of Octavius. 
Theron at once begins to think of ways to make more money 
and earn a measure of renown. He decides to write a book, 
and in his search for information he meets the worldly and 
intellectual Father Forbes, the beautiful and talented organist 
of the Catholic church, Celia Madden, and the arch-cynic, 
Dr. Ledsmar, a retired physician who now carries on private 
research. These three are attracted to Theron Ware because 
of his innocence, and they take considerable delight in edu- 
cating him in their various intellectual outlooks. Father Forbes 
is a mere figurehead who no longer preaches because the 
people do not want to hear preaching; he says what they want 
to hear, repeating automatically the traditional cant of the 
Church. He is an epicurian, cultured and decadent. Celia 
Madden is the 'new woman,' a Greek in her philosophy, which 
is indeed shallow but impressive to the unwary Theron. Dr. 
Ledsmar is a retired physician who now conducts basic research 
on evolution in plants and animals. Theron comes to love 
Celia, respect Father Forbes and stand in awe of Dr. Ledsmar's 
intellectual achievements. 

At the same time his difficulties with his backward congre- 
gation are greatly improved by Sister Soulsby and her husband, 
paid debt-raisers, who raise the required money to get the 
church out of debt and bolster Theron's flagging spirits. Their 
crass materialistic methods, however, are one of the first of 


many shocks from which Theron never quite recovers, although 
he does come to like Sister Soulsby very much. 

As Theron becomes enmeshed with Celia and her friends, 
his character continually degenerates. He begins to suspect 
his wife of carrying on an affair with one of the trustees, and 
inevitably through his loss of innocence — he becomes a very 
unpleasant character. Finally, Celia tells him how he has come 
to be regarded by her set. 

"We were disposed to like you very much when we first 
knew you," Celia went on. "You impressed us as an inno- 
cent, simple, genuine young character, full of mother's 
milk. It was like the smell of early spring in the country 
to come in contact with you. Your honesty of nature, your 
sincerity in that absurd religion of yours, your general 
naivete of mental and spiritual get-up, all pleased us a 
great deal. We thought you were going to be a real acqui- 
sition . . . But then it became apparent, little by little, that 
we had misjudged you. We liked you, as I have said, because 
you were unsophisticated and delightfully fresh and natural. 
Somehow we took it for granted you would stay so But 
that is just what you didn't do,— just what you hadn't the 
sense to try to do. Instead, we found you inflating yourself 
with all sorts of egotisms and vanities. We found you pre- 
suming upon the friendships which has been mistakenly 
extended to you. Do you want instances? You went to Dr. 
Ledsmar's house that very day after I had been with you 
to get a piano at Thurston's, and tried to inveigle him into 
talking scandal about me. You came to me with tales about 
him. You went to Father Forbes, and sought to get him to 
gossip about us both. Neither of those men will ever ask 
you inside his house again. But that is only one part of it. 
Your whole mind became an unpleasant thing to contem- 

This is a rather brutal speech, and we ought to be shocked 
by it. Theron Ware certainly is. He first tries to drink himself 

* Harold Frederic, The Damnation of Theron Ware (New York, 1897), 
pp. 478-479. 


into oblivion and when this fails he visits Sister Soulsby, his 
only friend. Here he collapses, and when he revives again, 
months later, he gives up the ministry and arranges to go into 
business on the West Coast. He is reunited with Alice, and 
they seem to be comparatively happy. This basic plot is certain- 
ly in keeping with the naturalistic tradition. 

Now, let us consider briefly what the naturalist is trying 
to do in the novel. He attempts to gain the objectivity of the 
pure scientist conducting a controlled experiment, placing a 
subject with known limitations into a controlled environment. 
Like the scientist he knows that the subject must react in the 
only way his limitations, and the limitations which his environ- 
ment impose upon him, will let him react. If the subject is, 
say for example, a mouse placed in a maze which is too complex 
for him to solve he may well die of frustration, or by pure 
chance discover the way out. His choice, of course, would 
be to go straight to the door, but the maze will not let him. 
A mouse in a maze may be able to retrace his steps and go 
back, but hunger or some other motivation drives him on. 
In the case of Theron Ware— as with all men — the forward 
process is rendered irrevocable and irreversible by time. 
Theron Ware with his limited personality, his ignorance, 
his desire for worldly riches and worldly acclaim is placed 
in a world in which he is bound to be frustrated; it is an un- 
solvable maze to him, this little town and its fundamentalist 
congregation, complicated still further by the suave world of 
Father Forbes. And it was inevitable that Theron, with his 
particular susceptibilities, would meet such worldly people; 
inevitable too, that his own fundamentalism should be shaken 
to the roots, that he should succumb to such blase outlooks. 
We are only surprised that he has come as far as he has. He is 
plagued by financial worries, which the Soulsbys have to solve 
for him. He is totally at variance with the two social orders 
of the town and courts the one which is bound to hurt him 
most. Physiologically he is incapable of the strain, and twice 
he experiences mental and physical breakdowns in his efforts 
to solve the increasingly complex riddle of Octavius. 

Professor Walcutt insists that Theron's failure is due to 
his awareness of his ethical responsibility: his troubles are 


brought on when in the free exercise of his will he chooses 
the wrong path, or rather, Frederic wishes us to see these 
ideals as the moral of the novel. Dr. Walcutt argues that 
Frederic fails "to make any operation of determinism control 
the pattern of his story," that Frederic is, instead, concerned 
with the wickedness of the town and that his faith in the com- 
mon man has kept him from "achieving the scientific detach- 
ment essential to naturalism." 

If this is so, we should be able to see at once the wickedness 
that Frederic is attacking, the common man he is praising. But 
we do not. The congregation, it is true, are painted in uncom- 
plimentary terms, but we need to remember that Frederic 
allows Theron to be the center of consciousness with consistency 
throughout the first part of the novel, and it is only occasionally 
-and that largely toward the end — that we see anything, except 
as Theron and Alice see it. By the end of the novel, however, 
we do see that the Methodists of Octavius are narrow-minded 
and have their rascals like any other society, but in many 
ways they are good people, forgiving and even generous. It 
is part of Frederic's art to conceal from us Theron's true 
deterioration until it is well in progress. In like manner Fred- 
eric never does condemn the Catholic element of Octavius 
who are as hypocritical in their way as Theron is in his. How, 
for example, did Celia know how prone to gossip Theron was 
if she and Father Forbes and Dr. Ledsmar had not been gossip- 
ing about Theron? Nor can I see that we are supposed to 
condemn Theron Ware; he has been led astray by his own 
faulty nature, but appearances have deceived him also. 
For example, Theron misjudges Alice and Levi Gorringe, 
thinking that they are lovers, or about to become lovers. 
Theron is wrong, but up until Theron's confrontation with 
Gorringe we share with him the misconception. Gorringe's 
intentions are never made clear, and Alice, while she is blame- 
less, is certainly highly suspect in her actions. Who then is 
Frederic condemning? I think no one. Rather Frederic has 
admirably achieved an objectivity which is so removed from 
the actions of the novel that Walcutt has mistakenly seen 
Theron Ware's misconceived notions as Frederic's moral 


It seems clear that Frederic has allowed the directing 
influence of "economic, social and physiological" factors. 
Theron is also limited in the choices he can make; he does 
not have "free will." The description he gives of himself at 
the end of the novel makes this point quite clear. 

"I look all around at myself, and there isn't an atom left 
anywhere of the good man I used to be. And, mind you, I 
never lifted a finger to prevent the change. I didn't resist 
once; I didn't make any fight. I just walked dehberately 
down-hill, with my eyes wide open. I told myself all the 
while that I was climbing up-hill instead, but I knew in my 
heart that it was a lie. Everything about me was a lie. I 
wouldn't be telling the truth now, even now, if —if I hadn't 
come to the end of my rope. Now how do you explain that? 
How can it be explained? Was I really rotten to the core 
all the time, years ago, when I seemed to everybody, my- 
self included, to be good and straight and sincere? Was 
it all a sham, or does God take a good man and turn him 
into an out-and-out bad one, in just a few months, — in the 
time that it takes an ear of corn to form and ripen and go 
off with the mildew? Or isn't there any God at all, — but 
only men who live and die like animals? And that would 
explain my case wouldn't it? I got bitten and went vicious 
and crazy, and they've had to chase me out and hunt me 
to my death like a mad dog! . . ."^ 

The naturalistic materialism of Theron's groping explanation 
is an almost classic statement of the naturalists' point of 
view. And Frederic, in true scientific fashion, does not intrude 
to tell us which solution to assume to be his, for equally 
convincing is Sister Soulsby's answer, "The sheep and the 
goats are to be separated on Judgment Day, but not a minute 
sooner. "6 

We may now, I believe, accept back, as a member in good 
standing. The Damnation of Theron Ware into the mainstream 
of naturalism. But just to make its position more concrete 

^Ibid., pp. 498-499. 
^Ibid., pp. 478-479. 


let me introduce one more point. Dr. Walcutt says nothing 
about one of the favorite themes of naturahstic fiction: 
that of the "beast within." We find this theme used by Frank 
Norris {Vandover and the Brute, McTeague, and Louth), by 
Zola {L'Arsommoir and La Bete) and by Jack London {Martin 
Eden). Simply stated, the theme is that "as a result of some 
crisis . . . the veneer of civilization drops or is stripped away 
and we are faced with the primal instinct of the brute strug- 
gling for its life . . .'"^ When we reconsider Theron Ware with 
this theme in mind, we discover that Frederic has one more 
point in common with the other naturalists. Ware goes through 
two crises: the first brings him out of his innocence and into 
the darkly sophisticated— almost pagan— world of Celia; and 
for a while it looks as though the frustrated beast will die in 
the maze; he has no other self into which he can retreat. But 
instead of regressing further in a direction which has proved 
so fruitless, Theron chooses a different road altogether. It 
is almost as if the scientist— to carry the analogy a step further 
—had taken the animal out of the hopless maze and put him 
into another, where success or failure have yet to be deter- 
mined. He is not the beast which Norris and Zola thought 
dwelt beneath the veneer of every-man, but he is much less 
of a civilized man than he once thought himself. Frederic was 
not the devoted Spencerian that London was; his concept of 
the beast is not so violent as that of Zola and Norris. But the 
principle is the same. 

We may sum up Frederic's naturalism by saying that he 
is very much a determinist and Theron Ware is an excellent 
example of his brand of determinism. Ware is caught in a 
maze, in a way of life in which he is doomed to fail from the 
beginning. The nature and mechanics of his biologically 
determined fate is expressed in the last chapter when Sister 
Soulsby says, "If there hadn't been a screw loose somewhere 
. . . Octavius wouldn't have hurt him. No, take my word for 
it, he never was the right man for the place. He seemed to be, 
no doubt, but he wasn't. When pressure was put on him, it 

'^ Malcolm Cowley, "From A Natural History of American Naturalism," A 
Grammar of Literary Criticism, p. 286. 


found out his weak spot like a shot, and pushed on it and — 
well, it came near smashing him, that's all."^ 

This is as naturaHstic an explanation of human conduct 
as may be found anywhere; it allows for the full play of socio- 
economic and physiological forces and it scrupulously avoids 
the need for ethical judgments on the part of the author. 

Frederic, pp. 507-508. 




Why do a number of intellectual, able pupils fail in such 
an important and basic subject as reading? Many investigators 
have asked this question, but unfortunately no clear and 
concise answer has as yet been found. The Review of Educa- 
tional Research (1959) lists no fewer than twenty-six major 
studies on our topic. ^ The object of this paper is to review 
some important aspects of this research on reading problems 
of the underachieving gifted child and to suggest some tenta- 
tive directions for improvement. 

In recent years a great deal of attention has been focused 
upon the problems of language, their relationship to the 
intelligence quotient (I.Q.), language proficiency and social 
class, and similar variables. Many projects have centered upon 
reading as the key to improvement. And since reading includes 
the ability to recognize certain symbols and to interpret their 
meaning, a good deal of attention has been directed toward 
cognition. Though the picture is yet far from clear, a few 
points begin to emerge. 

One of the most important investigators is Martin Deutsch, 
who performed a series of studies in New York, using white 
as well as black school children, and taking into account such 
variables as sex and socio-economic level. His major finding 
was that differences in language performance which correlate 
with social class also correlate with differences in I.Q.^ And 

*Professor of Special Education, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, 

^ A bibliography on "The Education of Exceptional Children" covering a 
six year period. Subsequent issues published in February, 1963 and February, 
1966, list many additional studies. 

2 Martin Deutsch, "The Role of Social Class in Language Development and 
Cognition,"'' American Journal of Oethopsychiatry, XXXV (Jan., 1965), 78-88. 


the study by Kennedy, Van De Riet, and White^ shows that 
there is a direct relationship between social class and the de- 
crease in I.Q. over increasing age. Combining the two, then, 
would lead to the assumption that the acquisition of language 
at the subsequent levels of development of the individual 
plays an important role in this whole area of low achievement, 
decreasing I.Q., and discrepancy between expected classroom 
performance and actual performance. 

And, indeed, this position is supported by a number of 
studies which indicate that poor achievement in later years 
may have its origin in language deficiencies at an early age. 
For instance, Thomas* studied sentence development and 
vocabulary usage in the spoken language of white and Negro 
low socio-economic status children in kindergarten in a Mid- 
western city. The following measures were taken: length of 
verbal response, complexity of sentence structure, proportion 
of parts of speech, types and frequency of grammatical errors. 
One finding of interest was that these children failed to use 
20 to 50 percent of the words contained in five of the standard 
word lists recommended for the primary grades. A British 
investigator, Bernstein, ^ extended this type of measurement 
to adolescents of lower- and middle-class status. He suggested 
that the language deficiencies in culturally impoverished 
groups might well find their origin in the modes of interaction 
in the families. The lower-class parents tend to exert arbitrary 
authority and are rather categorical in demands and discipline. 
Thus, these children are deprived of the opportunity to explore 
alternatives verbally and lack experience in conceptuahzation 
and reasoning. 

^ Wallace A. Kennedy, Vernon Van De Riet and James C. White, Jr., "A 
Normative Sample of Intelligence and Achievement of Negro Elementary 
School Children in the Southeastern United States," Monographs of the 
Society for Research in Child Development, No. 90, XXVIII, No. 4 (1963), 

* Dominic R. Thomas, "Oral Language, Sentence Structure and Vocabulary 
of Kindergarten Children Living in Low Socio-Economic Urban Areas," 
Dissertation Abstracts, MXIV, No. 3 (1962). 

^ Basil Bernstein, "Language and Social Class." British Journal of Sociology, 
XI (Sep., 1960), 271-276. 


This finding is corroborated by Ester Milner,^ who com- 
pared the social backgrounds of two groups of first-grade 
Negro children. One group had made high scores on language 
development tests; the other group had low scores. It was 
found that the high scorers had participated more in family 
conversation and had experienced more overt affection. 
Deutsch and Brown'^ had also noted elements of preschool 
educational experience and family stability. The conclusions, 
then, indicate that attention should be focused on early educa- 
tion. Since prevention is always better than treatment, the 
school should try to do as much as possible for the develop- 
ment of preschool programs, particularly for the socially 
disadvantaged children. 

Usually teachers are not faced with the problem of under- 
achievement of gifted children until the pupil is well beyond 
the preschool age. What can be done when such a child is 
identified during the school years? It has been demonstrated 
many times that the interest of the parents in the education 
of their children is of great impact on the achievement of 
these children. So, whatever educators will be doing, they 
should be careful to let the parents know, to arouse their 
interest, and to make clear to the parents that they should 
let this interest be known to their children in a non-disciplinary 
manner. It is often assumed that lower-class parents have no 
interest in the education of their children. This is a great 
fallacy, as research and experience have shown. The problem 
is that lower-class parents do not know how to express this 
interest toward teacher and child, and they often have a 
somewhat stereotyped concept of what is important and what 
is not important in education. 

^ Ester Milner, "A Study of the Relationship Between Reading Readiness in 
Grade One School Children and Patterns of Parent-Child Interaction," Child 
Development, XXII (Jun., 1951), 95-112. 

' Martin Deusch and Bert Brown, "Social Influences in Negro- White Intel- 
ligence DiUerences,'' Journal of Social Issues, XX (Apr., 1964), 24-35. 


This conclusion is supported by a study reported by Mink,^ 
who subjected eight underachieving gifted youngsters from 
the seventh and eighth grades to a series of eleven counsehng 
group sessions with a psychologist. The parents also met with 
the psychologist for one two-hour session and one one-hour 
session. No changes in achievement occurred, but the author 
concluded that more work with the parents would appear 
profitable. A similar experiment by Shouksmith and Taylor, ^ 
conducted in England, yielded a great deal of success. It was 
a joint counseling program with twelve- and thirteen-year old 
youngsters and their parents. Not only achievement but also 
self-concept, peer acceptance, social acceptance, and readi- 
ness improved greatly. 

Another possibility is to manipulate the environment. 
Individuals have a certain stimulus value: they can either 
stimulate or inhibit each other. Thus, it is sometimes possible 
to change the environment by placing certain underachievers 
with achievers who stimulate them. But if pupils can stimulate 
pupils, then teachers should also be able to provide stimula- 
tion. Some teachers are more of a stimulus to certain youngsters 
than others, and, worse, some simply serve as inhibitors. This 
kind of relationship has again an immediate impact upon the 
self-concept of the underachiever. 

In dealing with early childhood language problems, one 
other aspect should be made clear. The school notices language 
problems as reading problems; yet the language development 
in preschool years is mostly a matter of listening. Thus, audi- 
tory discrimination and articulation are major factors, and 
this brings up the differences in sense modalities. Is language 
mainly a matter of sound symbols, which are perceived audi- 
torily; or is language mainly a matter of visual symbols? Ob- 
viously, both are involved in learning. Thus, whenever reme- 
dial work is done, the remedial teacher should work simul- 

^ Oscar G. Mink, "Multiple Counseling with Underachieving Junior High 
School Pupils of Bright — Normal and Higher — Ability,''' Journal of Education- 
al Research, LVIII (Sep., 1964), 31-34. 

^ George Shouksmith and J. W. Taylor, "The Effect of Counseling on the 
Achievement of High- Ability Pupils," British Journal of Educational Psycho- 
logy, XXXIV (Feb., 1964), 91-102. 


taneously on listening. This is not all. Clearly, symbols, after 
being received by the sense organs, must be decoded. Every 
symbol is sensed in some kind of a code, and the child should 
be able to perceive as well as to decipher the code. Next, 
the messages received should be combined with material 
already present in the memory storage. Furthermore, certain 
mental operations should be performed on these materials. 
Some of these operations are performed automatically, but 
much of it requires thinking and evaluation, which could be 
labeled "integration." The products of these operations must 
then be put into a code in order to be understandable to the 
receiver of the newly generated message. 

On the basis of this model, it is possible to evaluate some 
aspects of language problems. As said before, visual as well 
as auditory messages must be decoded. Thus, it is logical 
to investigate whether auditory decoding can be done by the 
child. In other words: how well does the child understand 
spoken language? Next, the decoding of visual symbols must 
be investigated. This decoding involves not just words, but 
also letters, pictures, and so on, including the meaning of 
these symbols. Then comes the matter of association. Can the 
child associate elements of spoken language and respond orally 
with the right answer? The same question may be asked for 
visual association. For instance, if a picture of a shoe is shown 
(without saying a word) and then a picture of four objects is 
shown, one of which is a sock, can the child associate the two 
items as going together? 

The next problem is encoding. Can the child express him- 
self by gestures concerning objects which he sees and holds, 
without using words? Can the child express himself in words 
without such objects? The use of the structure of the language 
must be investigated also. For instance, in saying "I see the 
tree," there is a definite order of words, an automatic sequence. 
Does the child have mastery of the grammatical rules which 
the English language utilizes automatically in oral expression? 
Is the memory for such sequences present? Then, too, the 
visual motor sequence must be investigated, because reading 
depends on series of sequences. These kinds of evaluations 
are very important, because the teacher learns where the 
weakness is and what can be tried to effect improvement. 


Another important point was brought up by 
Earlier, something was said about motivation and about the 
stimulus value of other children and of teachers. But what 
about the reading material itself? What is of interest to gifted 
low achievers of low socio-economic groups? Frierson's re- 
search provided some answers. Gifted children of low socio- 
economic status differed from those of higher socio-economic 
status in their preferences for reading materials. The first 
group preferred to read comics, particularly those with a 
hero-figure who meets with many adventures. The gifted of 
higher socio-economic families read magazines with more 
educational content. If comics are one's only interest, then, 
by all means, one should utilize them. 

Another difference was the preference of the lower socio- 
economic gifted for competitive team sports rather than 
individual sports. Again, a great deal of listening material as 
well as reading material about team sports could be found. 
Even more enlightening were his comparisons of lower socio- 
economic gifted and lower socio-economic average children. 
The lower-class gifted had the advantage of being likely to 
play a musical instrument, reading the news section of the 
daily paper more often, making up more games to play, and 
preferring to read "classic" or "true" comic books. 

A number of important points were made by Lorene Love 
Art. 11 In discussing the problems of the underachiever, she 
had the following six pieces of advice for teachers: 

First, one must find out whether language is, for this 
child, a desirable form of communication. Even the sternest 
and most austere Pilgrim father had this warm and saga- 
cious diction: "My book and heart must never part." 

Second, the reading literature itself must appeal to the 
pupil. Somehow, we must convert much of today's text- 
book tedium into verbal treasure. 

1° Edward C. Frierson, "Upper and Lower Status Gifted Children: A Study of 
Differences," Exceptional Children, XXXII (Oct., 1965), 83-90. 

11 Lxjrene Lx)ve Art, "Reading Difficulties — A Contributing Factor to Under- 
achievement and Failure in School," Exceptional Children, XXVIII (May, 
1962), 489-492. 


Third, children with reading problems must have "honest" 
teachers; that is, teachers who help children face their 
problems squarely and analytically. Only then can they 
overcome their difficulties. 

Fourth, intensive reading experimentation should take 
place. Since materials available are not necessarily geared 
to the interest level of a young boy or girl, teachers need 
to learn what things do arouse their curiosity and do sustain 
their learning excitement. 

Fifth, although emphasis on remedial reading programs 
must continue, there is a real need for greater emphasis 
on reading practice throughout the school experience. One 
ounce of prevention is better than pounds of remediation. 

Sixth, less stress should be put on time — on when a child 
should learn to read. We profess individual differences, 
but we stress uniformity and conformity. In reading, as in 
other things, we need time for wonder, time for explora- 
tion, time for personal involvement. 

In conclusion and in agreement with these six suggestions, 
research as well as experience has demonstrated that the great- 
est single force in the classroom is a teacher's personal enthu- 







OCT G1970 




Volume III 

May, 1970 

Number 1 

Published By 


A Division of the University System of Georgia 




James E. Boyd, President 

George W. Walker, Vice-President 

John M. Martin, Dean 

Faculty Research Committee 

Floyd L. Blanton Carole E. Scott 

Herman W. Boyd Robert P. Vichas 

James W. Mathews James A. Wash, Jr. 

L. Doyle Mathis Robert M. Welch 

Eugene R. Huck, Chairman and Editor 
Gerald M. Garmon and William L. Lockhart, Assistant Editors 

The purpose of this publication is to provide encourage- 
ment for faculty research and to make available results of 
such activity. 

The Review, published annually, accepts original scholarly 
work and creative writing presented on the authority of the 
author. West Georgia College assumes no responsibility for 
contributors' views. The style guide is Kate L. Turabian, A 
Manual for Writers. Although the Review is primarily a 
medium for the faculty of West Georgia College, other sources 
are invited. 

An annual bibliography includes doctoral dissertations, 
recitals, and art objects. Theses and articles in progress or 
accepted are not listed. The annual bibliography includes 
comprehensive listings for those who are being cited for the 
first time. The ultimate purpose of this inventory, which ap- 
pears as the first number in any year, is to record accomplish- 
ments and encourage further research leading to publication. 


Vol. Ill, No. 1 May, 1970 





International Education, Who Needs It? 
(Convocation Address, Parents Day, 
West Georgia College, May 13, 1970) 

By Eugene R. Huck 3 

How to Get the Most Out of Your Life Insurance Dollar 

By/. Lincoln DeVillier 8 

Higher Education and the Crisis in American Civilization 

By Virginia Meehan 16 

Financial Assistance to Low Income Countries 

By Robert P. Vichas 24 

Abstracts of Master's Theses, 

West Georgia College, 1969 32 

Annual Bibliography of West Georgia College Faculty as of 

January 1, 1970 43 

Copyright © 1970 by West Georgia College 

No part of the material covered by this 

copyright may be reproduced in any form 

without written permission of the publisher. 

Printed in the United States of America 
Printed 1970 



At a time when demonstrations are in vogue and when the youth of 
America are attempting to find a cause to champion, there is one avail- 
able which is getting more and more attention. When so many demon- 
strations tend to be against something such as poverty, pollution, 
prosperity, and parents there is a quiet positive cause which is gaining 
adherents here at West Georgia College and elsewhere in the United 
States. It is a cause to which the generation gap does not apply and 
about which those of us "over thirty" do not have to be defensive. It 
is a cause that can unite parents and students and does not discriminate 
by age, sex, race or station in life. It is one which, on the West Georgia 
College campus, has the combined support of students, faculty, admin- 
istration and alumni. It works actively to draw together town and gown 
and has the support of local businessmen, churches and industry. In 
short, this quiet humanizing and worthwhile cause is international 

Simply defined international education is any study and/or exper- 
ience which gives somebody more information, and hence insight, into 
the culture, life, and beliefs of another nation. It is a two-way street 
between countries. It allows parents to vicariously enjoy the experiences 
of their sons and daughters and thus provides two educations for the 
price of one. For purpose of clarification let us pose three questions. 
The first is why should West Georgia College, or any medium-sized 
college, get involved in international education? Second, what has 
the college community done in this area? And third, what can be done 
in the future? 

This year, 1970, has been designated as International Education 
Year.^ With the Atlanta Airport virtually a hub of international travel. 

*Professor of History and Chairman of the Division of Social Sciences, West 
Georgia College. 

^ By the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, to 
encourage extra-national projects. For information on most any project dealing 
with international education write the Information Services Desk of Education 
and World Affiars, 522 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10036. This agency has 
a new clearing-house service for most available literature on international 

the West Georgia area is only four hours from Mexico City and one 
could have breakfast at home while anticipating supper in Paris or 
Rome. This does show that it is quicker to get "internationalized" than 
it is to travel from central or southern Georgia to Carrollton, Georgia. 

The strength of a college degree depends in large part on the extent 
to which its institution's reputation is known. West Georgia College is 
able to spread its name and fame by participating in internationalism. 
Thus anything that can be done along this line is of major importance in 
support of international education. 

Another reason why a college should internationalize is that many 
students seek jobs in industry and commerce which have international 
operations. Carrollton's Southwire is a case in point. It has activities in 
Brazil and the Caribbean, it has sponsored foreign engineering trainees 
and it operates in a world market. 

International education should be stressed in that many students 
expand their international knowledge through government, military 
service. Peace Corps, or business travel. Would it not be to their ad- 
vantage—and to everyone's— to have some "internationalizing" in con- 
nection with their college work before they leave? 

Humanitarian, religious, and cultural reasons can be added as to 
why international education should be supported. Certainly there are 
many courses at college dealing with foreign lands and these are all 
worthwhile. Let's look, however, at some of the methods other than 
courses whereby this current challenge is being met in the answering 
of the second question "What has West Georgia College done thus far?" 

The college has an International Education Committee which pro- 
motes and coordinates activities. One such program is the annual one-day 
Work/Study Abroad Session to which students and area public school 
teachers are invited. This activity, which is available to the general 
public as well, is a summary of existing programs of international educa- 
tion. Many of those explained at that meeting will be restated here for 
the benefit of parents. Happily the turnout of students to that last 
meeting was large— about 100— thus indicating a real interest. There is 
certainly no apathy among students on this subject. 

The news of the international projects tends to get pushed to the 
rear pages of the campus paper to make way for more sensational items 
but one vital project which received prominent display was the sponsor- 
ship by the Student Government Association of student for a summer 
abroad. Last year student body president Mike Purvis went to Sweden 
and this week's paper announced that Chuck Hill will go to Switzerland 
this summer. All students may compete for this post which carries some 
financial support. The student who goes, called an Outward Ambassador, 

is truly an "Inward Ambassador" in publicizing the merits of such an 
educational augmentation upon his return. 

Another vital program which has operated for several years is the 
University System of Georgia's Study Abroad Program. Every year 
those wishing to perfect a language may attend a major German, Span- 
ish or French University selected for its excellence. At modest cost a 
student may earn fifteen credit hours at West Georgia College while 
learning, through a home stay, the language and customs of his host 
country. Wesi Georgia College had the second number abroad last 
year of any unit in the University System. ^ 

This year of 1970 still another new project has begun which, when 
continued, will offer a college credit opportunity to study abroad in 
one's own discipline. This summer, History Professor W. Cope Good- 
win will direct the work of fifteen students in Spain who could be 
investigating such diverse topics as Roman ruins or the impact of the 
American military bases in the Iberian peninsula. Weekend field trips 
will be an important adjunct to their project and each student will earn 
ten quarter hours. 

An additional program of European study and visitation will also 
be undertaken by alumni of West Georgia College if they choose to 
sign on to a tour spearheaded by Alumni Director MacDonald Willis. 
This will be an inexpensive and pleasant way to visit foreign sites with 
college classmates long after one has graduated. Future plans for this 
program depend on the success of the initial venture. 

Looking towards areas outside of Europe a most significant program 
in which West Georgia College plans membership is the Foreign Center 
Plan of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities. 
This is an especially attractive program in that a student may enroll at 
his home institution, thus qualifying for loans, scholarships, and student 
aid, and have all his records easily kept while receiving part of his 
schooling at Canada or Mexico. The instruction is in English yet a stu- 
dent may take the courses in the local language when he is ready. Under 
this program, which is new this year, centers are planned for all contin- 
ents including a traveling shipboard program. ^ 

^ West Georgia College had thirteen students under this program in 1970 and a 
French major received one of the two French governmental scholarships award- 
ed to students in this program according to Dr. James Mathews, one of the pro- 
gram's state-wide directors. 

3 The AASCU, with its office at One DuPont Circle, Washington, D.C., 20036, 
announced its program and explained it in its news release of March 20, 1970. 

Mexico, which can be reached in less than twenty hours by car, also 
is the locale of a two-month study-tour at Saltillo by Dr. Lucy Ann 
Neblett of Foreign Languages. One other program takes geology students 
on a four-week field trip to the fabulous Guanajuato mining area of 
Central Mexico. This trip in its second year provides college credit 
and is available at a desirable schedule-time in August of each year. 

The faculty of West Georgia College was strengthened for the last 
three years by having Bolivian scholars serve full-time on leave from 
that country's system. Dr. Livia Barbero was sponsored here for two 
years by a federal Visiting Scholar Grant to share international exper- 
iences and information while Professor Gonzalo Gantier is here this 
year to study in the United States higher educational administration 
as operates at West Georgia College. Partly as an outgrowth of this our 
Division of Education will conduct one of the nation's five teacher's 
college international education seminars in October.^ 

Now the third question "What can we do in the future?" To most 
of our students the programs cited are known and they can and do 
explore the possibilities here at will. Parents and citizens, however, 
may not realize yet that they can be the key to the success of interna- 
tional educational programs. One thing that a parent can do is to under- 
stand the desire of students to break out of a provincial shell. Students' 
horizons today are much broader than were those of students twenty 
years ago and their abilities to aid in seeking solutions to momentous 
international problems are expanded. Students wish to act and interact, 
and the world is their arena. Parents can encourage realistic desires 
both by moral and financial aid. This is a significant way of assisting 
in the area of international education. 

There are more modest ways. For four dollars one can have in his 
home each month a copy of an excellent publication of the Pan Ameri- 
can Union publication called Americas. It is available in English, French, 
Portuguese or Spanish and provides an ideal way of brushing up or even 
learning one of those languages. The publication carries no advertising- 
only remarkable stories and fine photographs and is simply one of many 
admirable journals on international themes. 

If one is civic-minded he can work in his community to establish 
the sister town or city idea. Service organizations do this regularly but 

^ Sponsored by the American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education, 
the others are to be at the State University of New York at Albany, New York; 
Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa; the University of New Mexico, Alber- 
querque, New Mexico; and Chico State College, Chico, California. 

there is no reason why private citizens could not do it. Mayors could 
visit each other and businessmen, religious leaders and private citizens 
could cooperate on first written exchanges and then> visits. This is a 
good way to foster international education and all elements of a small 
city could get active. Bremen, Georgia used to have an interchange 
with Bremen, Germany. Think of the possibilities for Cairo, Georgia 
and Cairo, Egypt. Or possibly Vienna, Georgia and Vienna, Austria. 
One hopes that an interchange would not falter on pronunciation. One 
might be in trouble with Tallapoosa or Chickamauga but, of course, 
matching need not have as its first the criteria the same name. Size, 
industries, climates are good bases, too, but interest and enthusiasm 
is the first step. This sister-city concept could lead to other things. 

One such possibility is the "home stay" concept. It could be worked 
in many ways but the idea is to have a foreign visitor in one's home for 
a short or long period of time. Some parents with daughters or sons to 
exchange to a foreign country have many possible avenues to pursue. 
Professor and Mrs. Collus Johnson of the West Georgia faculty current- 
ly have an arrangement working where a college-age Costa Rican girl 
is visiting them. Senorita Enriquetta de Ford is taking classes at West 
Georgia College and many of our students know her and her brother 
Jorge, who preceeded her here. Homestays can be of shorter duration 
and one's sons and daughters could get in touch with several internation- 
al students here who would be delighted to spend a weekend in your 

The local civic clubs in your community all have international 
programs. Many of them, such as Rotary International, offer scholar- 
ships to students to study abroad. Money thus invested pays fine divi- 
dends not only in good talks and fellowship, but it also pays off in good 
human relations, and that pleasant feeling of having contributed to bet- 
ter international understanding albeit in a modest way. 

Many of these suggestions have been directed to parents since this 
is Parents Day. The students in the audience can also participate in 
many of the ways suggested as well as others. There is, for example, 
an International Students Club on campus which, if it is truly to be 
international must have United States members as well. 

The challenge then is clear. Parents and students, indeed, faculty 
and staff can and should participate. There are, I am sure, many pro- 
grams or projects that you each could devise to support international 
education. In conclusion, in the manner of Wally Schirra talking about 
our nation's railroads, I wish to respond to the question "International 
Education— Who Needs It?" The response seems obvious— we all do. 



Since buying life insurance protection is a major expenditure, cost 
comparisons are important and should be relatively easy to make. 
Unfortunately, this is not the case if the cost comparisons are to be 
meaningful. Attempts to study life insurance rates have met resistance 
from life insurance companies, especially some of the larger ones, who 
refused to cooperate in furnishing data.^ Perhaps this resistance results 
from the extreme competition in the life insurance industry which does 
not wish to divulge information to competitors. Whatever the cause, 
one critic charged that 

. . . most buyers and many sellers of life insurance have been 
misled. They know little or nothing about the principles in- 
volved or available alternatives. ...Over the years the com- 
panies have done little or nothing to educate or inform the 
pubHc and their salesmen about mortality, interest, and ex- 
pense. On the contrary, much of the sales literature and many 
of the sales presentations seem to be based on the idea that 
"if you can't sell them, confuse them."^ 

Many popular fallacies concerning life insurance persist. Some of 
these mistaken beliefs are harmless in themselves, but the results of 
holding such beliefs can be tragic if the insured compromises family 
protection for a "cash value" return at some future date. For example, 
a young man of 22 with only $100 to spend for insurance can buy any one 
of the following coverages: $20,000 of term; $7,100 of straight life; 

*Associate Professor of Business Administration and Head, Department of 
Business Administration, West Georgia College. 

^ The Consumers Union Report on Life Insurance: A Guide to Planning & 
Buying the Protection You Need, Consumers Union, Mount Vernon, New York, 
1967, pp. 9-10. The material is based on a three-part series generally titled 
"How to Buy Life Insurance" which appeared in the Jan., Feb., and Mar., 1967, 
issues of Consumer Reports. 

2 William B. Rudd, in a paper presented to the Placer County Medical Society, 
Mar. 15, 1965 endtled "The Tail Wags the Dog." Mr. Rudd is a Chartered Life 
Underwriter (CLU), Chartered Property Casualty Underwriter (CPCU), and a 
Registered Investment Adviser and is actively engaged in the insurance and 
investment business in Sacramento, California. 

$5,800 of family income; or $2,200 of 20-year endowment.^ It is quite 
obvious that, in the event of premature death, his dependents would be 
better off had he purchased term insurance with the higher death bene- 
fits rather than one of the other forms of insurance.^ 

The purpose of this paper is to analyze selected life insurance alter- 
native with special emphasis on the group life insurance program at 
West Georgia College. The group plan is a form of term insurance that 
does not build up any cash value, but does provide considerable econ- 
omic protection for a very small premium while the insured is employed 
at the college. Should a person covered under the group plan leave 
employment at West Georgia College, the group life insurance can then 
be replaced with individual Hfe insurance without medical examination. 
Three common fallacies that will be explored in relation to the analysis 
of the group life insurance plan at West Georgia College are the follow- 

"I do not like this group life insurance because it does not 
build up a cash value." 

"My 'permanent' life insurance does not cost me anything 
anymore because the annual increase in cash value plus divi- 
dends exceed my annual premium." 

"I do not like term insurance because is costs more in later 

Tables I and II compare the relative merits of investing fixed sums 
in whole-life insurance policies^ with the same results that could be ob- 
tained by investing similar sums in group life insurance (with face values 
equal to the whole life policies) and placing the premium differences 
in savings at five per cent compounded annually. In both comparisons, 
the results favor the latter alternative. 

3 Jerome B. Cohen, Decade of Decision, Institute of Life Insurance, New York, 
1969, p. 29. Free from the Educational Division, Institute of Life Insurance, 
277 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y. 10017. 

■* Term insurance contracts are issued for a specified number of years and do 
not usually contain any savings element. Usually these contracts are renewable 
up to a specified age without further medical examination. These contracts 
may also be convertible into another form of coverage, whole life, for example. 

^ Whole (or straight) life insurance contracts include a savings element and may 
be kept in force for as long as is desired or until the contract expires, which is 
never past age 100. Premiums are usually payable as long as the insured lives. 



-1-' c «" 

+^ tsi -^ 











































^ Jd < 

o (U C 

S "^ 2 

S § 3 

-3 3 on 

M O C 

G a,-'- 

« p o 

-J ^ "^ 

a, 5 «>^ 

3 QJ CO 

O cd 

>- -C 


Oh T3 

<U «. C 

So ^ Kl 

<i> .2; 

^ tu o 

^ w) 

2 on cd 

o S< ^ 

Oc^ E 

c O 


-. ill 

£ g « 
^ > S 

m Tt; lo 00 vo a\ ^ r-; 00 
<ys T^ \6 ^ r-' r-* (N \d <m' 
(N in tj- ro m oo oo_^ r-^ 
Tt oo" 

+ + + 

+ + + + 








*^ S5 

0) in 

« I^ 

C re 


5 i 

c a 

.2 E 

E o 

S u 

i S 

tS E 
3 .5 
E E 

3 0) 


















u o 1 












O r^ m m -^ 

in rtm o^ ^ 

On ^ ^O in oo' 

-^ — 00 t^ t^ 

<N^ in r^_^ O^ r«T^ 

m in r- \o vo 

CnI (N (N r^J (N 

\0 -^ 00 -rf 

ON ON -^^ 00 

r-" ON ^ ^' 
m Tf r^ r*^ 
^ <N^ "n^ in^ 
oo" ro —T (~~r 
(N m '^ ■* 


in Tj- m (^ "X) ON ON "^. 00 


<^J in r-- O r<^_^ ^ (Ni^ in^ in^ 

^ ^ m 00 \x5 fN 

-H (N 

q p p p p p p p p 

sd ri oo' '*' o o o o o 
— r<iTf^t^in-^'vO'* 

-^ (^ Tj- in 

in p m p in O p O m 

in -^ vd <N r- in O in (N 

O— '-H(N(Nin-^^ON 

'^ 00 (N^ vq_ o^ o_^ — <^ — <^ -^^ 
— r — r cnT -^^ oo' r-T •<^" 


— I (N m m 























^ (U 

s s 

— , -^ < < u 








































































































































— r 



,— T 












■K .s ■- 

^ g J. 

c - ^ 
n; a> c« 

^ c 

- <ii •- 

c <^ ^ 
> 3 ^ 

^ ■£ fc 

^ C 3 

r- i_ c/5 

S Oh ^ 

^ <U C 


w B 

fl» c o 
c c ^-^ 


<u -- C 
V3 5 < ^ 
1— 1 "" 

<u y « S 

o =0 c i; 

:^- 3 3 c/2 

^ 55 O C 

c ^ P O 

""di ° § 

E D- S ^ 

(U O CO 

> - *- -^ 

►= ^ ft. -ra 

^ <i> ^ 

CO un 

O (^ -^ 

ex, 00 ^ . 

ei? •— «^ 

o <u M 2 

U O c/2 c 

a SO. 

8 2 > 

•^ — c 

5 § c 

ra re 

4^ (0 

H uJ 
































4^ (0 

H ui 


























U Q. 1 

.S is 

in m r- vo O ro 00 

r^ m r~ cN r^_ On f<^ 

ro i> rf (N ^D On '^' 

O OS t^ O I> O VO 

o ^^ <» -^^ f*\ t^„ <~i, 

— r -^" ^ ci (N "^ oT 

+ + 4- + + 4- + 

m 00 o-i ^ O ro 00 

r- ^ 00 — ; r~; -^ 00 

r<S t^ rn \d O r-~ O 

o ^n \o C-l -^ — ' in 

O 0_ ^ ro ^ ^_^ ^^ 

x^T r-- 00 oC o t~^ ^ 

m ro (^ m -^ tJ- 10 

10 00 ri ^ O r*^ 00 

r- ^ 00 — r~; --; oo_ 

rn r~-' rn ^' o r-^ o 

o in \o ^^l tj- -^ *n 

O O '— rn m 'O ^ 


10 <N — ' 

o p p p p p p 
06 ■sb '^' (N o o o 
in -H r~- (^ ON 00 r~ 
ri in C-- O^ C)^ m^ 00^ 
^' ^- (N m 

o O p p p p p 

o' o o o o o p 
o o^ o__ o^ o^ o^ o__ 

in in in in in in in 

m ro rn ro ro m rn 

O m in O O O O 

O — ' p On p rNj in 

o o cK rn ■<^" r-' ^ 

^ 00 r) ^ O 00 

m r^ <N -^ ON <^ 

^H (N m r~ r^ 


in o in O m o in 

r^ in (N p r~- m (N 

-^ m in r~ 00 t^ ^ 

\0 (N 00 -^ O — ' r^ 

rg m^ r-^ o^ r<^ ^^ on 

^ (N m in >o fN 00 


*-. -o -a -C ^ X -C 

00 c 1-1 +->■'-' i^ ••-' 

" fN m -^ m O m 



■Q) _S 


E >^ 

a> <u 

:5 o 

2 d 

-H '^ 

— H o 

2 i 

2i 2i 

^ ^ < 

c o 
< U 

60 «> 


In Table I, it is assumed ttiat the insurea is a male, age 30, and has 
$25,000 of insurance. The annual premium for the whole-life policy is 
$404.50; for the same coverage under group insurance, the premium is 
$156.00. The premium difference of $249.50 is placed in savings at 5 
per cent. As can be seen in Column 3 of the table, the guaranteed cash 
value of the whole-life policy is nil for the first two years; at the same 
time, the premium differences under the group plan (Column 6) amount 
to $511.47. One major difference which is not brought out in many so- 
called comparisons of term versus other forms of life insurance is the 
actual total estate buildup under the two programs. Under the whole- 
life program illustrated, the total estate never exceeds the face amount 
of the policy, $25,000. A program combining group life and investment 
of the difference always results in a total eatate that is more than the 
face amount of the pohcy. The total estate includes the face amount 
of the policy ($25,000 in this case) plus the savings shown in Column 6. 
At the end of the 35th year, when the insured is 65 years of age, his 
total savings amount to $22,534.84 as compared to the cash value build- 
up of $13,792.00 in the whole-life poHcy. It is quite evident that as an 
investment medium the whole-life policy in this illustration is far inferior 
to the results obtainable under the college group-life plan. 

In Table II, it is assumed that the insured is a male, age 50, and has 
$35,000 of insurance. The annual premium for the whole-life policy is 
$1,261.75. The same $35,000 of coverage is obtainable under the college 
group plan for $258, a difference of $1,003.75. Again, the cash value of 
the whole-life policy is nil for the first year and only $360.15 at the end 
of the second year. At the end of the second year, the premium dif- 
ferences (Column 6) now amount to $2,057.68. At the end of the 15th 
year, when the insured is 65 years of age, the annual premium differences 
of $1,003.75 (compounded at 5 per cent) amount to $21,650.88, whereas 
at the end of the 15th year, the cash value of the whole-life policy 
amounts to only $12,386.50. The cash difference of $9,264.38 favors 
participation in the group plan and investment of the premium dif- 
ferences compounded at 5 per cent. Again, the total estate under the 
two plans must be taken into consideration: The total estate under the 
whole-life policy never exceeds the face value of $35,000, whereas the 
total estate under the group life plus investment plan amounts to 

From the cost comparisons in Tables I and II, it is clearly evident 
that the individual who uses a "permanent" form of insurance as a 
medium for accumulating savings is getting a relatively low return on 
his investment. West Georgia College employees can accumulate a 
larger "cash value" by using the group life insurance program for in- 
surance needs and placing the difference in a savings account than they 


could by buying some form of expensive insurance coverage that builds 
up a cash value in the policy itself. For those persons who profess to 
being unable to save unless involved in some form of semi-compulsion 
plan— a cash value life insurance program, for example— the tax-shelter- 
ed annuity plan at West Georgia College may be the answer. The current 
rate of interest on savings in 5.25 per cent, a bit more than that used in 
this paper. 

A second popular fallacy is that "permanent" life insurance does not 
cost anything if the annual increase in cash value plus dividends exceeds 
annual premium. The policyholder who accepts this reasoning is prob- 
ably overlooking "opportunity cost," the alternative that is being sacri- 
ficed. If the policyholder realizes that this cash value is actually his own 
money which is actually on loan at a very low rate of interest to the 
insurance company, he might have second thoughts about this "free" or 
"no-cost" insurance. Each case must be analyzed individually; however, 
the following analysis made of a case in 1969 may hefp clarify. 

The insured, age 53 in 1969, had purchased a $10,000 life-paid-up- 
at-65 policy in 1950, with premiums of $302 per year. By 1969, the pohcy 
had a guaranteed cash value of $4,385.50. The actual insurance cover- 
age, therefore, was only $5,614.50 ($10,000 face amount minus $4,385.50 
cash value=$5,614.50). The "dividend" in 1969 was $150; the increase 
in cash value, if the policy were held another year, would be $260.00. 
The insured, still insurable, decided to surrender the policy for its 
cash value and buy term insurance instead. The following analysis 
convinced him that this step was advisable: 

a. Gross mcome to the insurance company: 

Annual premium $ 302.00 

Interest earned on cash value 

(assumes 6 per cent of $4,385.00) 263.13 

Total income to the company $ 565.13 

b. Non-insurance benefits to policyholder: 

Current dividend $ 150.00 

Increase in cash value 260.00 

Total non-insurance benefits $ 410.00 

c. Net cost of insurance protection 

($565.13 minus $410.00) $ 155.13 

d. Amount of actual insurance protection 

($10,000 minus $4,385.50) $5,614.50 

e. Cost of insurance per $1,000 

($155.13 divided by 5.6145) $ 27.65 


The policyholder bought $6,000 of term insurance through a military 
association for an annual premium of $63.72, which amounts to $10.62 
per $1,000. The $4,385.50 cash value of the surrendered policy was 
invested in a government-agency bond at 8 per cent. His actual savings 
in the first year was $287.12, computed as follows: 

Interest earned on cash value 

($4,385.50 X 8 per cent) $ 350.84 

Less cost of insurance to keep estate 

at about $10,000 level (6 X $10.62) 63.72 

Net savings for first year $ 287, 12 

It is quite obvious from the above analysis that the fallacy of "free" 
or "no-cost" insurance may often be an expensive illusion. 

The third popular fallacy mentioned— "I do not like term insurance 
because it costs more in later years"— is also easily shown to be erron- 
eous. Actually, the "real" cost in many cases is less in later years when 
the time value of money is taken into consideration. It is unrealistic to 
say that a dollar received one year from now is the same value as a dollar 
received today. This eqaulity would be true only if one assumes a zero 
interest rate, an unrealistic assumption. The following compares the 
cost of premiums over a period of years of a $10,000 five-year, renew- 
able and convertible term policy. A 5 per cent interest rate is assumed 
and the insured is a 22 year old male. (Premium costs are based on fig- 
ures given by a major national insurance company.) 

Present Value of Premium 

Policy Year 




Discounted at 5 Per Cent 
























Obviously, the "real" cost of future premiums is actually less than 
the current cost. Rather than costing more later, the term insurance 
premiums listed here cost less when the time value of money is consid- 
ered. Stated another way, $31.66 (the present value of ^107.20 discount- 
ed at 5 per cent for 25 years) placed in savings and compounded at 5 
per cent for 25 years will amount to $107.20, the premium at the begin- 
ning of the 26th year. This $31.66 is $13.38 less than the current premium 
of $45.04, so close analysis reveals that the argument that term insur- 
ance premiums cost more later is without merit. 


These analyses of popular fallacies reveal that there is considerable 
truth in two basic "laws" of economics: (1) There is no such thing as 
a free lunch; and (2) most of the iceberg is under the water. Cash-value 
life insurance is purchased at a relatively high cost. This high cost may 
be a relatively harmless low return on investment should the insured 
live to collect the cash value. On the other hand, should the insured 
not live, the high cost may be tragic for survivors who must get along on 
reduced income because the insured was sold a low-return investment 
rather than adequate life insurance coverage. And when the holder of 
a high-priced insurance policy begins to think that he now has "free" 
insurance, it is time to take a look beneath the surface for hidden costs. 

The low-cost, group life insurance program at West Georgia College 
is one of the more attractive fringe benefits of employment. Consider- 
able coverage can be obtained at "real" low cost. 




It is almost a cliche to say that American civilization has reached 
a crisis, but it has apparently not become quite so clear to everyone that 
the conflict has been brought to the only place where it has any chance 
of being successfully resolved— the college campus. This fall (1969) 
most Americans were quietly thankful for the relatively "cool" summer 
we lived through; what they failed to see is that one reason the cities 
have been relatively peaceful is that, as Herbert Gold wrote recently, ^ 
the universities "are where the action is" now. The rootlessness of 
Americans in the last two and a half decades has caused college students 
to attach to the college the loyalties formerly given to family, home, 
and community. The rebellion which has in the recent past been directed 
at parents and community has now been redirected at the college. Col- 
leges can meet the challenge and prove themselves worthy of loyalty, 
or they can avoid the challenge and become the hotbeds of revolution 
that South American and Czarist colleges have been. Only through 
training intelligence, in part through revealing the continuous dialectic 
which has provided in the arts, philosophy, and theology the answers to 
eternal questions, only thus can a college overcome revolution, apathy, 
and single-mindedness, and only thus can our nation approach a solu- 
tion to its critical problems. 

To many American it has appeared that our colleges have become 
"rebel encampments, forums of political debate, and media for the 
distribution of pamphlets," when their first function is to train intelli- 
gence and preserve cultural standards. "^ However, colleges will not be 
able to perform those functions until teachers and administrators recog- 
nize the reason for the malfunctioning and change directions in order 
to cure it. 

At the beginning of the 1960's the direction in which higher educa- 
tion had to go seemed quite clear; Sputnik had shown the way. The 
universities committed themselves to pursuing scientific and technologi- 
cal ends. Carnegie Tech, for example, developed a graduate program 

*Assistant Professor of English, West Georgia College, Carrollton, Georgia. 

1 New York Times, "Book Review Section," Oct. 19, 1969, p. 40. 

2 John Aldridge, //ar/7er!s, Oct. and Nov., 1969. 


in computer training in wiiich the faculty out-numbered the students. 
The National Science Foundation has spent millions on scholarships 
and fellowships. Yet, in 1969, the final report of the National Commis- 
sion on the Causes and Prevention of Violence proves that higher educa- 
tion has failed the United States. Mr. Milton Eisenhower, President 
Emeritus of the Johns Hopkins University and Chairman of the National 
Commission on Violence said in his final report to President Nixon that 
the most serious threat to the security of our nation today is internal. 
He did not deny that serious external dangers exist, but, he reported: 

...the graver threats are internal: haphazard urbanization, dis- 
figuring of the environment, unprecedented interdependence, 
the dislocation of human identity and motivation created by an 
affluent society— all resulting in a rising tide of individual and 
group violence. 3 

One of the few places equipped to deal with problems of ecology, 
psychology, values, and ethics Mr. Eisenhower's report thus delineated 
is, of course, the university, and one reason campuses have been beset 
by demonstrators, debaters, and sometimes-violent rebels is that the 
youth of America know that colleges have failed to equip their students 
to solve the nation's problems. 

That is not to say, of course, that the rebels themselves recognize 
the specific problems noted by Mr. Eisenhower. Students cannot always 
give even general reasons for their dissatisfaction; usually they only 
assert— vaguely or violently— that they don't like regimentation— that 
is, fifty-minute classes, five-hour credit courses, being known by num- 
bers instead of names. 

However, the relationship between the specific problems Mr. Eisen- 
hower lists and the vague complaints of the students is clear: numbers, 
identity, "dislocation" of motivation are chief parts of the problems of 
the city and of the college campus. We have, in fact, on the campus a 
microcosm which reflects in miniature the macrocosm— the urbanized 
United States. We have also on the campus the materials by which to 
achieve peace in both micro- and macrocosm. 

It would, of course, be impossible to list here all the causes— his- 
torical and psychological— of student rebellion or to note the specific 
courses which would solve the problems of student rebellion and urban 
violence. Nevertheless, it is possible to isolate a few of the immediate 
causes of student dissatisfaction and thus to recognize that a beginning 
to the solution of the problems of campus and country can be made 

^ Reported by James Reston, v4f/an to Constitution, Dec. 16, 1969. 


through changing the direction of higher education in the 70s by em- 
phasizing the hberal arts and sciences and de-emphasizing specialist 
courses in, for example, business and education. 

In order to analyze causes of student unrest, one must first be aware 
of the reasons students enter college. They enroll for many reasons— 
some because their daddies couldn't go themselves but think their 
children's lives will be enriched if they do, others because they don't 
want to be drafted, others because they do want to get married, many 
because our society has made a college degree necessary equipment for 
anyone who wishes to be "successful." The students who enroll in 
college for such practically expedient reasons as these, along with 
those other young men and women who enroll for the love of learning 
or because they intend to enter one of the professions, divide them- 
selves into various groups, satisfied and dissatisfied — the hippies, the 
activists, the Black students, the apathetic, and those who accept what 
colleges offer in order to achieve goals they have set themselves. 

One of the most easily distinguished groups is, of course, the hippies. 
In the past French kings and a few English barons were able, without 
must effort on their own part, to live hves of ease in silken or filthy 
quarters, as their tastes dictated; but our highly productive society 
has produced the first middle-class group able to enjoy themselves in 
like manner. The hippies live as they will, with bills paid in most cases 
by their parents, contributing nothing to their civilization, frequently 
because they comprehend nothing of it except that they don't like it. 
But many hippies are most intelligent and are quite capable, as the 
French kings and English barons were, of contributing to our culture 
by appreciating and accumulating, if not producing, its works of art. 
Unfortunately, the hippies are the least acquisitive or productive mem- 
bers of our society; they reject their parents' standards and develop 
only the most negative of their own, and they can afford to do so, be- 
cause the materialism which has effectively guided their parents' lives 
has enabled the parents to accumulate enough worldly goods so that 
their children have never missed anything— steaks, John Romaine hand- 
bags, alligator belts, or Fourteenth Street pads. The hippies attend 
college because that is the price exacted by the draft board or their 
parents, but they reject the values and ethical standards of college 
faculty as well as of their parents. 

All too often they reject what the colleges offer because their 
schooling has not taught them the joy of intellectual competition; it 
has been focused on mechanical repetition of standardized formulas, 
and too many colleges carry on the same type of teaching. Despite the 
fact that their parents' success would seem, genetically, at least, to 


ensure the capability of the hippies, they have settled into their com- 
fortable, conformist ruts, pleased with their artificial means of achieving 
Nirvana, unwilling, perhaps because unknowing, to employ creative 
imagination in achieving self-fulfillment as long as the marijuana works. 

Colleges, no more than cities, cannot beat marijuana by repression, 
but college teachers might be able to do so by giving young people an 
opportunity to develop positive standards of their own, by giving them 
a glimpse of the identity of human existence, by showing them in the 
metaphors of Plato, Dante, Shakespeare, or Yeats that men have always 
sought and frequently found— at least for their moments of time— a 
truthful and meaningful answer to the riddle of their existence. It has 
always been the artists' and philosophers' function to seek answers to 
the eternal questions and to help solve immediate problems; it has been 
and should continue to be the teacher's function to lay before his stu- 
dents the artifacts which propose the answers and to help his students 
comprehend the relevance of artifact and answer to their own questions 
and their society's problems. Unfortunately, during the last two decades, 
too much faculty time has been devoted to teaching students how to 
make a living, rather than how to make a life, so that we have now 
reached a point at which our national security is more endangered from 
within than without. The hippies, of course, are scarcely an active 
danger; they "drop-out." Their rejection of the standards of their par- 
ents and their teachers has been peaceful, on the whole; their question- 
ing of the values and ethics which have guided colleges has been more 
often implicit than explicit. 

There is, however, another group whose questioning is not only 
explicit but is accompanied by physical expression of their doubt of the 
colleges' relevance. These students have paraded, demonstrated, locked 
up deans and college presidents; they have demanded not only that 
colleges do away with curfews for women but also that they make their 
curricula more relevant to students' needs. Too often the faculty has 
said, as Marie Antoinette did, "Let them eat cake," answering student 
demands as inarticulately and negatively as the students have posed 
them; faculties, if they have not always condemned demonstrations, 
have too often provided more of the same kind of irrelevance students 
are protesting against. 

College teachers are, in fact, stumbling blindly around trying to 
decide what is "more relevant"; from the departments which enroll 
large numbers of students come answers that the others sometimes 
accept, simply because the departments do enroll such large numbers 
of students. One of the largest departments, in numbers of students, 
has in the past made such suggestions as that the English department 


teach Business English or that they themselves add another accounting 
course; to the latter suggestion teachers might well ask why, for account- 
ing in most large firms, as at most colleges, is done by computers. 
Conceivably, the answer might be that one needs an understanding of 
debits and credits in order to program a computer, but such an under- 
standing would seem a reasonable— or reasoned— extension of basic 
math, just as business English seems a reasonable application of a basic 
composition course. Should we then have more courses in computer 
programming to fill up the 190 hours needed to graduate? but what 
happens when a new computer is developed? do we re-design the course? 
and what happens to the student who took the course in his junior year 
and meets the new computer only after graduation? obviously, he goes to 
graduate school; then what if some genius at Georgia Tech designs a new 
computer while he is in graduate school? simple— our graduate student 
goes on for his Ph.D., an automatic guarantee of excellence. Perhaps, 
if he had taken his bachelor's degree in the liberal arts and trained his 
intelligence, all those hours of specialized training could be replaced by 
a few on-the-job training hours or a few hours at an IBM or Remington 
Rand computer school. 

Fortunately, schools of business administration are beginning to 
recognize the fault in proliferating specialized courses, and they are 
beginning to revamp their programs to provide more general knowledge 
and less specific training. In part, higher education is changing direc- 

A second large, influential college department is the school of 
education, and certainly, to pursue excellence in college one needs an 
excellent body of high school and elementary teachers. Obviously, to 
produce such a body in an atmosphere relevant to the education major's 
or minor's needs, one must observe where the current high school 
product is lacking; math? fine, say the educationists, let's have a course 
in teaching math in high school; reading? well, we can design a course 
in teaching students how to read; history? that's easy too; let's have a 
course in teaching world history to the junior high school student. 
We'U fill those 190 hours nicely. 

It has on occasion seemed to me that this is the way in which educa- 
tion programs are arrived at; it seems to be inconceivable to teachers 
of teachers that teachers themselves know how to read critically and 
analytically; that teachers should know the relationship of the history 
of the past to the achievements or failures of the present; that teachers 
should know that new maths are frequently needed to solve new kinds 
of quantitative problems. No doubt I exaggerate; I must admit that 
faculties in schools of education speak of their concern about the 


problems of our current generation of college students. Like all college 
teachers, teachers in the education department cannot fail to recognize 
that their graduates are not themselves providing high-school graduates 
capable of doing college work. Schools of education are seeking new 
approaches to the education of teachers. I would suggest that courses 
which teach content rather than methods might be the relevant courses 
the activists seek and that what is needed is a persuasive teacher who 
has himself been taught the relevance of what he teaches and who can 
demonstrate this relevance to bewildered youngsters. This might be a 
way to avoid rebellion and give the active minds of the potentially 
rebellious material with which they can attack the specific problems 
of our country— urbanization, pollution, interdependence. 

One student group which is, I believe, attempting to force colleges 
to teach material pertinent to the world outside the campus is the Black 
student group. They recognize, perhaps better than some self-named 
humanists, that one of the ways to achieve understanding of a distinctive 
group is to study its culture and history. Black students are therefore 
demanding courses in Afro-American literature and history so that not 
only they themselves but also their white compatriots can understand 
this separate but equal segment of American society, and so that the 
problems of one major factor in the crisis of our civilization may be 
solved. The proposals of the black students have led to the integration 
of Afro-American and American literature in literature courses and of 
Negro history into American history courses, as well as to courses ex- 
clusively dedicated to Afro-American culture and history. One direction 
in which education is going in the seventies is therefore clear. 

The three groups which I have mentioned thus far— the blacks, the 
activists, and the hippies— are quite distinctive, but there are less dis- 
tinctive groups as well, for whom revised educational directions are 
also necessary. The least obvious of these is the apathetic group; these 
students are willing to take — or attend classes in, I should say— any 
courses the faculty prescribes. If they are told they need Math 107, 
Fine Arts 100, and History 261 before they can claim to be educated, 
they'll take Math 107, Fine Arts 100 and History 261; but any teacher 
knows when he faces a classroom full of bodies topped by open-eyed, 
impersonalized, unfocused faces that he is not doing any educating. 
Our treatment of these students is analogous to the kind of hospitality 
Professor Aldridge claims most Americans extend. "The whole effect 
of hospitality," he says, "is to get [ guests] drunk as quickly as possible 
so that they will soon not notice or care that they have nothing to say 
to one another.""^ The whole effect of teachers' treatment of the apathe- 

John Aldridge Harper's, Oct. and Nov., 1969. 


tic student is to assign him so many pages to read and so many problems 
to work or papers to write that he will have no time to notice that he is 
not really learning anything. What teachers must do for him is wake 
him up intellectually or else convince him that what he needs is avail- 
able somewhere else— in junior colleges, vocational schools, or on-the- 
job training. Undergraduate education is being watered down by the 
presence in colleges of students incapable of higher learning, and, as 
Emerson pointed out, we need farmers, tradesmen, and mechanics as 
well as preachers, statesmen, and scholars to make this democracy 

There are other kinds of students as well as the apathetic, the hip- 
pies, the activists. There are those who love knowledge for its own 
sake and those preparing to enter a profession. These two groups can 
be considered together here, although they are distinct, because they 
too are willing— as are the apathetic— to take any courses the faculty 
prescribes, the lovers of learning because anything they learn makes 
them happy, the pre-professional group because they single-mindedly 
pursue their goal and manage to ignore the extraneous as they would 
a not-toc-persistent gnat. Nevertheless, college faculties cannot take 
the acquiescence of these students as an assent. The scholar and the 
statesman are most necessary to our democracy, and the current 
curricula turn out few scholars or statesmen. 

One thing is quite clear to teachers; not only the activists and the 
hippies, but also the apathetic have rejected the values and ethics of 
the past. If nothing else, they ask, "In a day of social security and medi- 
medicare, the pill and penicillin, who needs the Ten Commandments?" 
And we have no acceptable answer for them. 

Indeed, the very fact that the president had to appoint a commis- 
sion to investigate violence proves that something is lacking in our 
ethical and value systems. What is more, it seems obvious that one of 
the chief reasons the crisis which American civilization faces has 
developed is our materialistic prepossession. We have become the 
greatest producers in history, capable not only of producing the great- 
est number of cars and tin cans for the greatest number of people, 
but also producing the greatest number of leisure hours for the greatest 
number of people unable to enjoy them. 

Civilizations and colleges have faced crises in the past, but the 
college, the microcosm, at least, has never, since its development in 
the Middle Ages, faced one such as it and all citizens of America face 
today. Only wisdon can solve it. 


The way to achieve wisdom is to focus on intellectual training; 
young men and women— the only ones who can solve the crisis— must 
be exposed to the dialectic of the past. Although men and women can, 
of course, only find ethics and values and achieve wisdom by them- 
selves, perhaps in the dialectic of the past, the continuous dialogue in 
which artist and philosopher and theologian have engaged, in this 
dialectic which brought forth new ideas and ideals capable of meeting 
the demands of every age and of every kind of civilization, in this body 
of art, philosophy, and theology, young Americans can find the models 
by which they can achieve, or form, or argue their way into values and 
ethics which will serve them and enable them to live the intellectually 
fruitful lives their healthy bodies and our economic system can support. 

We must reject the increasing vocational specialization of the last 
two decades, specialization which only prepared us to make more 
things and earn more money; for making more things and earning more 
money had led to rebellion and apathy— to Berkeley, Columbia, Four- 
teenth Street, and Piedmont Park, and to the problems set forth in Mr. 
Eisenhower's report to the President. The liberal arts, on the other 
hand, have led to the ideals at least partly achieved in ancient Athens, 
in modern Geneva, in UNESCO; the liberal arts have also led to Atlanta's 
Art Center and New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art, to the fruit- 
ful lives lived by Socrates and Aristotle, William and Henry James, 
Thomas Jefferson and William Shakespeare; and they can lead— if 
given the chance— to further civilized lives and a peaceful America. 




In discussing the purpose of foreign aid, Senator William Fulbright 
said that those issues which have any direct bearing on the problem of 
economic development in underdeveloped countries is "what foreign 
aid is supposed to be about." ^ Foreign aid can be defined to include 
private direct investment and commercial trade. Use of the broader 
term— financial assistance— may be appropriate to include both offi- 
cial transfers and private investment. Aid that directly involves our 
tax dollars is a relatively small amount of our total national budget 
and net private transfers of funds involve an even smaller sum. 

Regardless of the amount, any net outflow of dollars involves a 
sacrifice on the part of U. S. citizens not because of the cost of printing 
little of paper called dollars but because of the sacrifice of giving up 
some of our resources to others. The real cost consists of those goods 
and services which we permanently surrender, involuntarily, through 
that portion of our income which has been "socialized" i.e., direct 
confiscation of purchasing power by means of taxation. The real cost 
is measured in many ways according to what each individual is forced 
to give up — a summer education trip to Europe, early retirement, a 
child, other charitable contributions, and so on. In spite of the rather 
small flow of assistance to low-income countries, the sacrifice involved 
keeps it a live issue. 

In considering whether there is really a need for aid, an old fable 
from the Cameroons comes to mind. It relates how God went walking 
together with his three sons— a white man, a black man, and a gorilla. 
The black man and the gorilla lost their way, and God went on walking 
with the white man alone. 

This fable illustrates the situation of the low-income countries 
today. Divide the world between the whites and the nonwhites or be- 
tween the north and south and the answer comes out roughly the same. 
Those who have are mostly "white" and live in the northern portion of 

*Associate, Professor of Economics. 

1 The New York Times Magazine (Mar. 21, 1965), p. 104. This paper is a con- 
densation of a talk given on Dec. 8, 1969, to the League of Women Voters in 
CarroUton, Georgia. 


the world, while the southern part, largely "nonwhite",^ contains 
the have-nots. 

For example, about three-fourths of the people of the world receive 
only one-fourth of the total amount of goods and services produced in 
the world. Or, to illustrate how well-of materially we are in North 
America, estimates indicate that roughly 7 per cent of the world en- 
joys 40 per cent of the final output of goods and services. India, as 
another example, supports a population three times the size of the 
United States population but per capita income in the United States 
is 37 times greater than per capita income in India. 

Should the haves be alarmed? In a May 1, 1969 speech at the 
University of Notre Dame, Robert S. McNamara, President of the 
World Bank Group, pointed out that it required 1600 years for the 
world's population to double from 250 million of the first century 
A.D. Today's world population of 3'/2 billion will double in 35 years, 
and then it will increase at the rate of 1 billion every 8 years. He told 
his audience that, "A child born today, living into his seventies, would 
know a world of 15 billion. His grandson would share the planet with 
60 billion." 

What do these figures mean? They indicate that for incomes to be 
rising, the increase in production must exceed the population growth. 
Let's consider Latin America, which is relatively well-off with an 
average per capita income in excess of $400. Suppose that production 
grows at 8 per cent a year. Subtracting a 3 per cent annual growth in 
population leaves an actual increase in annual incomes of 5 per cent.^ 

Now further assume that this rate of increase is twice the rate of 
increase of incomes in the United States. Will incomes in Latin America 
catch up to the present U.S. level in, say, another 30 years? If the United 
States, now with a per capita income in excess of $3500, grows at a 
rate of 2V2 per cent a year, then per capita income, compounded an- 
nually, will reach approximately $7000 in the year 2000. If the Latin 
American region grows at a rate of 5 per cent, then incomes will ad- 
vance from $400 to around $1700 by the year 2000. Latin America is 

2 Although these terms are not completely accurate as races are defined, they 
do represent an important viewpoint. For example, an Indian, who is dark in 
complexion, is still of the white race, but most Americans do not accept indivi- 
duals from these areas as "white". 

3 A few Latin American countries have actually achieved this high growth 
rate at times, but for most countries incomes have grown something along the 
magnitude of 2 or 3 per cent. 


probably 5 to 8 times better off than the nearly 2 billion people in south 
and southeast Asia! 

If financial assistance is the proper means to accelerate economic 
growth in the low-income countries, then perhaps the case for increased 
assistance can be argued on humanitarian terms alone. The survival 
alarm (our survival, that is) would probably bring quick action. Even 
if we agree to support a growing world population, assuming that we 
can, the suicide rate must certainly climb as crowding conditions 
increase interpersonal tensions. Our obligations, real or imagined, 
would certainly multiply without ever dealing with the problem itself. 

Let us try to figure what the low-income countries want. The Bible 
reads, "You shall accept no gift; for the gift blinds the wise, and per- 
verts the words of the righteous."^ It is doubtful that politicians in 
low-income countries are very much concerned about being either 
blinded or perverted; most likely they prefer even more of the aid 

At the first United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 
(UNCTAD) in Geneva in 1964, headed by Raul Prebisch,^ a resolu- 
tion was adopted by 77 low-income countries which recommended 
that the industrially advanced countries (the center) contribute one 
per cent of their national income for development assistance to the 
economically backward countries (the periphery). The 1 per cent 
figure includes both public and private capital. 

In the second UNCTAD conference held in New Delhi, India, in 
1968, the basis of the assistance target was changed from 1 per cent 
of national income to 1 per cent of Gross National Product— about 
a 25 per cent increase.^ 

4 Exodus 23:8. 

^ In 1964, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development was 
attended by 2,000 delegates, representing 119 countries, and lasted for almost 
three months. The central purpose was to consider ways of bridging the gap 
between what the less developed countries will need in foreign exchange to 
finance their import requirements for development and what they are likely 
to earn from the exports of goods and services. Dr. Raul Prebisch, the Argentine 
economist, championed the cause of the less-developed countries and also 
served as Secretary-General at the conference. He estimated that by 1970 
this gap in foreign exchange would reach $20 billion, $10 billion of which would 
probably be supplied by foreign aid. In Mar., 1969. Manuel Perez Guerrero, of 
Venezuela, became Secretary-General. 

^ Gross National Product (GNP) represents the total value of final goods and 
services produced in a country during some period of time. National income 
nets out depreciation on capital and excludes indirect taxes such as excise and 
sales taxes. 


The figure was derived on the basis of a 5 to 6 per cent growth-rate 
target (not yet of population growth). Based on this target, it was then 
calculated that around $15 to $20 billion of capital will be needed from 
the industrial countries in the 1970s. This financial resource require- 
ment corresponds roughly to 1 per cent of the gross national products 
of the non-communist countries. 

How does the United States measure up to this request? Really, 
we are much closer to the 1 per cent target than is generally imagined. 
Our highest recent foreign aid year was 1965. Net official and private 
flows of financial resources to low-income countries amounted to more 
than $5.5 billion or 0.97 per cent of national income— that's close 
enough to call it 1 per cent. Since 1965, the dollar amount has increased 
but the percentages have fallen.^ 

During 1968, the total net flow of financial resources for develop- 
ment from the United States to low-income countries amounted to 
$5.7 billion— 36 per cent was private investment and 64 per cent was 
official aid. About 16 per cent of the official flow was channeled 
through multi-lateral institutions such as the International Bank 
for Reconstruction and Development or the InterAmerican Develop- 
ment Bank. This new flow amounted to 0.79 per cent of our national 
income or 0.65 per cent of the gross national product for 1968. 

Now even if we agree that 1 per cent of the gross national prod- 
uct is an acceptable target, the important question is: How much aid 
can the low-income countries absorb? If it's a loan, then it has to be 
repaid— principal plus interest. A loan implies that an efficient use of 
the borrowed resources should be made. The new investment, under- 
taken with borrowed funds, must generate sufficient new income to 
repay the loan plus interest; otherwise the country is worse off than 

Assume that the borrowed funds are not channelled into non-pro- 
ductive activities. During the time there is a net inflow of resources 

■^ New flows of financial resources— Official and Private: 


Total Official and Private 

Percentage of National Income 
Percentage of GNP 

1965 1967 1968 

(Millions of Dollars) 

3,627 3,723 3,354 

1,893 1,842 2,071 








everyone is happy— a beautiful park is constructed, city sewage dis- 
posal is improved, incomes are rising, and the capitalists are the good 
guys. This is not questioning the value of a placid park or sanitary 
sewage disposal, but when construction is completed these activities 
do not" sustain a higher level of employment and neither do they earn 
nor save foreign exchange which will be needed to repay the loan when 
the bill collector knocks. 

So what is the likely consequence? The loan has matured. Since 
there is no longer an increased inflow of resources, incomes in the 
recipient country will tend to drop off. The citizens could then paint 
signs and march around the foreign embassy proclaiming that it is all 
the fault of the capitalist pig; they shouldn't have to repay the loan 
but only keep what was stolen from them in an earlier era by the 
imperialists. Or the country might live up to its financial obligation 
even though it didn't utilize the funds well. Repayment in this case 
involves a double sacrifice. (1.) There is a loss of the increased income 
resulting from the loan. (2.) Although people have become accustomed 
to the higher standard of living, they must return to a level now below 
what incomes were before the inflow of the loan funds. 

This simplified illustration points out a pitfall. More foreign finan- 
cial resources do not necessarily result in development. High-living 
may be expensive in the long run if repayment of the principal plus 
interest is involved. For example, in India, for each dollar earned in 
foreign exchange, twenty cents must be earmarked for debt service 

According to the World Bank, the external public debt of the low- 
income countries increased from $10 billion in 1956 to $44 billion by 
mid-1967. Annual debt service grew from $800 million to $4.7 billion- 
including amortization payments and $1.6 billion in interest.^ 

It has been suggested that we increase the amount in unilateral 
transfers and that we grant loans on easier terms. Adopting this ten- 
dency is neither in the best interests of the grantor or grantee. The 
U.S. taxpayer is required to save (forego consumption) a part of his 
current income so that others can consume at a rate greater than their 
current earnings. If the transfer of purchasing power is in the form of 
a gift, then the taxpayer has permanently given up a certain number 
of hours of labor service which he cannot recover. Some of his efforts 
have been taxed away. If the transfer of funds involves repayment plus 

^ International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, External Medium- 
and-Long-Term Debt (Dec. 4, 1967), and Annual Report, 1968, p. 52. 


interest that is less tiian the market rate, then such a transfer is not 
truly a loan because it includes a subsidy. The transaction is partly a 
loan and partly an outright gift. 

Does this suggest that loans which carry a full competitive rate do 
not involve a sacrifice? No, because a transfer of dollars results in these 
dollars being spent in the United States markets for the purchase of 
United States goods which means that fewer goods are available for 
domestic consumption. Loans are paid back by the reverse of this 
process. Foreign goods are sold in our markets for dollars and these 
dollars are then available to repay the loan. Suppose that the foreign 
suppliers do not produce anything that we want? Obviously the loan 
cannot be repaid. The loan, then, is nothing more than a disguised 
grant. The United States taxpayer continues to spend less so that 
others may consume more than they produce. 

If we grant loans on easier terms, then we are inclined to impose 
our system of values on others. This puts us in a position of supervising 
expenditures in these countries and causes a double loss of freedom — 
to the taxpayer and the recipient. If we charge the competitive rate 
of interest, then the chance that the funds will flow into their most 
efficient use improves, which means that the result is not simply a 
freeing of domestic funds for monument-building. 

This action may be harsh on our part, but individual freedom is 
at stake here. Where loans are considered desirable both the borrower 
and the lender must not overlook certain principles: 

1. Character is the basis of credit. 

2. Capital can be absorbed only at a certain rate. A country should 
not over-extend itself; the lender must assume the responsibility 
of correct credit analysis. 

3. Capacity to repay implies that borrowing involves a pledge to 
repay the loan. The borrowing country must efficiently utilize 
funds so that it is comfortably able to repay the loan. 

4. Conformable treatment of foreign investment to that accorded 
domestic investment under all conditions must be effectively 

5. Courage on the part of the lender to extend loans for economic 
development free of political strings improves the debtor- 
creditor relationship. 

A parallel problem centers on technical assistance. While capital 
is necessary, it is not sufficient to overcome obstacles of development 
where there is lack of technical assistance. Technical assistance usually 


must be provided by the lender. Private capital is extremely helpful 
here. Transfers of private capital are usually accompanied by tech- 
nical aid. 

United States universities may be a major voluntary source of 
technical assistance. West Georgia College is now attempting to pro- 
vide a two-year technical training program to a small number of Peru- 
vian, Nicaraguan and Honduran students through the cooperation of 
the offices of the Institute of International Education in Atlanta and 
in the respective countries. 

Some suggest that huge capital transfers should hasten the develop- 
ment of many of the low-income countries. Even if this were true, the 
United States has limited resources. An investment or loan abroad 
involves a certain present sacrifice of current consumption for an 
uncertain future benefit. But does foreign capital effectively promote 
economic development? The answer is: It depends upon how it is used. 

Professor Milton Friedman points out that the pharohs raised huge 
sums of capital to construct the pyramids but pyramid-building did not 
contribute to self-sustaining growth. Modern Egypt built a steel mill. 
This, too, is a capital formation but it is really a drain on domestic 
resources. The cost of making steel in Egypt is greater than the cost 
of buying it elsewhere.^ 

To achieve modernization, foreign capital may be necessary but 
it is not an exclusive condition. The country must first demonstrate 
that it has developed a collective consciousness to modernize; it must 
learn new skills and customs; and the government must be intelligent 
enough to utilize its resources efficiently. It can do the latter best by 
letting private enterprise take the lead role in the development process. 
Haiti— where unemployment appears to exceed 50 per cent and per 
capita incomes are estimated between $50 and $70— offers an example. 
Foreign capital alone will most likely not produce self-sustaining 

In order to more justly provide financial assistance to low-income 
countries I would suggest three approaches: 

1. A larger role for private enterprise. — This requires adjust- 
ments in our trade policies toward low-income countries. 
Through freer trade goods can be obtained more cheaply 

^ Milton Friedman, "An Alternative to Aid," Wall Street Journal (Apr. 30, 
1962), p. 14. 


and domestic and international resources will be used more 
efficiently. The suggestion also requires the elimination of 
all controls on the international flow of capital. 
Concentration on fewer countries. — Where aid, in the form 
of loans, technical assistance, and other forms, supplements 
private capital, the United States may be spreading its 
limited resources too thinly among too many countries. 
Perhaps larger efforts among fewer countries may tend to 
produce desired results sooner. It seems that we would do 
well to concentrate on countries nearer to our borders and 
give high priority to those which have demonstrated their 
friendship. However, reorganization of aid bureaucracy and 
improved credit analysis are necessary in the implementa- 
tion of a new direction. 

Increased export of United States technology. — This sug- 
gests a larger investment in human capital with emphasis 
on designing management methods and the training of 
technical personnel. One approach may be to transport 
large numbers of individuals to the United States for train- 
ing as teachers and technicians, veterinarians and in various 
other occupations and to grant them loans and assistance 
on terms comparable to those available to domestic stu- 
dents. Work-study programs would be beneficial to give 
the students experience in firms in this country. United 
States universities should be given a larger role in pro- 
viding technical assistance. In most cases, programs may be 
worked out that are mutually rewarding for the faculty, 
university, and recipients. 




Awarded in 1969 

BOLEN, LARRY MAIN (Psychology) 





The study investigated the interrelationship among measures of 
academic performance and attitudinal changes of on-trial freshman 
enrolled in West Georgia College during the Summer, 1968. A form of 
the Osgood's Semantic Differential was administered once before, 
and once after, the summer session to forty-three students, twenty- 
one being male and twenty-two female. A two x one factorial design 
(two sexes and one group) was employed in analyzing the data. A Multi- 
variate Analysis of Variance was used to examine the relationships 
of the twenty-three criterion measures to changes in attitude. Fourteen 
significant correlations were found between four measures of academic 
performance and the attitudinal measures. Significant sex differences 
were noted in relation to the directional change in attitude toward the 
attitudinal concepts Past Education, Personal Feelings, Counseling, 
and School, and to the academic measures represented by the quanti- 
tative score on the Scholastic Aptitude Test and high school average. 
Ten significant attitudinal measures were obtained in the analysis of 
the total group. 

The males were represented by a decreasing mean attitudinal 
score after undergoing college experience with negative changes in 
attitude toward thirteen of the seventeen attitudinal concepts. The 
females had nine positive attitudinal changes and six negative changes 
with two of the attitudinal concepts remaining stable. 




Mary Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, 
ruled England from 1553 to 1558. Her reign came between two Pro- 
testant monarchs: Edward VI and Elizabeth I. Mary had been brought 
up as a Catholic by her mother and she deeply resented her father's 
"divorce" from Catherine and his subsequent separation of the Church 
of England from Rome. Mary further resented the preference which 
her half brother Edward, whom she considered to be illegitimate, 
received when the time came for Henry's successor to be named. When, 
during Edward's reign, the Church of England departed radically from 
the Catholic Church on doctrinal matters, Mary was driven closer to 
her Spanish relatives. 

Upon ascending the throne of England in 1553, she married Philip 
of Spain, son of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Considering the 
Church of England as an alien Church, Mary set out on a course of 
restoring that Church to the Catholic Church. Both Philip and his father, 
Charles, were to be Mary's closest advisors in this task. Mary did not 
feel that she could trust a purely English council. The Calendar of 
State Papers reveal a tremendous amount of influence being exerted 
on Mary by these two monarchs, especially Philip, working through the 
Spanish Ambassador, Renard. 

CARTER, JAMES S. (Psychology) 




The present study was designed to investigate the relationship be- 
tween shape, pattern, and shape plus pattern as cues in a perceptual 
learning task using three puzzles. 

A group of ninety subjects was tested. Subgroups of thirty students 
from the tenth grade of Marietta, Georgia worked a separate puzzle 
that was part of the transfer task. 

Analysis of covariance yielded significant F's which indicated that 
there was a difference in performance between groups in relation to 


which puzzle they worked. The only hypothesis that was supported was 
that performance on Task I (number sequence) influenced performance 
on Task II (pattern-puzzle) in the transfer of learning. 




This study reports a listing of twenty-six families and sixty-six species 
of mosses from the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in Jones and Jas- 
per Counties, Georgia. The species collected are related to their habitat, 
locality, and frequency of occurence in the refuge. This is the first ex- 
tensive study of the moss flora in the area. 

HUDSON, CLEO C. (English) 


Through an examination by close reading of the Prefatory poem in 
Hesperides, 'The Argument of His Book," "To Dewes: A Song," "To 
Daffodils," "To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time," "Corinna's Going 
A-Maying," and "The Hock-Cart, or Harvest Home," in the light of 
myth and ceremonial archetypes, this thesis proposes that the poetry of 
Robert Herrick sings; however, the song is a strange harmony of jollity 
and pathos, gaiety and gravity; earthiness and spirituality. This duality 
is termed the poet's Ariel voice: on one level the lyrics pipe the light, 
lilting notes of Shakespeare's Ariel of The Tempest: on a more somber 
level the poems resound with the serious chords of Isaiah's "Lion of 

This thesis further shows that Robert Herrick, like the Metaphysi- 
cals and Milton, was concerned with transcending or transfiguring the 
inevitability of death. The difference between Herrick and other poets 
was method. Herrick's method of achieving life was living life to the 
fullest. Building upon extant myths, Herrick used imagery based upon 
the circle to hint at the relationship between man and nature and, in 
turn, to lead him through life into the Hesperides or Paradise. 




William Faulkner presents a complex characterization of the adoles- 
cent in his Yoknapatawpha saga. Speeches and interviews reveal that 
Faulkner sees youth as a time of great capacity, will, and sympathy but 
an age which lacks "the knowledge of what to do." His works that treat 
adolescence as a part of the life development or implicity— The Sound 
and the Fury, Absalom, Absalom!, Light in August, and As I Lay Dving 
— and those that treat adolescence exclusively or explicity— T/ze Un- 
vanquished. Go Down, Moses, Intruder in the Dust, and The Reivers— 
reveal his characters confronting experience with the choice of learning 
what to do to become mature and responsible adults in the world, of 
rejecting adulthood entirely, of rejecting knowledge and responsibility, 
or of becoming conformists. 

Faulkner describes adolescence as a process of initiation into the 
adult world; the character confronts experience, gains new insight into 
himself, into men such as his father or another adult, and into the world. 
He begins to define himself as an individual with personal values, needs, 
and roles which conflict with society's values. He must find a workable 
compromise between individual and social roles to become a mature 
part of humanity or become an isolate or worse a conformist. 

Each adolescent is depicted with a specific past and family back- 
ground, a unique personality, and a specific place in one of Yoknapa- 
tawpha's three social classes— the aristocratic, the poor-white, and the 
Negro. Each social class has its own problems and defines a social role 
for its members. Chapters II and III present character sketches of the 
individual adolescents as they undergo initiation and begin to see the 
implications for being an aristocrat, a poor-white, or a Negro, for having 
both a past and a future, and for being a human being and as they decide 
to withdraw, endure, or prevail over environment and circumstances. 

Faulkner's adolescents occupy an important place in literature as 
part of a reaction to the genteel tradition's sentimental and condes- 
cending characterization of youth, a reaction that began with Mark 
Twain's Huck Finn and continues in contemporary literature's existen- 
tial hero. Faulkner's adolescents are unique, however, in that they 
emerge as a symbol in Faulkner's myth for the South, America, modern 
civilization, and the human race in transition from youth to maturity, 
from past to future, and from innocence to experience. The conflicts 
which his adolescents face are the universal problems of man in quest 
of identity and a viable system of values allowing both independence 
and community with man. 








The study investigated the relationships between associations given 
in the absence of specific stimuli, scores attained on the Torrance Test 
of Creative Thinking, Verbal Form A, and judges' ratings of creativity 
as indicated by the scores attained on the Imaginative Stories Test, 
Form A. Sixty-seven male and fifty-three female subjects enrolled in 
Psychology 103 at West Georgia College, Spring Quarter, 1969, were 
administered an association test, the Torrance Test of Creative Think- 
ing, Verbal Form A, and the Imaginative Stories Test, Form A. A 
A Least-Squares Analysis of Variance was employed to examine the 
creativity measures in relationship to the associations given in the 
absence of specific stimuli. There was no significant difference found 
between the number of associations given in the absence of specific 
stimuh and the Verbal Fluency, Flexibility, and OriginaHty scores on 
the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, Verbal Form A. There was a 
significant difference found between the number of associations given 
in the absence of specific stimuli (F^6.08; p<0.05, df =1,119) and the 
Imaginative stories Test, Form A. Similarly, sex difference was found 
to be a significant factor (F=9.29; p<0.01, df=l,119) in determining 
creativity on the Imaginative Stories Test, Form A. 



Gilbert Imlay's The Emigrants, Hugh Henry Brackenridge's Modern 
Chivalry, and James Fenimore Cooper's The Crater, all published before 
1850, are based wholly or in part upon Utopian schemes. A detailed 
analysis of the Utopian episodes in these novels, supported by critical 
literature of American Utopian fiction from its earliest manifestations 
to the present, reveals the link between these early works and the 
Utopian novels which followed. The novels are precursors of the popular 
Utopian fiction of the late nineteenth century and of the anti-utopian 
novels of the twentieth century. 


Seen in the framework of mythopoetic criticism, it is easy to follow 
the relationship between the thematic material of "utopia" and "Eden." 
The idea of Adam attempting to start life again in a "new world" Garden 
is, of course, not an original one; but the adaptation of this theme to 
Utopian adventure is unique at this particular period of American fic- 
tion. The three novels are important in the study of American literature 
as early examples of a pecuhar genre of American fiction. 

LANIER, CARLTON L. (Psychology) 




This study investigated the relationship between significant variables 
and absences from class at the college level. The relationships between 
class non-attendance and sex, grade point average, and scores on the 
sixteen factors of Raymond B. CattelFs personality questionnaire (Form 
A) were examined. Seventy-six students from four psychology classes 
were administered the 16 P. F., and then asked to fill out a form giving 
their name, sex, and estimates of the number of times they were absent 
from class in one quarter. Grade point averages for the students were 
obtained from the Registrar's Office. Pearson Product-Moment Cor- 
relation Coefficients were used to test for significant differences between 
personality profiles among the upper twenty-five per cent of absences, 
the lower twenty-five per cent, and the middle fifty per cent for the 
males, for the females, and for the total group. Significant correlation 
coefficients were found between absences and factor G (negatively) 
and factor Qi (positively). Significant correlation coefficients were 
also found between grade point average and factor B (positively), fac- 
tor N (positively) and factor L (negatively). Profile similarity coeffi- 
cients were obtained for the total group, for the males, and for the 
females. No significant differences in the personality profiles were found. 






The present study was designed to investigate the relationships 
between convulsive and non-convulsive hooded rats when stimulated 


with homogeneous sound during pregnancy. The following statistical 
null hypotheses were set forth. There were no significant differences 
between: offspring of convulsive and non-convulsive groups; convulsive 
and control offspring; non-convulsive and control offspring; in periods 
of gestation when intense auditory stimulation occurs; groups as a 
result of biological mother; and groups as a result of the foster mother. 

Eighteen pregnant rats were divided into three groups which were 
then subdivided into periods when the stimulation was to occur. Next, 
mothers were stimulated at a given time for two minutes every twelve 
hours. After all pups were born, postnatal influences were controlled 
by cross-fostering of the young. The rats were tested for emotionality, 
activity, and avoidance learning at sixty to ninety days of age. 

The Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance by ranks yielded significant 
differences between some groups for emotionality and activity. No 
statistical significances were found between others using these meas- 
ures. The avoidance measure was statistically significant during periods, 
but lack of statistical significance was found between groups in the 
subsequent periods. Cross-fostering was effective in all non-convulsive 
groups. The null hypotheses were rejected at the five per cent level. 




James Fenimore Cooper and John Steinbeck relied heavily upon 
nature and the West as a delineator of characters and as a physical 
feature in their novels. Cooper, in The Leather-Stocking Tales, and 
Steinbeck, in Grapes of Wrath, portrayed humanity exploited by insti- 
tutionalism, the machine of progress. Although each author employed 
a different technique (romanticism and naturalism) both expressed 
similar conclusions about nature and the West and the relationship and 
effects on humanity. Each author created as a spokesman for his philo- 
sophy a new man, an American, shaped by nature, the West, and ex- 
perience. In essence, Cooper and Steinbeck presented the American 
Dream distorted by greed and corruption. For them, the American 


Dream begame a trap that engulfed the individual and produced in his 
place an institutionalized man. 

Nature and the West have presented a newness, an inspiration, a 
savior, a creation to be worshipped, a thing to fear, an exploitable 
commodity, an entity to brood over, to study, and to revere. These 
diverse concepts and notions are important in the works of Cooper and 
Steinbeck as they define and interpret the American Dream and evidence 
the steps by which the individual becomes the victim of a remote, 
power hungry, profit-oriented power structure which bastardizes nature 
and the West. Cooper's Natty and Steinbeck's loads transcend indivi- 
dual greed and selfishness and save themselves from becoming completely 
trapped and crushed by the system. Their ability to transcend results 
in their becoming Christ-like, Paul-like teachers. Each becomes, then, 
the new man, the ideal man in tune with self and nature; each becomes 
part of Thoreau's oversoul. 

PENDLEY, BERRY H. (History) 


The purpose of this paper is to look into the life of a city during the 
first years of Reconstruction after 1865. The organization is in three 
areas, economic, political, and social. Chapter One establishes the 
scene at the end of the war indicating rather quick recovery and the 
regaining of some of the prosperity that had been interrupted by the 
war. For most Savannahians life went on much as it had before. The 
scale-down in activity that did take place was merely one of degree not 
of kind. It is ironic that the first rebuilding help the Savannahians re- 
ceived came from the North. 

Economically, Savannahians were quick to re-establish rail and 
steamship lines by repairing railroads and removing obstructions from 
the Savannah River. Banking institutions were founded and re-establish- 
ed and the city was fortunate in that the lumber and naval stores indus- 
try partly replaced the war-induced decline of the rice and cotton in- 

Politically, the return of the city to its civil officials came within a 
few months after the end of the war. The stability of the newly elected 
government of Edward C. Anderson seemed to be demonstrated in that 
this same Mayor and Board of Aldermen served for most of the entire 
period under consideration here. Savannah, an important city, had 


many visitors from among the leading political personalities of the day. 
Negroes were active and figured prominently in the political life of 
Savannah with their presence being noted especially in the election of 


Socially, Savannahians carried on their activities impaired very little 
by the war. Social clubs held meetings and attempted to help the less 
fortunate. Churches carried on mission work and summertime recrea- 
tional activity. In their church life Savannahians were quick to respond 
to the needs of the community, the area, and the state. Savannahians 
had plays, burlesque-type entertainments, and circuses to take their 
minds off of their recent defeat. In education Savannah made a great 
deal of progress immediately following the war. It was the first Georgia 
city to reorganize its public schools, although it was not until 1869 that 
the newly-freed Negroes were allowed to attend. 

In summary it is appropriate to say that by 1865 Savannahians were 
tired of the war that had taken so much and had given them so little. 
There was a strong desire for peace in the city, and when the end seemed 
inevitable. Savannah surrendered without a fight. Savannah had for 130 
years been Georgia's most important city, and perhaps it was fitting 
that she should lead the state back into the good graces of the Union. 
Savannahians were succeeding in getting back to their main occupation, 
namely being Savannahians. 






The present study was designed to investigate the personality 
characteristics of prospective teachers, as measured by the Sixteen 
Personality Factor Questionnaire, Form C. Basic similarities and dif- 
ferences were investigated among five prospective teacher groups 
which consisted of elementary, secondary science-mathematics, secon- 
dary language arts, secondary social science, and special education 
students. Basic similarities and differences were also investigated 
among the three secondary groups which consisted of science-mathe- 
matics, lanugage arts, and social science students. The study was de- 


signed to test the null hypothesis which states that there is no signifi- 
cant difference in personality characteristics of prospective teachers. 

Subjects for the study consisted of 275 Education 201 students who 
were accepted for admission to the teacher education program during 
fall, winter, and spring quarters of the school year 1968-1969. 

The analyses of covariances for the sixteen factors yielded statistic- 
ally significant differences among the five teacher groups for Factors 
A, E, and I. For the secondary groups, the analyses of covariances yield- 
ed statistically significant differences for Factors A, E, and Oi- Thus, 
on the basis of results, the null hypothesis was rejected for these factors. 
However, it could not be rejected for the remaining factors. 

SIMPSON, ROBERT C. (Psychology) 


The present study was designed to investigate the stroboscopic 
effect on perceptual speed and closure flexibility. It was hypothesized 
that optokinetic training with the stroboscope would improve perform- 
ance on the Perceptual Speed test and the Closure Flexibility test. 

A group of forty subjects were trained with the stroboscope and a 
control group of forty subjects were untrained. The subjects were vol- 
unteers from various classes on the West Georgia College campus. 

Analysis of covariance did not yield significant F's which indicated 
that there was no difference in performance between the group that 
had been trained and the group that had not been trained. The experi- 
mental hypotheses were not supported. 






A study of liver polyploidy was carried out on thirty-eight viable 
mice of the grey lethal strain, with the object of determining whether 
the mutant exercises an effect when heterozygous. Some mice analyzed 


at twenty-eight, thirty-five, and forty-two days of age revealed through 
microdensitometric measurements of Feulgen stained nuclei retarda- 
tion in reaching normal polyploid levels. These were interpreted as 
heterozygotes. The significance of the results in terms of the involve- 
ment of the parathyroid in DNA metabolism and of the effect on selec- 
tive fitness is discussed. 


AS OF JANUARY 1, 1970 

The editors wish to note that certain inconsistencies may exist due 
to inherent problems. Citations are received from faculty members who 
may have followed one of several different styles; used untraceable 
and/or incomplete citations; made illegible notations; or failed to re- 
spond completely or at all to our questionnaire. In order to meet publi- 
cation deadlines some citations were left incomplete. 

Adams, Donald W. 

"An Analysis of the Black Undergraduate Student at Indiana Uni- 
versity." Unpublished EdD dissertation (higher education), Indiana 
University, 1969. 

Allison, Rosalie N. 

"Environment for Orthopedic Handicaps." With H. Robert Veit. 
Instructor, LXIX, no. 3 (Nov., 1969), 122-23. 

Arons. Myron M. 

"Correcting for Compensation in Studies of Time Estimation." 
Psychonomic Science, XVII, no. 6 (1969), 319-20. 

Bailes, Edna Sue 

"Eugene Talmadge and the Board of Regents Controversy." Georgia 
Historical Quarterly, LIII, no. 4 (Dec, 1969), 409-24. 

Belt, B. D. 

"Radiative Capture of Protons by Deuterons." With C. R. Bingham, 
M. L. Halbert, and A. van der Wonde. This paper was read at: 

1. The International Conference on the Three-Body Problem, 
Birmingham, England, Jul., 1969. 

2. The Gordon Conference on Photonuclear Reactions, Tilton, 
New Hampshire, Aug., 1969. 

3. The American Physical Society, Boulder, Colorado, Oct., 
1969. This paper was published in Bulletin of American Physi- 
cal Society, II, no. 14, (1969), 1212 and II, no. 15, (1969) 480. 

Bennett, Jan 

"1-2-2 Tight Offense." Atheletic Journal, L, (Nov., 1969). 


Berryman, James M. 

"Molar Volume of Supercooled Naphthalene at 25 °C." With E. L. 
Heric. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, XIII (1969). 


Bjerkerot, Ernst M. 

Review of Male and Female by Margaret Mead. Norrlandska Social 
Demokrater. 1956. 

"Series on the Swedish Free Churches." Norrlandska Social Demo- 
krater. Nov.; Dec, 1956. 

"Series in Biblical Archeology." Norrlandska Social Demokrater, 
Dec, 1957: Feb., 1958. 

"Missionaries and Pohtics." Svenska Sandebudet, IC (Aug., 1967), 

"Christian Worship in Mashonaland: A Study of the Cults of Three 
Missionary Churches in Rhodesia." Theory and Practice in Church 
Life and Growth, Religious Research Institute, Nairobi, 1968. 
pp. 259-65. 

"Mission och Politik." Ungdomsaret '69, Hansa Koncernen: Stock- 
holm, 1968, pp. 135-47. 

"Observations on the African Worldview and its Encounter with 
Christianity." West Georgia College Studies in the Social Sciences, 
VIII, no. 1 (Jun., 1969), 46-51. 

"Hunger in America." Svensk Veckotidning, XXX (Jul., 1969). 

"The Black Panthers and KKK." Expressen. XXV (Aug., 1969). 

"Nixon's New Desegregation Guidelines." Expressen, XXV (Aug., 

"Black Studies in America." Svensk Veckotidning, XXX (Aug., 

B Ian ton, Floyd L. 

"New Mathematics." Georgia Educational Journal. LVII. no. 6 
(Jan., 1964), 15. 


"The Effect of Having Followed Certain High School Mathematics 
Programs on Success in College Freshman Mathematics." Un- 
published PhD dissertation (mathematics education), University 
of Georgia, 1965. 

Modern College Algebra. With James Earl Perry. New York: 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1967. 

Bowdre, Paul H. 

"A Brief Look at Linguistics." Georgia English Counselor, Nov., 

Boyd, Herman W. 

"Levels in ^^°Cd Populated in the Decay of 60-min ^^°g. In." With 
D. G. Sarantites and Noah R. Johnson. Nuclear Physics Al 38, 
1969, pp. 115-32. 

Boyd, James E. 

"Scattering of X-Rays by Cold-Worked and by Annealed Beryllium." 
Unpublished PhD dissertation (physics), Yale University, 1934. 
Later published in Physical Review, XLV (1934), 832-84. 

Bryson, Thomas A. 

"An Independent Armenia: Counsel for the Defense." Ararat, X 
(Spring, 1969), 24-28. 

'Rqv'xqv/ oi Roosevelt and World War II, by Robert A. Divine. /owma/ 
of Southern History, XXXV (Nov., 1969), 600-1. 

"Walter George Smith: An Essay on His Manuscript Collection." 
Records of the American Catholic Historical Society. LXXX 
(Dec, 1969), 203-9. 

Byron. Dora 

"Happiness is a Bill of Sale, a Cup of Sugar, and a Pink Kitten." 
Adult Leadership, XVII, no. 5 (Nov., 1969), 2-5. 

Chandler, Donald G. 

"A Comprehensive and Systematic Evaluation of the Community 
Action Program and Related Programs Operating in Atlanta, 
Georgia." With Fred R. Crawford. Center for Research in Social 
Change: Emory University, various sections and dates as follows: 


1. "Research Plan," Sep., 1966. 

2. "Quarterly Reports," Nos. 1-5, Jan. 31, 1967 to Mar. 31, 1968. 

3. "Special Reports," Vols. I, II, with technical appendixes 
A-D, Jun. 30, 1969. 

Editor, Rehabiliiutioii of the Public Offender, The Report of the 
Fifth Institute on Rehabilitation Services, May 22-25, 1967, U. S. 
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1967. 

Contributor, Final Report, Atlanta Federal Offender Rehabilitation 
Project, Atlanta; Georgia State Department of Education, Office 
of Rehabilitation Services, 1969. 

Claxton, Robert H. 

"A Latin American Alternative to Racism: Some Aspects of the 
Thought of Eugenio Maria de Hostos." West Georgia College 
Studies in the Social Sciences, VIII, no. 1 (Jun., 1969), 29-39. 

"The Pragmatic LiberaUsm of Lorenzo Montufar of Guatemala: 
A Document." The Records of the American Catholic Historical 
Society of Philadelphia, LXXX, no. 4 (Dec, 1969), 236-38. 

Cleere, W. Ray 

Teacher Education: A New Dimension. With Glenn Vergason, 
Evelyn Blewett, and Mary Anne Moore. Athens: University Sys- 
tem of Georgia, 1969. 

A One-Week Institute to Develop Objectives and Models for a Con- 
tinuous Exploratory Program Related to the World of Work From 
Junior High Through Senior High School. Final Report Project 
No. 8-0371, 1969. (Mimeographed) 

Conrad, Roderick 

"Spanish-United States Relations, 1868-1874." Unpublished PhD 
dissertation (history). University of Georgia, 1969. 

Conway, Harold 

"Need for Diagnostic Center Cited." The Corrector, V, no. 4 (Apr., 

Crawford, Thomas J. 

"Pre-Tuscaloosa and Pre-Barnwell Erosion in East-Central Georgia." 
Georgia Academy of Science Bulletin. XXVII, no. 2 (1969), 89. 


Sulfide Deposits, Coosa Valley Area, Georgia. With Vernon J. Hurst. 
Washington: U. S. Department of Commerce, 1969. 

De Villier, Mary Anne G. 

"Much Ado: The Moral and Religious Approach to Shakespeare 
Criticism." West Georgia College Review, II, no. 1 (May, 1969), 

"Faulkner's Young Man: As Reflected in the Character of Charles 
Mallison." The Laurel Review, IX, no. 2 (Fall, 1969), 42-49. 

Diestel, Joseph 

"Representation of Operators Into Lebesque-Bochner Spaces." 
Notices of American Mathematical Society, XVI (Jan., 1969), 
215. (Abstract) 

"On the Representation of Bounded Linear Operators from any 
Banach Space into an Lp-space of Lebesque-Bochner Measurable 
Functions." Bulletin de LAcademie Polonaise des Sciences, 
XVII (1969), 377-80. 

"Volume Generating the Same Space of Lebesque-Bochner Mea- 
surable Functions." Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science, 
XXVII (Apr., 1969), 99. (Abstract) 

"(T— Completions of Boolean Algebras." Notices of American Math- 
ematical Society, XVI (Aug., 1969), 785. (Abstract) 

"A Necessary and Sufficient Condition for the Continuity of an 
Operator Into An Orlicz Space of Lebesque-Bochner Measurable 
Functions." The American Mathematical Monthly, (Aug. -Sept., 
1969), 867. (Listed by title) 

"Abstract Contents, I." Notices of American Mathematical Society, 
XVI (Nov., 1969), 1047. (Abstract) 

"Abstract Contents, II." Notices of American Mathematical Society, 
XVI (Nov., 1969), 1063. (Abstract) 

Doxey, William S. 

"Dogs and Dates in William G. Sims' The Yamassee.'' American 
Transcendental Quarterly, I (1969), 41-43. 

"American Literary Response to the Philipine Problem: 1899-1906." 
West Georgia College Review, II, no. 1 (May, 1969), 10-19. 


"The Quality of Love." Michigan Quarterly Review, VIII (Fall, 
1969). 229-33. 

"The Sergeant Major."' Spectrum, V (Winter, 1969-70), 78-88. 

Edwards, Edna Earl 

"A Comparison of Factors Affecting the Success of Athletes in 
Selected Junior Novels and Biographies." Unpublished PhD dis- 
sertation (English education). Florida State University, 1969. 

Ess linger. W. Glenn 

"The Preparation and Pyrolysis of the Xanthates of c/5— and trans — 
4-t-Butyl Cyclohexly-carbinol and cis— and /^ran^— l-Methyl-4-t- 
Butyl Cyclohexanol." Paper read at the Alabama Academy of 
Science, Auburn, Alabama, Mar., 1964. 

"Formation and Application to Organic Synthesis of Some Sulfur 
Containing Ylides." Paper read at the Southeastern Section of 
the American Chemical Society, Charleston, West Virginia, Apr., 

"Ring-Opening Reactions of Methylenecyclo-alkane Oxides." With 
R. H. Garner and George C. Williams. Paper read at the South- 
eastern Section of the American Chemical Society, Miami, Florida, 
Apr., 1967. 

"Do You Know the Score?" With William L. Lockhart. West Geor- 
gia College Review, II, no. 2 (Nov., 1969), 16-25. 

Fa ires, Dano M. 

"Computation with Decimal Fractions in the Sequence of Number 
Development." Unpublished EdD dissertation (curriculum). 
Wayne State University, 1962. 

Finnie, Gordon E. 

"The Antislavery Movement in the Upper South Before 1840." 
Journal of Southern History. XXXV (Aug., 1969), 319-42. 

Review oi Means and Ends in Anierican Abolitionism: Garrison and 
His Critics on Strategy and Tactics. 1834-1850 by Aileen S. Kradi- 
tor. Journal of Southern History, XXXV (Aug., 1969), 413. 


Fitz-Simons, Theodore B., Jr. 

Review of Losing the Peace: Georgia Republicans and Reconstruc- 
tion, 1865-1872 by Elizabeth S. Nations. Georgia Historical Quar- 
terly, LIII (Jun., 1969), 250. 

Flum, Philip N. 

"An Etymological Dictionary of the Friulian Dialect of Phaeto- 
Romance." Unpublished PhD dissertation (romance philology) 
University of North Carolina, 1953. 

"Old French Mire: A Neopolitan Borrowing." Philological Quarter- 
ly. XXXI, no. 4 (Oct.. 1952). 447-48. 

"Old French Huge, Huche." Romance Notes, I (Autumn, 1959), 


"Additional Thoughts on Marie de France." Romance Notes. Ill 
(Autumn, 1961). 

"v4/er, Aller<CA\a + - are: An Etymological Defense." Philological 
Quarterly, XLI, no. 1 (Jan., 1962), 149-50. 

"Development of Initial Unaccented A Preceded by a Palatal in 
Old French." Romance Notes, IV (Spring, 1962). 

"Marie de France and the Talbot Family Connections." Romance 
Notes. VII, no. 1 (Winter, 1965). 

Garmon. Gerald M. 

"Roethke's 'Open House'." The Explicator, XXVIII, no. 3 (Nov. 
1969), Item 27. 

"Naturalism and The Damnation of Theron Ware.'' West Georgia 
College Review, II, no. 2 (Nov., 1969), 44-51. 

Assistant Editor, West Georgia College Review, II, 1969- . 
Editor, Ga.-S.C. CEA Newsletter, I, 1969- . 

Gentzel, Walter E. 

"Development and Evaluation of Programmed Material for Intro- 
duction to Business Classes." Unpublished EdD dissertation (edu- 
cation), University of Tennessee, 1969. 


Gilbert. Edward E. 

"Homoligies of the Male Genitalia of Rhynchophora and Allied 
Coleoptera." Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 
XLV (1951), 633-37. 

"Sexual Dimorphism and Synonomy in Anthonomus (Curculio- 
nidae)."' Pan-Pacific Entomologist. XXIX (1953), 41. 

"A New Genus and Species of Blind Weevil from Florida." Pan- 
Pacific Entomologist, XXXI (1955). 193. 

"The Raymondionyminae of California." Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 

XXXII (1956), 55-72. 

"The Genus Baris Germar in California." Unpublished PhD disser- 
tation (biology). University of California. Berkeley, 1964. Publish- 
ed as The Genus Baris Germar in California (Coleoptera, Cur- 
culionidae). Berkeley: University of California Press, 1964. 

"Infra-Red Time and Tunnelling Studies of Tribolium confusum. " 
Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, XLVI (1965), 130. 

Review of Field Biology and Ecology by Allen H. Benton and Wil- 
liam F. Werner. The Quarterly Review of Biologv. XLI (Dec, 
1966), 414-15. 

Review oi Experimental Statistics in Entomology by F. M. Wadley. 
The Quarterly Review of Biology, XLIII (Dec.', 1968), 466. 

Review oi Ecology of Populations by Arthur S. Boughey. The Quar- 
terly Review of Biology, XLIX (Sep.. 1969). 329. 

Review of Microecology by J. L. Cloudsley-Thompson. The Quar- 
terly Review of Biology, XLIX (Sep.. 1969), 438. 

"Time and Motion Studies of Tribolium. " Paper read at the First 
International Symposium on Statistical Ecology, Yale Univer- 
sity, Aug., 1969. 

Gregor, C. Bryan 

"The Magnetism of Some Permian Red Sandstones from Northwest- 
ern Turkey." With J. D. A. Zyderveld. Tectonophysics, I (1964), 

"The Geochemical Behavior of Sodium." Unpublished DSc disser- 
tation (geology). University of Utrecht, 1967. Pubhshed in Ver- 


handelingen Der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie Van Weten- 
schappen, AFD. Naturkunde, XXIV, no. 2 (1967), 1-67. 

Griffin, J. David 

"Medical Assistance for the Sick Poor in Ante-Bellum Savannah." 
Georgia Historical Quarterly, LIII, no. 4 (Dec. 1969), 464-69. 

"Historians and the Sixth Article of the Ordinance of 1787." Ohio 
History, LXXVIII, no. 4 (Autumn, 1969), 252-60. 

Guynn, Richard O. 

"Personal Income Growth in the Three Mid-South States." With 
Paul R. Lowry. Memphis State University Review, I, no. 5 (Jul., 
1964), 8-10. 

"Changes in Sources of Personal Income of Mid-South, 1948-1963." 
With Paul R. Lowry. Memphis State University Business Review, 
I, no. 6 (Sep., 1964), 8-10. 

Estimated Demand for Sand in Shelby County, Tennessee, 1963- 
1993. With Paul R. Lowry. Memphis, Tennessee: Bureau of Bus- 
iness Research, Memphis State University. 1964. 

A Proposal for a Housing Research Program for the Memphis Area. 
With Paul R. Lowry. Memphis, Tennessee: Bureau of Business 
Research, Memphis State University, 1964. 

"An Economic Analysis of a Reservoir and Recreation Area on the 
Wolf River." With Paul R. Lowry. Section 2 in Recreation Pro- 
ject: Wolf River, an Engineering Study and Economic Analysis. 
Memphis, Tennessee: Bureau of Business Research, Memphis 
State University, 1964. 

Hahn, Hwa S. 

"Power Structure of Democratic Groups and Its Changes." West 
Georgia College Review, II, no. 2 (Nov., 1969), 39-43. 

"A Simple Condition of the Traveling Salesman's Problem." Notices 
of the American Mathematics Society, XVI, no. 6 (Aug., 1969), 

"A Note on de Bruijn's Number System." Journal of the Korean 
Mathematics Society, VI (Nov., 1969), 6. 


Harman, Edwin E. 

"A Comparison of Hospital Development in England, Canada, and 
the United States: Past. Present, and Future." Selected Student 
Papers in Hospital Administration (1967) (Aug., 1968), pp. 86-96. 

Review of Health is a Community Affair. Hospital Administration, 
XIV, no. 1 (Winter, 1969). 67-70. 

Hersch. Robert C. 

"Negro Slavery and the Emergence of the South as a Distinct Re- 
gion Prior to 1850." West Georgia College Studies in the Social 
Sciences, VIII, no. 1 (Jun., 1969), 14-23. 

Hill, Richard S. 

■'American Draughtsmen." (Drawings in Smithsonian Traveling 

Holmes, Y. Lynn 

"The Foreign Relations of Cyprus During the Late Bronze Age." 
Unpublished PhD dissertation (history), Brandeis University, 

Huck. Eugene R. 

Editor, West Georgia College Studies in the Social Sciences, VI, 
1967- . 

Editor, West Georgia College Review, I, 1968- . 

Editor, SECOLAS Annals, I, 1969- . 

Keller, George E. 

"The Decay of ^^^m." With E. F. Zganjar and J. J. Pinijian. Bulle- 
tin of the American Physical Society, XIII (1968), 1723. 

"Band-Mixing Effects in the Even-Even Deformed Nuclei ^^Gd, 
^^^Dy, and ^68£j-." Unpublished PhD dissertation (physics), Louisi- 
ana State University, 1969. 

"Band-Mixing Effects in is^Gd, i^^Dy, and le^Er." With E. F. Zganjar. 
Bulletin of the American Physical Society, XIV (1969), 627. 


"Precision Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy on the Decay of ^^m." 
With E. F. Zganjar and J. J. Pinijian. Nuclear Physics, CXXIX-A 
(1969), 481-501. 

Kennedy, W. Benjamin 

"French Projects for the Invasion of Ireland, 1796-1798." Unpub- 
hshed PhD dissertation (history). University of Georgia, 1966. 

"Hugh Henry Brackenridge: Thoughts and Acts of A Moderate 
Democrat." West Georgia College Review, II, no. 2 (Nov., 1969), 

"Black Soldiers at the Siege of Savannah, 1779." Paper read at the 
Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, Birmingham, 
Alabama, 1969. 

Klee, James 

"The Relation of Frustration and Motivation to the Production of 
Abnormal Fixations in the Rat." Unpublished PhD dissertation 
(psychology). University of Michigan, 1943. Published in American 
Psychological Association, XLVI, no. 4 (1944), 1-45. 

Review of A Psychiatrist Discovers India by M. A. Boss. The Jour- 
nal of Transpersonal Psychology, I, no. 1 (Spring, 1969), 67-71. 

Lankford, W. H. 

"Inflation: Friend or Foe?" West Georgia College Review, II, no. 1 
(May, 1969), 56-59. 

Lockhart, William L. 

"Kinetics of Decomposition of the Fluorosulfate Ion in Aqueous 
Solution." With M. M. Jones. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear 
Chemistry, XXX (1968), 1237-43. 

"A Rate Study of the Hydrolysis of the Hexafluoroarsenate (V) 
Ion." With M. M. Jones and D. O. Johnston. Journal of Inorganic 
and Nuclear Chemistry, XXXI (1969), 407-14. 

"Do You Know the Score?" With W. Glenn Esslinger. West Geor- 
gia College Review, II, no. 2 (Nov., 1969), 16-25. 

Assistant Editor, West Georgia College Review, II, 1969- . 


Long, Sumner 

"Basal Cretaceous Strata, Southeastern Colorado." Unpublished 
PhD dissertation (geology), University of Colorado, 1966. 

McCutcheon. Stephen C. 

"A Conceptualization of the Nature and Principles of Institutional 
Planning." Unpublished EdD dissertation (higher education), 
Indiana University, 1968. 

Made ley, Hulon M. 

"Concretionary Stream Bar Deposits." Oklahoma Geologv Notes, 
XXI (Nov., 1961), 301-6. 

'Pre-Womble Rocks of the Ouachita Mountains." Oklahoma Geolo- 
gy Notes, XXI (Dec, 1961), 327-30. 

'The Creation and Geology." University Bulletin, XIV (Winter, 
1962), 4-5, 26-28. 

"A Method of Correcting Hydrometer Readings for Temperature 
Variations." Journal of Sedimentary Petrology. XXXII (Dec, 
1962), 871-72. 

Appreciating Geologic Processes. With Marcus B. Morehead. 
CarroUton, Georgia: Pointer Press, 1965. 

Interpreting Geologic History. With Marcus B. Morehead. Carroll- 
ton, Georgia: Pointer Press, 1966. 

Maples, William P. 

"Intramolluscan Stages of Dasymetra Conferta Nicoll, 1911 (Tre- 
matoda: Plagiorchiidae)." With Elon E. Byrd. The Journal of 
Parasitology, LV, no. 3 (Jun., 1969), 509-26. 

Mathews, James W. 

"I Sing of Times Trans-Shifting." West Georgia College Review, 
II, no. 1 (May, 1969), 3-9. 

Mathis, L. Doyle 

"The Eleventh Amendment: A Study of State Liability to Suit in 
the Federal Courts." Unpublished PhD dissertation (political 
science), University of Georgia, 1966. 


"The Status of Political Science in Georgia and the Role of the 
Georgia Political Science Association." Presidential address, 
Georgia Pohtical Science Association, Atlanta, Georgia, Apr., 

"Members of the Georgia General Assembly." Research paper with 
recommendations, Citizens Committee on the Georgia General 
Assembly, 1969. (Mimeographed) 

"Legal Matters Relating to the Georgia General Assembly." Research 
paper with recommendations. Citizens Committee on the Georgia 
General Assembly, 1969. (Mimeographed) 

Maxwell, Edith H. 

"Evaluation of a Large Scale Mathematics In-Service Institute for 
Elementary Teachers." Unpublished EdD dissertation (mathe- 
matics education), University of Georgia, 1967. 

"Evaluation of a Large Scale In-Service Mathematics Institute." 
With Len Pikaart. Paper read at the Annual Meeting of the Na- 
tional Council on Measurement in Education, New York, Feb., 

Mixon, Val G. 

"Fragmented Representation Shackles the Black Citizens." The 
Atlanta Journal, Nov. 8, 1969. 

Moon, Syng Ek 

"The Anti-Science Position: Theses Against Positivist Political 
Science in Some Contemporary Political Writings." Unpublished 
PhD dissertation (political science), Florida State University, 

Mykkeltvedt, Roald 

"Justice Black and the Intentions of the Framers of the 14th Amend- 
ment's First Section: The Bill of Rights and the States." Mercer 
Law Review, XX (Summer, 1969), 432-42. 

Newmark, Zalmon M. 

"Direct and Continuous Measures in the Classroom." Unpublished 
EdD dissertation (special education), Indiana University, 1969. 


"Behavior Modification and the School Psychologist." Paper read 
at the American Psychological Association National Convention, 
San Francisco, California, Sep., 1968. 

"Credibility of Mouth Noise." Paper read at the Southeastern 
Psychological Association Convention, New Orleans, Louisiana, 
Feb., 1969. 

Perry, James Earl 

Modern College Algebra. With F. L. Blanton. New York: McGraw- 
Hill Book Co., 1967. 

Poort, Jon M. 

"Stratigraphic Patterns in the Sauk Sequence of the Western Craton." 
Unpublished PhD dissertation (geology), Southern Methodist 
University, 1969. 

"The Winchell Limestone South of the Brazos River." in Late Pen- 
sylvanian Shelf Sediments, North-Central Texas. Dallas: American 
Association of Petroleum Geologists Guidebook, 1969. (This was 
read at the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Dallas, 
Texas, 1969). 

Powell, Bobby E. 

"Estimates of Combinations of Fourth-Order Elastic Constants 
of Copper and Silver." Phvsica Status Solidi, XXXV ( 1969), 


"Growth of Alkali Halide Filamentary Crystals." Bulletin of the 
Georgia Academy of Science, XXVII (Apr., 1969), 100. (Ab- 

"Combinations of Fourth-Order Elastic Constants." Bulletin of 
the Georgia Academy of Science, XXVII (Apr., 1969), 101. (Ab- 

Sanders, Leslie A. 

"A Study of the Role of School Social Workers in the School 
Systems of the State of Georgia." Unpublished EdD disserta- 
tion (educational administration). University of Georgia, 1968. 


Scott, Carole E. 

"The Economic Impact of the New Deal on the South." Unpub- 
Hshed PhD dissertation (economics), Georgia State University, 

"Business is Business." West Georgia College Review, II, no. 1 
(May, 1969), 20-25. 

Seiber, T. David 

The USSR: Twelfth Grade Unit for Fulton County Schools. Atlanta, 
Georgia, 1963. (Mimeographed) 

A Program for the Educational Enrichment of the Senior Citizens 
of Polk County, Florida. Winterhaven, Florida, 1967. (Mimeo- 

Economic Education: Scope and Sequence Chart. Florida State 
Department of Education, Tallahassee, 1969. (Mimeographed) 

Taylor, Howard E. 

Fundamental Mathematics. With T. L. Wade. New York: McGraw- 
Hill, 1956, 1961, 1967. 

University Calculus. With T. L. Wade. New York: John Wiley and 
Sons, 1962. 

Subsets of the Plane: Plane Analytic Geometry. With T. L. Wade. 
New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1962. 

University Freshman Mathematics. With T. L. Wade. New York: 
John Wiley and Sons, 1963. 

Contemporary Analytic Geometry. With T. L. Wade. New York: 
McGraw-Hill, 1969. 

"On the Meaning of Structure in Mathematics." With T. L. Wade. 
The Mathematics Teacher, LVIII (Mar., 1965). 

Tolbert, Betty Sue 

"Contemporary Piano Music for 1969-70 Festivals." Georgia 
Music News, XXX (Nov., 1969), 33-36. 


Tumblin, John A., Jr. 

"Culture Shock, Role Shock, or No Shock at All?" Presidential 
Address, Georgia Sociological and Anthropological Association, 
Augusta, Georgia, Nov. 7, 1969. 

Vichas, Robert P. 

"External Financing of the Nicaraguan Development Experiment." 
Unpublished PhD dissertation (economics). University of Florida, 
1967. A summary published in American Economic Review, 
LVIII, no. 4 (Sep., 1968), 1107. 

Review of The Latin American Economies: A Study of Their In- 
dustrial Evolution by William P. Glade. Choice. VI, no. 8 (Oct., 
1969), 1068. 

Walker, Warren A. 

"Executive Training in Europe."" The Southern Journal of Business, 
IV (Jul., 1969) 63-68. 

Wash. James A., Jr. 

Exercises in Educational Psychology. With Karl Garrison, A. J. 
Kingston, and Fred Schab. Ann Arbor: Edwards Bros., 1964. 

"Predictions of Successful College Academic Performance from 
Measures of Body-cathexis, Self-cathexis, and Anxiety."" With 
W. F. White. Perceptual and Motor Skills. XX (1965), 431-82. 

"What Research Says to the Reading Teacher About Programmed 
Instruction."" With A. J. Kingston. Journal of Reading, X (1965), 

A Study Guide for Educational Psychology. With A. J. Kingston, 
Fred Schab, and W. F. White. Ann Arbor: Edwards Bros., 1966. 

Exercises in Adolescent Psychology. With Fred Schab and W. F. 
White. Ann Arbor: Edwards Bros., 1966. 

"Generalized Effects of Praise and Reproof."' With Harry Anderson 
and W. F. White. Journal of Educational Psvchologv, III (1966), 

"Perception of Teacher Effectiveness as a Function of the Students" 
Need for Social Approval."" Perceptual and Motor Skills, XXIII 
(1966), 711-17. 


"Research of Reporting Systems." National Elementary Principal, 
LV (1966), 36-40. 

"Research of Reporting Systems." The Pedagogic Reporter, XVIII 
(1966), 3-4. 

"An Evaluation of the Sequential Anthropology Project." Paper 
read at the American Educational Research Association, New 
York, New York, Feb., 1966. 

"An Experiment in the Use of Programmed Instruction Materials 
for Teaching High School Chemistry." Paper read at the National 
Association for Research in Science Teaching, Chicago, Illinois, 
Feb., 1966. 

"Symposium-Evaluation of New Curricula." Paper read at the 
American Educational Research Association, New York, New 
York, Feb., 1966. 

"Residual Effects of Differential Reinforcement in the Classroom." 
Paper read at the Southeastern Psychological Association, New 
Orleans, Louisiana, May, 1966. 

"Perception of Teacher Effectiveness as a Function of the Students' 
Need of Social Approval." Paper read at the American Educa- 
tional Research Association, New York, New York, Feb., 1967. 

"Child and Adolescent Psychology." Paper read at the Police 
Juvenile Workshop, Georgia Center for Continuing Education, 
Athens, Georgia, Apr., 1967. 

"Programmed Instruction in Adult Education Programs." Paper 
read at the Workshop in Adult Education, Georgia Center for 
Continuing Education, Athens, Georgia, Sep., 1967. 

"Research for the Classroom— Programmed Instruction." In Self- 
Instructional Learning in the Elementary School. Edited by 
Shimbulcuro and Laning, Dekalb, Illinois: Educational Methods, 
Inc., 1967. 

"Child Psychology." Paper read at the Police Juvenile Workshop, 
Georgia Center for Continuing Education, Athens, Georgia, 
Apr., 1968. 

"The Adolescent." Paper read at the Police Juvenile Workshop, 
Georgia Center for Continuing Education, Athens, Georgia, 
Apr., 1968. 


"Psychology of the College Student." Paper read at the Seminar 
on Campus Security, University System of Georgia, Georgia 
State College, Atlanta, Georgia, May, 1968. 

■'An Investigation of the Relationships Between Academic Per- 
formance and Attitudinal Changes of High Risk Students." Paper 
read at the Southeastern Psychological Association, New Orleans, 
Louisiana, 1969. 

"A Study of the Validity of the Sixteen Personality Questionnaire 
in Predicting High School Academic Achievements." Educational 
and Psychological Measurement, XXIX (1969), 479-81. 

Welch, Robert M. 

"DNA and Protein Synthesis in Livers of Viable Mice of Grey 
Lethal Strain." Paper read at American Society of Cell Biology, 
Detroit, Michigan, Nov. 6, 1969. 

Zander, Vernon E. 

"A Fubini-Jessen Theorem for the Generahzed Lebesque-Bochner 
Integral on Lp-spaces." With Witold Bogdanowicz. Paper read 
at the American Mathematical Society, New Orleans, Louisiana, 
Jan., 1969. 

"A Representation Theorem for Infinitely-Linear Bounded Contin- 
uous Operators." Paper read at the American Mathematical 
Society, Eugene, Oregon, Aug., 1969. 

"An Infinitely-Linear Vectorial Integral of an Infinite Product 
of Vector-Valued Summable Functions." With Witold Bogdano- 
wicz. Notices of the American Mathematical Society, XVI, no. 6 
(1969), 836. (Abstract) 

"A Vectorial Integral with Respect to an InfiniteProduct of Vector- 
Valued Volumes." With Witold Bogdanowicz. Notices of the 
American Mathematical Society, XVI, no. 7 (1969), 972. (Ab- 

"A Fubini-Type Theorem for a Vector Valued Volume Related 
to an Orlicz Space of Bochner Measurable Functions." Paper 
read at the Mathematical Association of America, Rock Hill, 
South Carolina, Mar., 1969. 

"A Pointwise Fubini-Jessen Theorem for the Generalized Lebesque- 
Bochner Integral." Paper read at the Georgia Academy of Science, 
Athens, Georgia, Apr., 1969. Published in Bulletin of the Georgia 
Academv of Science, XXVII (1969), 99. (Abstract) 

vy I / I 






3 1971 

Volume IV 

May, 1971 

Number 1 

Published By 


A Division of the University System of Georgia 


Published by 


George W. Walker, Acting President 
John M. Martin, Academic Dean 

Faculty Research Committee 

Floyd L. Blanton Jack H. Medlin 

Thomas A. Bryson Roald Y. Mykkeltvedt 

Gordon E. Finnic Carole E. Scott 

Benjamin W. Griffith Robert P. Vichas 

Anne G. Ingram James A. Wash 

James W. Mathews Robert M. Welch 

Doyle L. Mathis Vernon E. Zander 

Eugene R. Huck. Chairman and Editor 
Gerald M. Garmon and William L. Lockhart, Assistant Editors 

The purpose of this publication is to provide encouragement for 
faculty research and to make available results of such activity. The 
Review, published annually, accepts original scholarly work and crea- 
tive writing. West Georgia College assumes no responsibility for con- 
tributors" views. The style guide is Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for 
Writers. Although the Review is primarily a medium for the faculty of 
West Georgia College, other sources are invited. 

An annual bibliography includes doctoral dissertations, major 
recitals and major art exhibits. Theses and articles in progress or ac- 
cepted are not listed. A faculty member's initial listing is comprehensne 
and this inventory appears as the first issue in any year. The abstracts 
of all master's theses written at West Georgia College are included as 
they are awarded. 


Vol. IV, No. 1 May, 1971 




Citizenship — A New Approach Ralph Nader 3 

Mirror of Vanities and Virtues: 

A Reappraisal of Gone With The Wind . . . Fran C. C'halfonl 15 

Hemingway and the American Dream James B. Klee 27 

D. H. Lawrence's The Man Who Died: A Psychological and 

Archetypal Interpretation Michael Hallresht 32 

Wise Politicians, Taxes, and Inflation Robert P. Vichas 39 

Abstracts of Master's Theses 43 

Annual Bibliography of West Georgia College Faculty 

as of January 1. 1971 54 

Copyright © 1971. West Georgia College 
Printed in U. S. A. 



To begin my discussion of environmental hazards that are man- 
made and man remedied, I wish to make a brief allusion to the situation 
in and around Savannah and the Savannah River. Here is one of the 
country's most abundant and most beautiful rivers. Susceptible to 
human use in a wonderous variety of ways from the necessities of con- 
suming water to the recreational and other commercial uses that river 
has been regressively destroyed for one human purpose after another 
with the exception of navigation and use as an industrial sewer. That 
river, of course, is not owned by any citizen or by any company or by 
any government. It is public property. It is owned in a very real sense 
by all Americans now and in the future and the trusteeship that people 
should have exercised with due regard to that river has been very severely 
violated. As a result, the Savannah River and its deteriorating environ- 
ment is having repercussions as diverse as damaging the underground 
water resources of portion of the Southeastern part of the country, to 
the livelihood of hundreds of fishermen, to the contamination of water 
that would be used for drinking purposes. 

Now this destruction of a river did not come with sirens; it did not 
come with anthropomorphic mechanisms like street crime, it came 
regularly, daily, around-the-clock, building up its terrible results until 
it was evident for all to see. The justification for the pollution of this 
river by the industries that are involved in it is that it costs too much 
to do otherwise. Cost who too much? How much does it cost ttot to clean 
it up in terms of the cost to the people in and around that area and their 
descendents? And how much does it cost not to absorb the available 
technology that our scientist-engineers have produced for many years 
to clean it up? And how much does it cost in terms of the property dam- 
age and the disease that is associated with that polluted body of water? 

In short, there is an element of willful and knowing destruction of 
property here on the part of industries vis-a-vis innocent citizens who 
have every right to enjoy a wholesome and healthful and safe natural en- 
vironment. It is so basic it is not even in our constitution. For all the 
foresight of our founding fathers they never thought it was necessary to 
put in our constitution that every American has the right to breathe 
unpolluted air or to enjoy uncontaminated water, or to live in and around 
a non-hazardous natural environment. 

But in many ways the Savannah River problem is a microcosm of 
what is going on all over the country— the regressive destruction of the 
integrity of the natural resource base on which man's health, safety and 
ultimate survival will rest. We rely on a delicate interaction with nature. 
We abuse nature to a point — it is ugly. We abuse nature beyond that 

point and nature begins turning on that abuser because we cannot live 
without respecting the purity of the land, air and water around us. 

All around us. with an enormous economic growth in the last 25 
years, we have seen an enormous pollution growth so that we in the 
United States contribute about 45% or more of the world's industrial 
pollution. We are contributing pollution to our immediate environment 
in the mainland and into the oceans at a rate much faster than both 
population and economic growth. The use. for example, of pesticides 
has increased six-fold since 1946 while the population has increased 
43% and real economic growth is up about 70%. The use of mercury 
has gone up 3,000% since the end of World War II. And it is beginning 
to be a very serious question — first as to whether we need to use so many 
of these secondary pollutants and second, whether we can afford con- 
tinuing to shortchange the environment before even industry begins 
feeling terrible costs of contaminated water and contaminated land re- 

As you will probably remember, on occasion we read about episodes 
where industry cannot even locate water clean enough for industrial 
purposes, or cannot find a site for a new plant because the community 
does not want the pollution that goes along with it. These are early 
signs of what ecologists call the full cycle of environmental deterioration. 
The first step is that the pollution can be foisted on the natural resource 
base, then it begins to victimize people in terms of disease, emphysema, 
respiratory illness from air pollution, and then it begins to victimize 
those that are victimizing in a kind of full circle proving, of course, 
that ecology is a kind of seamless web. You cannot jar or contaminate 
a portion of the environment without that contamination beginning to 
spill over and through that entire environment. 

The widely held impression — fast being reduced fortunately— that 
pollution somehow stops at the drinking reservoir, or that it stops at 
our food supply is another indication of the need for very systematic 
education, formal and public and informal, in the dynamics of the pol- 
lution flow. Because increasingly even our drinking water supply is 
being overburdened by contamination that we call heavy metals, like 
cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic — arsenic coming from pesticides 
and detergent spills. Increasingly the food supply is being contaminated 
when sewage goes into off-shore waters where shell fish are harvested. 
These are food-born diseases. There are other food-born diseases con- 
nected with these kind of contamination but even more important are 
the longer range diseases that come from foods that have a high nitrate 
level. Little infants are very sensitive to nitrates in their foods or foods 
that have pesticide levels or other contaminations that do not immediately 
provoke a sickness but just build up over time the human morbidities 
involved. One of the most intriguing questions is why we have waited 
this long to recognize the problem when certainly pollution has been 
with us for quite some time. 

I think the preliminary answers are the following: In order to re- 
cognize a pollution risk, we have to know certain things. We have to 
know that it is there, we have to know how to measure it, we have to 
know what it does to the human body, what it does to the environment, 
and what it does to our property. If you ask yourself who can make 
these kinds of studies, you find that there are not many institutions 
that are capable or willing to make these studies. Indeed the industries 
are not interested because it will incriminate themselves. Universities 
with a few exceptions do not have the money to make these studies, 
and thus it rests on government in the fulfillment of its long held mission 
of protecting the public health and safety. That government has not, 
until recently, been willing to spend money in this area and support 
scientists and medical experts and other specialists to do this kind of 
work. In the last ten years there has been some of this research com- 
pleted and the findings are very disturbing. The more we know the more 
disturbing the findings are and the more we know the more drastic our 
sensitivity to new forms of violence in the environment has to become 
before we really act on our knowledge. I think it is important to each 
and every one of us test our sensitivity to different forms of violence. 

Of course we are very sensitive to burglars, to pickpockets, to those 
who smash windows. This violence almost everybody understands. 
You do not have to go through a course in philosophy or ethics to get 
people to interpret it. But when it comes to the environmental violence 
of the chemicals and gases and air-born particles that effects far more 
Americans far more pervasively and seriously and that affect future 
generations by virtue of genetic impact to the integrity of the human 
physiology, we are pretty much obsolete. This is a tragic observation, 
but one that has to be made if we are going to recognize what has to be 

When I say obsolete I mean that physiologically we are no different 
than our ancestors were 200,000 years ago. Physiologically we do not 
have the sensory mechanisms to alert ourselves to these silent form of 
chemical and biological violence that comes from pollution and that 
attacks cell and tissue structure and affect people five, ten, twenty years 
from now with diseases that are household words— heart disease, cancer, 
emphysema, other respiratory ailments. We cannot smell, see, taste, 
or feel most of these hazards. Any room could be subjected to high 
levels of radiation. Who would know it? You cannot feel radiation, 
test to feel it, touch it, smell it, see it unless obviously there's a total 
lethal dose. But serious levels of radiation represent an invisible and 
violent penetration of the human physiology and it is a form of violence. 
But nobody would be concerned. On the other hand if there were a few 
leaping flames coming in, everyone would be very concerned because we 
are biologically programmed to sense the onrush of a fire. Any room 
could be subjected to carbon monoxide levels, say 80 or 100 parts per 
million. Who would know it? It's an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas 

and very deadly. Indeed even if some people in any audience were begin- 
ning to snooze because of the carbon monoxide they would be far more 
likely to blame it on the speaker than on any pollution in the area. 

How many people have been able to taste the mercury in their tuna 
fish or sword fish? And how many people get up in the morning and fill 
a glass full of water and utter, "'Aha! cadmium level is up today." In 
short, we have to re-educate ourselves to become sensitive and then 
concerned and, if necessary, downright indignant about these avoid- 
able and massive forms of environmental pollutants that are getting into 
so many sensitive areas of property and human health and safety through- 
out the country. It is probably one of the leading educational challenges 
of our time and it is not just a sort of induced sensitivity. It has to be 
based on knowledge, research, understanding probability levels, and on 
being able to make benefit-cost evaluations. 

If you were to hear industry's viewpoint on pollution, three points 
would be emphasized: that the pollution takes too much money to pre- 
vent, that there has been no proof that it is harmful to health and that 
most of the technology is not available to prevent it. All three of these 
arguments have been made for over a hundred years and with every suc- 
ceeding decade they have become less supportable as our economy has 
grown into incredible aggregate affluence, as our technology has developed 
into a capability of almost being scheduled, and as the medical studies 
and property studies show the enormous damage from pollution. You 
do not have to tell the fisherman in the estuaries off the Savannah 
River or Mobile Bay that pollution is violence; they see it every day as 
their fish catch dwindles and as the fish look as if they have been eaten 
alive by the various acidic contaminants. You do not have to tell people 
who live near steel or paper mills that their homes are worth less be- 
cause of the pollution in that they have to paint and keep up their homes 
more and that they have to increase their property tax payments because 
the large plants are not holding their fair share. You do not have to tell 
doctors who see skyrocketing levels of respiratory ailments, particularly 
in our cities, that air pollution is something more than an aromatic 
deprevation. You do not have to tell many scientists, the most renowp 
we have in this country like Rene Dubose and many other Nobel Laureates 
that the probability of increasing devastation and disease is going to 
be inexorable unless we do something as rapidly and markedly as we 
have done in our determination to get to the moon. This kind of dedica- 
tion can come because we have the intelligence and the technology and 
the affluence to do it. But when we calculate costs, let us calculate 
costs to all Americans not just the cost to a few companies. I think it 
ill behooves a steel mill or paper mifl to say that they do not want to 
spend a dollar when it can be shown they are saving other people hun- 
dreds of dollars of damage as well as disease and sickness. And I do 
not think industry can say that it costs too much to clean up pollution 
when last year they spent by their own figures less than one percent of 

pre-tax profits buying pollution control equipment and installing it. One 
would think that just being a decent neighbor would require an expendi- 
ture of at least up to five percent pre-tax profits to install this avail- 
able pollution technology. 

I think one should also realize that there is a great deal of difficulty 
in this country in identifying engineering genius. It is a rather bizarre' 
turn of events where those who can give us the answers have a great deal 
of difficulty getting their message to the public. The suppression of 
genius is the mark of a society that is certainly not fulfilling its potential 
and the idea that we can exercise technological creativity to develop 
automated production lines in factories, send astronauts to the moon, 
develop complex defense systems, develop incredibly creative computer- 
ized processes and then try to have us believe when the corporations 
tell us that all this technological genius has no application to the needs 
of 200 million Americans is nonsense. Humans have the right to a whole- 
some non-polluted environment, to a decent mass transit system, to 
safer automobiles, to less property damage to automobiles, to the kinds 
of housing that people can live in who earn less than 515,000 a year, 
to the kinds of cities that will be liveable instead of concrete jungles. 
I think that is a transition that we all should make as we watch the ad- 
vances of technology relating to missic^ns far remote from Mainstreet, 
USA. Because technology, as any form of human activity, can be elitist 
and aristocratic, it should be judged by the same democratic values as 
we judge government or other institutions. When we conceive the 
enormous dearth of life-giving technology in the pollution prevention, 
surface transportation, housing and health areas, then we have to ask 
how can we develop a more democratic distribution of technological 
innovations in order to reduce the level of disease, to reduce the level 
of property destruction, and enlarge the quality of life. 

I think grandfathers and grandmothers sometimes ought to go on 
television in order to tell the younger generation what it was like when 
rivers could be entered and used, when there were fish there, when they 
could roam and romp in areas where they did not have to worry whether 
contaminations would endanger them. Children are growing up in this 
country without even the memories of the splendid natural environment 
that once made our country so beautiful. Without these memories, 
people can be dehumanized. Without the ability to enjoy natural beauty, 
people can be desensitized. People who go to New York for the first 
day are choked by pollution but after a few days they seem to get use 
to it. Who ever gets use to it? Their lungs never do but their psychology 
does. We have an infinite ability to psychologically adapt to intolerably 
^polluted environments but our bodies are not psychologically adapted. 
And that is one of the dichotomies that prohibits the generation of 
necessary concern and action. Look at what the situation is. 

In some parts of the country there are obviously more pollutions 
than others and it happens to be where most people live in and around 

the major industrial cities. The Cuyahoga and Buffalo Rivers flowing 
into Lake Erie have been declared official fire hazards because of 
residual petroleum inflow. True to its designation the Cuyahoga caught 
fire over a year and a half ago and burned the base of some bridges. 
Here we have something almost out of Kafka — flamable water. Lake 
Erie is so contaminated, people are advised by public health officials 
to have typhoid innoculations before they set sail on some parts. Many 
rivers of this country are so contaminated if you fell in them you would 
dissolve before you sank. The largest single river that is considered 
still unpolluted in this country is the St. Croix River in upper Wisconsin. 
Fm sure you have all heard of it, that's how significant it is. 

Now how do we develop sensitivity to these new forms of environ- 
mental violence? Obviously, we can not rely on our bodies because 
these gases and chemicals do not provoke immediate pain or anguish or 
disease. We have to rely on our minds to develop the scientific detection 
of the contaminants and analyze the systems of preventing these 
pollution flows by redesigning the motor vehicle engines for example, 
or rethinking industrial processes or by cycling out these contaminants 
before they reach the environment. We have to develop the medical 
knowledge that establishes the connection between various kinds of 
diseases in order to drive home the message. Above all, we have to 
develop a legal system that will put a high priority on prevention and 
on the allocating of resources to life-giving technology instead of to 
disease-giving technology. 

Look at how we are spending our money in Washington. At the 
present time you hear that the supersonic transport plane is getting 
another boost and that after a handful of American citizens with no real 
political power, certainly no great campaign fund war chest coupled 
with three or four scientists and economists defeated the federal sub- 
sidy to the SST a few weeks ago. That is S290 million — peanuts by de- 
fense budget proportions, but still a lot of money. It is still more than 
twice what the federal government is spending for research and enforce- 
ment on air pollution throughout the country. It is still four times what 
the federal government is spending to try to do something about the 
56,000 Americans lives that are lost on the highway every year and the 
4.5 millions of people injured. It is time to recognize that these great 
advances in pollution prevention technology can be achieved at a sur- 
prisingly low cost. 

Cleaning up existing pollution is very costly. To try to dredge and 
clean up the bottom of Lake Erie is a multi-billion dollar task. Stopping 
the on-going pollution is of a lesser order of magnitude. And this is the 
kind of activity that should have at least as high a priority as going to 
the moon because if it does not we are going to have to put a much 
higher priority on going to the moon and to other planets as well. At 
the present time the Federal government, including all the grants and 
aids to the states and municipal sewage construction facilities, the 

federal government is spending less than three billion dollars on the 
entire sewage waste disposal problem. Most of it, about 80% of it, 
going to grants and aids for various construction projects. Now, this 
figure of course is dwarfed by the kind of expenditures we read about 
coming out of Washington, subsidizing large industries, giving massive 
tax loopholes and the like. But it is time to realize that half of the air 
pollution that comes from the motor vehicle can be resolved by the 
development of a non-polluting combustion process which in any two 
year period in the last twenty years could have been developed through 
the necessary research for a budget of no more than 150 million dollars. 
That is about what General Motors grosses in a 65-hour period. 

And, of course, the question that immediately is raised when 
that figure is given, particularly against the estimate that the air pol- 
lution costs us 14 billion dollars in property damage a year as against 
the 150 million dollar research program to develop the engines, is why 
are the auto companies not doing it. And the answer for once is very 
simple: Getting rid of the internal combustion engine will not sell more 
cars. It will not reduce industry's cost, it will only make the air more 
breathable, it will only save millions of dollars of property damage now 
lost to innocent people and it will only reduce maintenance and repair 
cost once a simple less-polluting engine is installed. But all of these 
arguments fall on deaf ears in Detroit because of interest in increasing 
sales or decreasing costs. 

Here we have the motivational structure of the corporation with 
the top executives responding only to what increases sales or decreases 
costs unless the law requires otherwise. A motivational structure which, 
as it is repeated throughout industry, could literally destroy the country 
within the next two generations. We do not have that much air, water 
and soil to go around. It can only be contaminated so far before we 
engage in a kind of vicious cycle — the more we grow economically, 
the more we deteriorate environmentally. And this is the kind of con- 
cern which should be incorporated in the very concept of patriotism 

I think if we recall what is associated with patriotism from the time 
we entered kindergarten we will see that is overwhelmingly an asso- 
ciation with military victories and armament starting from the songs 
like "From the Halls Montezuma to the Shores of Tripoli." Can we 
not be candid with ourselves and ask ourselves whether that concept 
of patriotism should not include patriotism here at home, patriotism 
to reclaim our land here, to save the country from its own contamination 
and pollution, to improve the level of injustice, to eradicate poverty 
and hunger, to make the quality of living more worth of the affluence 
of our economy, to reduce the untold costs inflicted on people that 
economists call "external diseconomies'" like the cost in time and ex- 
pense of congested highways without any mass transit systems or the 
cost of inadequate medical services or the cost of inflation. All of these 

should be embodied in the exercise of patriotism. I think we are coming 
to the reaHzation that if we can not save this country at home, nothing 
that we do abroad is going to save it. 

In many ways those that are actively trying to prevent the dis- 
poilation and the poisoning of our land and air and water are the real 
patriots not those who, in a very easy way, can sing "My Country 'Tis 
of Thee" every once in a while and go back to their plants and continue 
to contaminate and spoil and poison Our Country Tis of Thee. That 
is an unpatriotic act. It is an interesting inversion of values, is it not? 
Let us take the issues foursquare. How many times have you heard a 
reaction to people who are desperately critical and want to do something 
about environment. How many times have you heard the comment by 
people who say, "Why are you always tearing the country down?" 
Who is tearing the country down? — the people who are trying to alert 
the citizenry to stop the pollution or those forces who are polluting 
and contaminating? I would think the simple empirical conclusion 
would have it that those who are polluting are tearing the country down 
not those who are trying to alert the citizenry about this problem. The 
true radicals and extremists are those that have little respect for the 
basic rights of Americans not to be exposed to contamination in their 
food, water or in the environment they have to relate to and interact 
with. And to the extent that we develop this sensitivity and concern, to 
the extent that we develop a new kind of citizenship we will start getting 
things done. There is no question about that in my mind. 

I am continually amazed of how much change comes about by the 
tiny efforts of a tiny number of citizens. There is a lady in Charleston, 
South Carolina who is leading a citizens group against pollution. Of 
course, as most people in this type of work, she gets discouraged. But 
when she was asked how much she achieved given the amount of input 
that she and her citizens have put it is really quite remarkable. When 
you consider that around the country less than 3% of the citizens are 
actively concerned about the environment and their efforts are exerted 
less than 1% of their time, they have come a long way in two or three 
years. The same is true for students who always despair about not 
having enough impact on their society but who of course again range 
about 3 to 5% actively concerned. Look what they have accomplished. 
They have helped turn the consciousness of a nation around on the 
Indo-China War where now virtually everybody wants to get out, where 
70% of Americans polled in a recent poll wanted to get out on a pre- 
scribed schedule— a remarkable turnaround from two or three years 
ago. The students helped also to alert the country to the pollution 

Until a couple of years ago most people looked at pollution as 
"the smell of the payroll" as if you could not have it both ways. As if 
you could not have a payroll and have a decent clean plant as well. 
They looked at it as something that was foul-smelling, ugly-looking — 


not as a form of violence or breeding of disease. And the students helped 
do that. With what effort? A few week-ends of work, an Earth Day 
focus, and various activities in the community, still a miniscule input in 
terms of time and energy. 

When we begin to have an inventory of citizen impact, let us first 
ask the question: How much power do citizens already have in their 
hands compared to what they are using to deal with the problems of 
our time? They are using less than one percent. And in this, of course, 
is a ray of optimism because if we can develop a new concept of citizen- 
ship that views it as not just an opportunity— not just what some town 
maverick or some dissenter decides he or she is going to do— but as an 
obligation on the part of every one of us if we deserve indeed to live in 
a democratic society, then we will begin turning our consciousness in 
a highly effective direction. I think we ought to face citizenship in this 
country— although it is reaching a height never attained before— in 
terms of its intensity. 

Citizenship is still looked upon by many people as a kind of deviant 
behavior. The norm is not to be an active citizen. Citizenship to many 
people is something an immigrant receives after he or she stays here 
long enough. Actually it is the critical occupation of all of us and it 
has to become more than something a handful of people should do. It 
has to become an obligation. We have to look at it as a way to use our 
leisure time instead of playing Mah-Jong or bridge or watching Johnny 
Carson or chatting on the telephone for billions of hours every year. 
Why not allocate a small portion of this priceless time for action on the 
community, state, or national issues? Think of the consequences for 
the good if this type of activity were increased 100 to 1000 fold. And 
why should it not be? 

If we look at citizenship as an integral part of formal education we 
will begin developing the science of citizenship with all the inputs from 
the various disciplines. The beauty of our social problems, if I can put 
it that way, is that they challenge almost every discipline in a university; 
they do not recognize the pigeon-hole category of human knowledge 
the way academics do. They do not recognize it; they challenge it in 
its entirity. The pollution problem, for example, challenges the Social 
Sciences, the Humanities, the Physical-Biological Sciences as do many 
other widespread problems. 

Why not begin to articulate an educational philosophy that sees 
as a common threat through all these departments the recognition of 
the role of citizenship and the skills that have to be developed to be 
more effective as a citizen. If somebody graduates as a physicist or a 
political scientist or an economist or an accountant or a technician, 
he has got to have a professional citizenship dimension. I would think 
that is clear. Nobody would expect professionals not to look at their 
citizenship obligations within their professions. In fact, the definition 


of a profession involves tiiat kind of citizenship obligation. It is the ob- 
hgation of the physician to try to prevent disease, not to sit around 
chorthng as more disease brings more patients into the office. It is the 
obHgation of a lawyer to try and prevent legal problems, not to sit 
waiting for cases to come into his office. This should be true of all oc- 

Indeed, the concept of citizenship is really implicit in all walks of 
life. To do this we have to professionalize citizenship. We have to say 
that just as in every other area of human expertise there are levels of 
citizenship expertise to be striven for. We like to think that the students 
who work with us in the summer return home with a far greater expertise 
in citizenship than they had when they came down to Washington. 
They know how to dig out information, to put bits of information to- 
gether, to analyze, and how to develop strategies of action. They learn 
a sense of timing and the sense of form. In short, as in ancient Athens, 
they articulate the role of the public citizen which the rest of the country 
has forgotten. The role of a public citizen in ancient Athens was basically 
that an individual went around the town trying to improve the situation. 
Nobody said "What are you doing?"' That was his job. He was a public 
citizen. And we have to resurrect that notion in this country. 

We should not be deterred simply because, as a fact of reality, 
there are so many complex problems in this country and so many people 
engaged in just getting their livelihood and worrying about their 
particular immediate personal problems. While some can be expected 
to be more alert and to generate more support through the electoral 
process than others, they obviously cannot be expected to quit their 
jobs in mass and become full-time public citizens. But I think we can 
expect the emergent role of some full-time public citizens. A few tens 
of thousands of lawyers, economists, engineers, and others who, 
independent of any institution monitor institutions, study them, in- 
vestigate them, expose them, propose solutions, advocate improvements 
and help to mobilize the part-time citizens and the community. And I 
think that once we begin developing these areas, we will see the neces- 
sary commitments and stamina and intelligence to afford the common 
everyday citizen the kind of non-bureaucritized representation and 
advocacy that will begin to turn the tide in some of these areas. Need- 
less to say, there is no alternative. That is, no matter what an individual 
solution is, no matter what differences there are, no matter what 
direction the country should be going, it is not going to go in any bene- 
ficial direction unless there are full-time professional citizens. 

Congress, the federal government, state legislatures, state regulatory 
agencies— Whose voice do they hear? Whose ear do they have? — The 
special interests. They are the ones who lobby. How can the citizen have 
a voice and will these institutions at the state and national level respond 
to citizen needs unless they are exposed to this kind of full-time citizen 
lobbying and advocacy and inquiry? And the answer in my judgment is 


no. And that is why so many of our institutions are becoming so unre- 
sponsive, are refusing to' enforce pollution and consumer laws, are 
declining to allocate part of our financial resources into these areas, 
and are seen as incapable of being reformed by themselves without a 
structured citizen advocacy. That's what Common Cause and John 
Gardiner have been talking about, that is what enlightened legislators 
and judges have been talking about. There is no better way to 
experiment with this concept and appreciate its dimensions and its 
glories than to start while you are on campus as a student. Begin by 
developing the kinds of studies, seminars and courses, and independent 
paper work that will go into the factual inquiry of the problems that 
you think are significant. You are going to have to face problems later 
on so now you can develop the facts, make the analysis, define the 
strategies of change and action and even test these programs out. And 
when this is done, one of the major obstacles to education on the part 
of students will be eliminated — namely apathy. 

If a student is given a problem to work on that challenges his ana- 
lytical skills and value systems in tandem, if the student feels it is an 
intellectually challenging problem and also a problem of great moral 
concern, that student is not going to be bored. That student is going to 
be engrossed, is going to learn what a student has to learn if education 
is going to have any meaning at diploma time. This is the way to self- 
renew or self-educate throughout one's career. Once the taste of that 
kind of educational activity is absorbed there will be a remarkable ac- 
celeration of the learning curve as well as an amazing development of 
old fashion standards of ethics applied to new problems. That is a crit- 
ical juncture in the educational experience of any individual. To take 
an old-fashion ethic from our heritage and to be able to apply it, with 
the facts, to the kinds of activities that go on in Washington or in state 
capitals or in corporations or in other groups around the society is 
what is necessary. 

A community will become up-in-arms over a pick-pocketing epi- 
demic but it will not even know about a massive pick-pocketing epi- 
demic that comes from some Treasury Department tax loophold for 
large corporations. And yet who pays the bills for these loopholes? — 
that average taxpayer. Unless we begin to apply these established 
standard ethics to these new or often secret or obscure problems, we 
are not going to get anywhere. And let me leave you with one very mun- 
dane example which you may have heard about— the bumpers on new 
cars. They are designed in a fragile, ornamental way so that in a col- 
lision of 5 mph there is an average $331 worth of damage to 1971 models. 
Impalas, Galaxies, Furies, and Ambassadors were tested by the insurance 
agencies for highway safety and the results were uncontroverted by the 
auto industry. That is a perfect case study for the application of old 
fashion standards of ethics to this kind of corrupt technology. 


By asking four basic questions and finding out the answers would 
resolve some problems. First, do the auto companies know the conse- 
quences of these fragile ornamental creations? Do they know that 
people will have higher insurance premiums and higher repair replace- 
ment costs? Second, are the companies profiting from this? Are they 
selling more taillights, head lamps, grill portions, fender sectors as a 
result. Third, do they know how to prevent this destruction at low speed? 
Perhaps we can phrase it in a more personal way, Can Henry Ford II 
remember the cars put out by his grandfather? And fourth, are they 
continuing with this knowledge year after year to design ever more 
fragile and ornamental bumpers? 

The answers to those questions are quite predictable and well 
documented. The answers are of course all in the direction of a per- 
formance that can only be described as industrial looting. Indeed, deep 
in the automotive industry itself they have a phrase called the "crash 
parts industry" which figures how many spare parts they can sell you 
because the bumper does not protect the car at low speeds. The tab 
every year for motorists is two billion dollars because cars do not have 
bumpers to protect them at jogging speed. Two billion dollars!— w\\\iu\, 
conscious, preventable fraud! 

It is time that we developed our basic sense of right and wrong and 
indignation and applied it to these kinds of commercial, industrial, 
consumer and environmental abuse. Once we expose these facts, once we 
develop a true belief and act on it. the information, we will begin to 
link fact with ethic and that is the key strength for citizenship 






In October 1967 the "third premiere" of Gone With The Wind took 
place, this time upon a 70mm. motion picture screen.^ Here were both 
the chance for those who never fled Atlanta with Scarlett O'Hara to 
marvel at the steady self-possession of Rhett Butler and a similar op- 
portunity for those to whom the road out from that flaming city has 
become a commuter route to once more "tote the weary load" home 
to Tara. The undiminished screen popularity and profitability of what 
to many "aficionados" represents a national epic has been paralleled 
by the flourishing popular favor of the novel on which it was based. 
Conceived and carefully developed by Margaret Mitchell in the heady 
years of post-World War I optimism. Gone With The Wind came on 
the literary scene in the most pessimistic period of our century. It 
caught fast the hearts and spirits of Depression readers, continued its 
hold on their V-for-Victory successors, and showed few signs of de- 
clining popularity among the generation which witnessed the launching 
of the Sputnik, the exploits of the astronauts, and the War on Poverty. ^ 
About two years ago the novel inspired a monumental musical interpre- 
tation on the Tokyo stage. Finally, during the summer of 1969, this 
writer noted how in London the film aroused empathy and admiration 
from miniskirt and bowler hat fanciers alike. 

Although critics and scholars are willing enough to admit the book's 
popularity, they are much less amenable toward accepting its merits. 

*Assistant Professor of English, West Georgia College, Carrollton, Georgia. 

1 Finis Parr, Margaret Mitchell of Atlanta (New York, 1965), ch. 1, provides 
a full discussion of the film's unforgettable opening here on December 15, 1939. 
In March, 1961, to commemorate the Civil War Centennial, GWTW had a 
second "official" Atlanta premiere. Details concerning the 1967 production 
are easily accessible in most current events periodicals; my information was 
drawn from the weekly "Panorama" supplement to the Chicago Daily News, 
March 25, 1967, p. 16. Making this technically "new" version called for the 
creation of a color negative by a complex process which, in addition to many 
chemical changes, entailed the virtual re-shooting of each frame in order to 
fit it to new screen dimensions. 

2 Miss Parr, p. 235, reveals that by 1962 10,000,000 copies of the book had been 
sold, with the sales in English for that year alone reaching 570,000. By late 
1965, it had been translated into twenty-five languages in twenty-nine countries. 
Sales of authorized editions by then had reached 12,000,000. The number of 
pirated editions is said to be enormous and incalculable. 


This is well evidenced by the testimony of reviewers and by the lack 
of study it has received in scholarly journals. The most meaningful of 
its scanty independent commentaries include Edward Corbett's 1957 
defense of the book as a positive outcry against the "nihilistic, debunking 
literature" often encountered today:^ E. F. Nolan's disclosure, in 
Nineteenth-Centiiiy Fiction, of the clear resemblance of the scene 
involving the death of Scarlett's daughter to a similar incident in 
Thackeray's Barry Lyndoiv^ and Robert Y. Drake's 1958 evaluation 
of the book as a successful evocation of the universal conflict between 
the forces of tradition and anti-tradition. ^ The novel's varied treat- 
ment by reviewers has been recently surveyed by James W. Mathews, 
who termed it "the most successful historical romance ever written."^ 

It is time to realize that this success of Gone With The Wind is due 
to more than transient popularity, more than the ability to appeal to 
an audience at a vulnerable time, or draw upon sectional or even na- 
tional biases. Rather, the book has thus far vibrantly lived and gives 
every indication of continuing to do so, because it, like any other signifi- 
cant work of art, has succeeded in establishing a firm emotional bond 
between itself and its public. Enduring art cannot be without this, for 
it is the factor which transcends time, place, and language. Though 
the modern reader may be oblivious to the details of Anglo-Saxon 
rhetoric in "The Battle of Maldon." he nevertheless cannot fail to 
respond to its heroic fatality. Without being familiar with Christian 
doctrine relating to salvation, the spectator likewise may be easily drawn 
into the central situation of Hamlet. In just this way the evidence of 
the past thirty years has shown that Gone With The Wind has certain 
magnetic qualities which have won for it a readership as divergent in 
background as may ever be imagined. 

The nature of the emotional bond mentioned above varies with 
the genre in which it operates. In the case of heroic or epic literature 
it is one of admirative awe: with tragedy it may be termed "woe and 
wonder." The novel of human affairs, to which category Gone With 
The Wind belongs, would strictly be classified as "comedy," being in 
the Jonsonian sense "iniitatio vitae, speculum consuetudinis. and imago 

3 ''Gone With The Wind RcwisiiQdr America. XCVll (1957), 524-26. 

4 NCF. Vll (1953), 225-28. 

5 "Tara Twenty Years After." Georgia Review. Xll (1958), 142-50. 

6 "The Civil War of 1936: Gone With The Wind and Absalom. Absalom! r 
Georgia Review. XXI ( 1967), 462-69. In addition to the reviews cited by Mathews, 
.the following references contribute to a good overall view of its critical recep- 
tion: Helen Mac Affee, Yale Review. XXVI (1936), vi" Belle Rosenbaum,5c/7Z7//£?/-.s', 
ClI (1937). 23-24, 69-70; Michael Williams, Commonweal. XXIV (1936), 430-31; 
and Malcolm Cowley, New Republic. LXXXVlll (1936), 162-63. 


veritatis," having as its chief aims delight and instruction.'^ That it 
has notably succeeded herein, especially in the former objective, is 
obvious, but what may need to be clarified is the essence of this 
"delight." All available evidence suggests that the book's characteristic 
effect is to impel readers to identify closely with the characters involved 
and to project themselves into the novel's situations. ^ This necessitates 
that its chief figures by three-dimensional, that they be more than actors 
subordinated within an epic adventure or recognizable literary stereo- 

Miss Mitcheirs major accomplishment, which here is put forth 
as a main factor underlying the book's value and success, is that she 
has mirrored characters and a milieu with faults and follies as well 
as moments of real glory and sacrifice.^ She has done it in a way which 
draws the reader to her creation, convinces him of its reality, and lets 
him see aspects of himself in it. Her way is that of the good-natured, 
yet serious, satirist, that of Jane Austen and Charles Dickens. A careful 
study of approximately the first quarter of Gone With The Wind re- 
veals it to be an artful sketch of the antebellum social order which 
leaves the reader less convinced of its moonlight-and-magnolia magic, 
but surer of its essential human qualities. Once the reader thus believes 
in the psychological correspondence between his own times and those 
of the Civil War South, he effortlessly involves himself with Scarlett 
and Atlanta. Later, once the war turns inexorably against the Confed- 
eracy, one finds it much easier to side with Scarlett and admire her 
true courage and determination during the siege and evacuation of 
this key Southern city. 

Before proceeding to view this satire in action, it is necessary to 
point out its dual nature, targets, and techniques. As a whole, the satire 
focuses upon the pretensions of Southern society and on exposing the 
realities behind them. At the start of the book, and continuing on past 
the outbreak of war, Scarlett's marriage, and early period of mourning. 

'^ Ben Johnson, Every Man Out of His Humor, III, vi, 206-9; cited from Worlds, 
ed. C. H. Herford and Percy and Evelyn Simpson (London, 1927-52), 111, 515. 

^ Tributes to and examples of its hold on the public are contained in Farr, 
pp. 136-140, Rosenbaum, pp. 23-24, and Corbett, p. 524. 

^ Miss Mitchell's critical view of her fictional world has been briefly noted 
but never discussed by the authors of two major surveys of American fiction. 
Ernest F. Leisy, TJ^e American Historical Novel (Norman, Oklahoma; 1950), 
p. 172, remarked that the author made Scarlett's story ironic in order to avoid 
sentimentalism. Edward Wagenknecht, Cavalcade of the American Novel 
(New York, 1952), p. 429, commented, "Margaret Mitchell refused either to 
sentimentalize her characters or slander them. . . . There is never a moment 
when we do not see around her principals, yet neither ever forfeits our psy- 
chological sympathy." 


the emphasis is on the more humorous aspects of her world — its foibles 
and petty-minded rules of decorum. Irony is often brought into play, 
but with wit and a light touch. After Scarlett comes to Atlanta, however, 
the satiric thrust shifts, and the more serious flaws in the "Confederate 
world-picture" are revealed. Contrasts become more meaningful; 
faults which earlier would have elicited a chuckle from the reader now 
bring forth an awareness of the fatal consequences which are bound to 
result from these errors. When irony is introduced it is bitter and is 
keenly felt. The total effect in both phases of the satire is a great en- 
hancement of the realism and appeal of the author's portrayals. It would 
be extremely difficult, if not impossible, for a reader with any honesty 
to identify seriously with a society as antiseptically perfect or roman- 
tically colorful as the plantation culture often depicted by Southern 
apologists and hack novelists. By making her people exhibit the same 
types of narrowmindedness, lack of perception, and self-interest which 
exist everywhere today, the author has done as much to vitalize them as 
by making Scarlett the belle of Clayton County and Rhett the dashing 
anathema of Charleston society. 

Once this purpose has been achieved. Miss Mitchell again shifts 
her emphasis. As the wartime situation becomes increasingly serious, 
she desists from revealing the weakness of her people and instead 
begins to build what ultimately becomes a tribute to their heroism. 
Here she shows how the Atlanta citizenry backed the war effort with 
selfless dedication, endured with grim fortitude the racking bombard- 
ments of the siege, and reacted courageously to the challenges of the 
fateful days of the city's last resistance and fall. Similarly, the satire 
does not operate during Scarlett's flight to Tara and her struggles for 
existence immediately after Lee's surrender. With a few exceptions 
the rest of the novel is generally lacking in satiric content because by 
now most readers are so closely engaged in its world that the novel no 
longer needs to "prove itself." This enables Miss Mitchell to more or 
less straightforwardly present the multitude of challenges and crises 
which confronted the society of Reconstruction Georgia. 

The satiric targets of Gone With The Wind have in part already 
been pointed out. They include the universal human shortcomings of 
affectation and shortsightedness, as well as more particularized charac- 
teristics of Scarlett's society. These become exposed both through the 
reactions of an individual to a speech or action and through group 
scenes, which like Hogarth's paintings do much to reveal the essential 
tone of a situation. In regard to character viewpoint, two basic methods 
are utilized. The author may have a character make a judgment upon a 
situation which reveals his own inadequacies, or, as often in the cases 
of Rhett and Scarlett, use characters who are more pragmatic and 
honestly outspoken than others to point out vagaries in the world about 
them. The result promotes an intense degree of realism and plausibility. 
The reader's knowledge is thus informed not only by an all-controlling 


author, but the participants themselves, who either point out or reveal 
in themselves the contrast between ideal and reality which is at the 
heart of the satiric vision. 

The clearest and most logical way of revealing the success of Miss 
Mitchell's satire is an episode-by-episode analysis of that portion of 
Gone With The Wind where it is chiefly employed, approximately the 
first quarter of the novel. As characters are introduced and begin to 
interact with each other, so do also the techniques by which they are 
shown to be complex inhabitants of a world often seemingly more real 
than today's. The author's first targets are the Tarleton twins, ardent 
courtiers of the belle of Clayton County. On first glance they might be 
taken for many another set of romantic rival wooers, but some of their 
less heroic traits are quickly made apparent. "In these accomplishments 
[riding and drinking] the twins excelled, and they were equally out- 
standing in their notorious inability to learn anything contained between 
the covers of books. Their family had more money, more horses, more 
slaves than anyone else in the County, but the boys has less grammar 
than most of their poor Cracker neighbors. . . . They were completely 
fearless of wild horses, shooting affrays and the indignation of their 
neighbors, but they had a wholesome fear of their red-haired mothers 
outspoken remarks and the riding crop that she did not scruple to 
lay across their breeches. ""^^ 

Soon after, all of their success in courting Scarlett is shown to 
result from her own pragmatic calculations. "'. . . Scarlett on that day had 
decided to make them take notice. She was constitutionally unable to 
endure ariy man being in love with any woman not herself, and the 
sight of India Wilkes and Stuart at the speaking had been too much for 
her predatory nature. Not content with Stuart alone, she had'set her cap 
for Brent as well, and with a thoroughness that overwhelmed the two of 
them" (p. 14). 

Scarlett's forthright outlook is a direct inheritance from her father, 
Gerald O'Hara, whose fortune-making career is delineated by the author 
with wit and a clearheadedness that refuses to regard his adventures with 
any degree of dynasty-founding reverence. Although over sixty years 
old, the senior O'Hara in many ways did not show it, ". . . his shrewd face 
was unlined and his hard blue eyes were young with the unworried youth- 
fulness of one who has never taxed his brain with problems more ab- 
stract than how many cards to draw in a poker game" (p. 30). He had 
little regard for the refinements of learning, especially the Continentally- 
inspired tastes of the neighboring Wilkses. "I tell you they're born 
queer. Look at the way they go tearing up to New York and Boston to 

10 Margaret Mitchell, Gone With The Wind (New York, 1936), pp. 4, 13. Ail 
following textual references will be made from this edition, with the pages 
cited within the body of this paper. 


hear operas and see oil paintings. And ordering French and German 
books by the crate from the Yankees! And there they sit reading and 
dreaming the dear God knows what, when they'd be better spending their 
time hunting and playing poker as proper men should" (p.35). 

His career is sketched in with the same vigor and objectivity asso- 
ciated with Gerald himself. First there is the matter of his coming to 
America. "True, he had called the rent agent "a bastard of an Orangeman," 
but that, according to Gerald's way of looking at it. did not give the man 
any right to insult him by whistling the opening bars of The Boyne 
Water" "' (p.42). The way up the success ladder for Scarlett's father makes 
up in credibility what it lacks in chivalric appeal. His acquisition of the 
sterling valet, Pork, "was the result of an all-night poker game with a 
planter. . . whose courage in a bluff equalled Gerald's but whose head 
for New Orleans rum did not (p. 45). When it came to marriage. Gerald 
was foiled for a time. The doughty Irishman soon found that skill in 
poker would not make up for lack of a pedigree. "It was merely a quaint 
custom of the County that daughters only married into families who had 
lived in the South much longer than twenty-two years, had owned land 
and slaves and been addicted only to the fashionable vices during that 
time"" (p. 52). Events ultimately turned out fortunately for Gerald. The 
beautiful, reserved Ellen Robillard. scion of one of the proudest French 
families in Charleston, came his way through her father"s quite unaristo- 
cratic but thoroughly human line of reasoning. After the death of her 
banished lover-cousin in a barroom brawl, Ellen had threatened to enter 
a nunnery. This was too much for her father. "It was the threat of the 
convent that finally won the assent of bewildered and heart-stricken 
Pierre Robillard. He was staunchly Presbyterian, even though his 
family were Catholic, and the thought of his daughter becoming a nun 
was even worse than that of her marrying Gerald 0"Hara. After all, 
the man had nothing against him but a lack of family" (p. 54). 

Scarlett"s character is built up for the reader through authorial 
descriptions that do not spare her less flattering qualities and the less- 
than-noble conclusions to which her pragmatic reasoning leads. Her 
ability to keep aware of present challenges, a trait which later serves her 
well during the strain of war, sometimes cannot be repressed upon oc- 
casions when she is supposed to be concentrating on more profound 
matters. Such an inner battle and its outcome are delightfully drama- 
tized following dinner at the O'Hara home on the day Scarlett found 
out about Ashley Wilkes" betrothal to Melanie Hamilton. The outward 
dignity and ceremony of the family prayer scene here contrast effectively 
with Scarlett's analysis of her amorous problems. Its conclusion is 
memorable. ". . . Scarlett found in the whole ceremonial, the softly 
spoken words, the murmur of the responses, a surpassing beauty beyond 
any she had experienced before. And her heart went up to God in sincere 
thankfulness that a pathway for her feet had been opened — out of her 
misery and straight into the arms of Ashley"" (p.70). 


The barbecue at the Wilkes plantation furnishes an excellent ex- 
ample of the author's ability to widen the satiric focus, wherein some 
weaknesses of Southern society are revealed, both in attitudes of in- 
dividual characters and in depictions of a major scene, in which the 
disparity between magnolia-scented appearance and burnt-pork reality 
is skillfully made apparent. A prelude to this affair worth noting is the 
ride over to the Wilkes home, during which the O'Hara carriage is passed 
by the Tarletons" coach. After exchanging greeting of pleasantry, 
Beatrice Tarleton, the twins" strongly-spirited mother, expresses views 
which reveal through their unwitting frankness one of the ultimately 
most injurious Southern attitudes— the valuation of material possessions 
over consideration for human welfare. Breeder of the finest horseflesh 
in the County. Mrs. Tarleton often approaches social and familial 
problems via the principles of animal husbandry. She views the coming 
Wilkes-Hamilton, marriage as an example of faulty close-breeding and 
the raising of a family as not very much unlike caring for a group of 
pedigreed steeds. Thus it is not surprising to find her allowing her 
love for her horses to overrule the demands of patriotism. She firmly 
refuses Gerald's request to donate them to the cavalry troop being 
raised by the county. ". . . my boys can take care of themselves and 
my horses can't. I'd gladly give the horses free of charge if I knew they 
were going to be ridden by boys I know, gentlemen used to thorough- 
breds. No, I wouldn't hesitate a minute. But let my beauties be at the 
mercy of backwoodsmen and Crackers who are used to riding mules! 
No. sir! . . . No, Mr. O'Hara. you're mighty nice to want my horses, but 
you'd better go to Atlanta and buy some old plugs for your clodhoppers. 
They'll never know the difference" (p. 91). 

Contrasts, both within individuals and in character groupings, are 
key elements in Miss Mitchell's portrayal of the barbecue. Here Charles 
Hamilton, destined to be Scarlett's ingloriously ill-fated first husband, 
is introduced. His description is at first presented in conventional 
historical romance fashion. "He was a nice-looking boy with a riot of 
soft brown curls on his white forehead and eyes as deep brown, as clean 
and gentle as a collie dog's" (p. 97). This is deflated by Scarlett's un- 
deluded (and later fatally accurate) comment on his appearance. ". . .he 
looked like a calf waiting for the butcher" (p. 98). 

From adistance the feast appears to be a typical set-piece of Southern 
civilized glory until a number of discordant elements become notice- 
able. There is Scarlett set apart from the tables where the other girls 
are decorously sitting, each with her own partner. Our heroine had 
prudently realized that a girl has but two sides and thus decided to es- 
tablish herself beneath a spreading tree where she could gather a vir- 
tually unlimited number of swains about her. The at first pristine qua- 
lity of the banquet is besmirched by the omniscient author's ability to 
expose a few unflattering realities. Of most interest here are the charac- 
terizations of the married women there. "From Grandma Fontaine, who 


was belching frankly with the privilege of her age, to seventeen-year-old 
Alice Munroe, struggling against the nausea of a first pregnancy, they 
had their heads together in the endless genealogical and obstetrical 
discussions that made such gatherings very pleasant and instructive 
affairs. Casting contemptuous glances at them, Scarlett thought they 
looked like a clump of fat crows" (pp. 100-1). 

Though Scarlett's views here may be perceptive, she often unwittingly 
reveals the mental limitations with which her culture has bounded her. 
When Charles remarks that Rhett's appearance reminded him of one 
of the Borgias, her response is typical of many a southern belle. 

Scarlett thought quickly but could remember no family in 
the County or Atlanta or Savannah by that name. 

"I don't know them. Is he kin to them? Who are they?" 

An odd look came over Charles" face, incredulity and 
shame struggling with love. Love triumphed as he realized it 
was enough for a girl to be sweet and gentle and beautiful, 
without having an education to hamper her charms, and he 
made swift answer: "The Borgias were Italians." 

"Oh." said Scarlett, losing interest, "foreigners." (p. 112) 

Her limited outlook is controlled by many of the same factors which 
hamper us today. Chief among these are vanity and self-consideration. 
Her inability to grasp the import of the coming war is not at all limited 
to ante-bellum society. Humiliated by Rhett's witnessing of her temper 
fit after her climactic scene with Ashley, she has no patience with 
Charles' patriotic sentiments. "Mr. Lincoln again! Didn't men ever 
think about anything that really mattered? Here was this fool expecting 
her to be excited about Mr. Lincoln's didoes when her heart was broken 
and her reputation as good as ruined" (p. 124). Once in Atlanta, where 
she is sent to stay with her aunt, Sarah Jane "Pittypat" Hamilton, and 
Melanie in order to boost her spirits, Scarlett regards this great mili- 
tary cataclysm of the nineteenth century as something which made the 
city "alive and exciting" (p. 147). Her exultation, however, does not 
extend to an appreciation or tolerance of the less glamorous aspects of 
home-front life, such as nursing in makeshift hospitals. Here the object 
of the satiric criticism is difficult to determine — whether it is Scarlett's 
inability to adjust to the demands of a crisis or the jingoistic patriotism 
which exalted bandage-rolling and its attendant drudgery to heroic 

The evidence for the latter possibility is strengthened by the begin- 
ning of a tone change in the exposition. The foibles of Southern civil- 
ization which before elicited a chuckle now bring forth only a realization 
of their ultimately tragic results. Scarlett comes to be used less as an 
object of satire than as a clear-headed commentator on a situation rife 
with pretense and devastating self-deception. Often her views echo those 
of the author. For example, following a description of the festive spirit 


and activities following the heady triumphs of the Valley and Seven 
Days campaigns. Miss Mitchell comments, "Of course, there were empty 
chairs and babies who would never see their fathers' faces and unmarked 
graves by lonely Virginia creeks and in the still mountains of Tennessee, 
but was that too great a price to pay for such a Cause?" (p. 171). Not 
long after this, while surveying the decorations for a bazaar to raise 
money for the Confederacy, Scarlett finds it difficult to feel the "white 
heai of devotion to the Cause" (p. 172). In her "hard self-honesty" Scar- 
lett points out some of its all-too-common elements. "The war didn't 
seem to be a holy affair, but a nuisance that killed men senselessly and 
cost money and made luxuries hard to get. She saw that she was tired of 
the endless knitting and the endless bandage rolling and lint picking that 
roughened the cuticle of her nails. And oh, she was so tired of the 
hospital! Tired and bored and nauseated with the sickening gangrene 
smells and the endless moanmg, frightened by the look that commg 
death gave to sunken faces" (p. 172). She is likewise unable to respond 
"properly" to the garland-bedecked portraits of Jefferson Davis and 
Alexander Stephens here. 

"It looks like an altar," she sniffed. "And the way they 
all carry on about those two, they might as well be the Father 
and the Son!" Then smitten with sudden fright at her irreverence 
she began hastily to cross herself by way of apology but caught 
herself in time. 

"Well, it's true," she argued with her conscience. "Every- 
body carries on like they were holy and they aren't anything 
but men, and mighty unattractive looking ones at that." (p. 173) 

She follows this up with a criticism of her society which, though couched 
in petty and materialistic terms, nevertheless strikes home at some of 
the key flaws in the Southern code of mores. 

For a brief moment she considered the unfairness of it all. 
How short was the time for fun, for pretty clothes, for dancing, 
for coqueting! Only a few, too few years! Then you married 
and wore dull-colored dresses and had babies that ruined your 
waist line and sat in corners at dances with other sober matrons 
and only emerged to dance with your husband or with old 
gentlemen who stepped on your feet. If you didn't do these 
things, the other matrons talked about you and then your 
reputation was ruined and your family disgraced. It seemed 
such a terrible waste to spend all your little girlhood learning 
how to be attractive and how to catch men and then only use 
the knowledge for a year or two. (p. 175) 

Rhett's detachment from close commitments to the "Glorious 
Cause" enables him to be an even more effective satirist than Scarlett 
in pointing out flaws in the South's rationale. The fact of his acceptance 
by Atlanta society only when his services are needed is an implicit 


comment on its hypocrisy. Although now partially welcomed by the 
circles that erstwhile rejected him, Rhett never sells out on his integrity. 
When asked at a musicale about an earlier imputation concerning the 
holiness of the Cause, he replies, "If you were run over by a railroad 
train, your death wouldn't sanctify the railroad company, would it?" 
(p. 230). Soon after this, he succeeds admirably in putting down one of 
his more obnoxious critics. When turning to leave, he is interrupted by 
a parting sally from one of the Adanta female buttresses of the Con- 
federacy, Mrs. Fanny Elsing. 

"Let him go. He is a traitor, a speculator! He is a viper that 
we have nursed to our bosoms!" 

Rhett, standing in the hall, his hat in his hand, heard as 
he was intended to hear and, turning, surveyed the room for a 
moment. He looked pointedly at Mrs. Elsing's flat bosom, 
grinned suddenly and, bowing, made his exit. (p. 231) 

Miss Mitchell's ability to render critical comment on the war from 
her characters adds to their individualism and appeal. Scarlett's "patri- 
otic" views are generated mainly by her desire for social contacts. 
"I do get awfully bored when they talk about the Cause, morning, 
noon, and night. But goodness, Rhett Butler, if I admitted it, nobody 
would speak to me, and none of the boys would dance with me!" Rhett's 
reply is typical in its candor. "Ah, yes, and one must be danced with, 
at all costs. Well, I admire your self-control but I do not find myself 
equal to it. Nor can I masquerade in a cloak of romance and patriotism, 
no matter how convenient it might be" (p. 239). Rhett's views function 
to bring Scarlett a good distance from the orthodox precepts inculcated 
by her mother and enable her later to serve as an even more discerning 
commentator on the social scene. 

At the time of the battle of Gettysburg occurs perhaps the most 
important tone change. The characters cease to be objects through 
which Southern shortcomings are either mirrored or commented upon. 
They grow in stature through the revelation of their ability to endure 
hardship and travail. As the Union Army advances ever nearer to Atlanta, 
Scarlett retains her "pragmatically patriotic" point of view. Rhett 
never gives up his independent outlook. "I wear no uniform and wave 
no sword and the fortunes of the Confederacy mean nothing to me" 
(p. 305). As the situation increases in seriousness, virtually all satiric 
content drops out. The Southern response becomes almost nobly tragic, 
made more poignant by the very believable humanity of the characters. 
The closing-in of the Union Army is handled with a high degree of 
historical accuracy and artistic skill. The latter is made evident by the 
author's power to build tension and creat vivid minor episodes, which 
by depicting the Southerner responding to a challenge in a heroic or 
selfless way greatly enhances his sympathetic appeal. A fine example 
of this occurs when the last reserves are mustered out of the city in a 


desperate attempt to halt the onslaught, and Scarlett sees among this 
pitiful array of aged men and schoolboys Ashley's father riding by, 
mounted on Mrs. Tarleton"s most treasured mare (p. 315). 

Soon the novel is entirely given over to a straightforward depiction 
of the sort of vivid engrossing action for which it has become famous. 
The reader is caught up in the flight from Atlanta, the confrontation of 
tragedy at Tara. and the battle to survive "the wind that swept through 
Georgia" in the persons of Sherman's ravagers. With few exceptions the 
focus after the surrender continues to be on recounting the difficulties 
faced by Scarlett and the South to survive during the early years of 
Reconstruction. Not until the heroine is firmly back in a relatively 
secure social and economic position — married to Frank Kennedy and 
proprietress of a lumber yard — is the authorial vision once more directed 
at some petty human flaws in a manner characteristic of the first portion 
of the story. 

This is well exemplified in the treatment of Melanie's reconciliation 
of opposingfactions in Atlanta's resurgent cultural circles. After revealing 
that she had "diplomatically managed to amalgamate the Lady Harpists, 
the Gentlemen's Glee Club and the Young Ladies" Mandolin and Guitar 
Society with the Saturday Night Musical Circle, so that now Atlanta had 
music worth listening to" (p. 734). the author discloses another of this 
charming and unassuming figure's triumphs, the securing of "equal 
rights" for Union graves in tending and decorating Atlanta cemeteries. 
Here the behavior of the more narrow-minded matrons is portrayed in 
effective mock-heroic fashion. 

Melanie had also been made secretary for both the Asso- 
ciation for the Beautification of the Graves of Our Glorious 
Dead and the Sewing Circle for the Widows and Orphans of 
the Confederacy. This new honor came to her after an ex- 
citing joing meeting of those societies which threatened to 
end in violence and the severance of lifelong ties of friend- 
ship. The question had arisen at the meeting as to whether 
or not weeds should be removed from the graves of the Union 
soldiers near those of Confederate soldiers. The appearance 
of the scraggly Yankee mounds defeated all the efforts of the 
ladies to beautify those of their own dead. Immediately the 
fires which smoldered beneath tight basques flamed wildly 
and the two organizations split up and glared hostilely. The 
Sewing Circle was in favor of the removal of the weeds, the 
Ladies of the Beautification were violently opposed. 

Mrs. Meade expressed the views of the latter group when 
she said: "Dig up the weeds off Yankee graves? For two cents, 
I'd dig up all the Yankees and throw them in the city dump!" 

At these ringing words the two associations arose and every 
lady spoke her mind and no one listened. The meeting was 


being held in Mrs. Merriwether's parlor and Grandpa Merri- 
wether, who had been banished to the kitchen, reported after- 
wards that the noise sounded just like the opening guns of 
the battle of Franklin. And, he added, it was a dinged sight 
safer to be present at the battle of Franklin than at the ladies 
meeting, (pp. 735-35). 

The tonal pattern of the last portion of the book is predominantly 
straightforward and serious in its portrayal of Scarlett's search for 
security and happiness during her outwardly successful marriage with 
Rhett. It is shot through in places with touches of satiric humor, as 
in the couple's discussion of the architectural style of their new home 
(p. 858). but on the whole it depends more upon reader-identification 
with Scarlett for its effects than upon criticism of her. As mentioned 
before, the reason for the story's success here, where one is truly able 
to stand along with Scarlett and face the challenges of "another day" 
is that one has earlier been so thoroughly convinced of her universal 
human relevance, as revealed by the process of good-natured yet per- 
ceptive satire. Like the constructs of her distant literary ancestors in 
the Elizabethan Age, Margaret Mitchell's world in Gone With The Wind 
effectively represents in microcosm the totality of human experience. 




Very few Americans coming of age in the decades between the 
two recent great wars could escape altogether Hemingway's influence. 
Some— the more staid— preferred the "superculture" attitude of Henry 
James. The rest of us, however, were deeply impressed by Hemingway's 
existential rawness which fitted what we imagined to be "the facts" 
of American life. In a curious way Hemingway offered a glimpse of 
freedom — the old dream of American imigrants and pioneers— but a 
dream no longer actually experienced in America. 

The growing complex of frustrations in contemporary American Ufe 
were detailed by such writers as Theodore Dreisser. Sinclair Lewis and 
Upton Sinclair who described the industrial North and Middle-west. The 
collapse of America's only major aristocratic tradition, that of our great 
plantation states of the deep South was vividly chronicled by William 
Faulkner. John Steinbeck and Erskine Caldwell wrote about the de- 
cadence of rural life and John O'Hara and F. Scott Fitzgerald recorded 
the spiritual poverty of the rich. But Hemingway called our attention 
to new sources of freedom — new horizons in the "old world" of France 
and Spain, in neglected portions of Western Hemisphere such as the 
by-passed regions of the Caribbean and, most intriguing of all, the still 
relatively unknown interior of Africa. "Freedom," like the legendary 
pot of gold at the end of the rainbow seemed still just over the horizon. 

Most American pioneers and immigrants had a curiously negative 
concept of freedom. They dreamed that it was possible to escape the 
repression of industrial slums, religious persecution, wasted lands, and 
other evils consequent upon the industrial revolution but they had little 
positive picture of what they were escaping /o, of what lay ahead. Some 
American experts on westward migration have likened their behavior 
to the invasions of locusts which lay waste all before them. The brave 
dream of the migrations west soon burst on the hard realities of a mostly 
arid, bitter land and the pioneers behaved accordingly. Several species 
of animals such as the passenger pigeon were exterminated for food 
and fun. The American buffalo were reduced from herds estimated to 
have been around seventy million to a few sick hundreds in less than 
ten years. The American Indian was decimated by massacres and by 
disease often deliberately spread. When the Donner Party was trapped 

*Professor of Psychology, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts. This 
paper given as a talk for the memorial meeting for Hemingway at the Post 
Graduate English Association, University of Allahabad, India, 1963. 


by snow in the Sierra Nevada mountains they ate their Indian guides 
first because they were not considered human. I am sure, being devout 
protestant Christians they asked the Lord's blessing as they sat down 
to their feast. 

Few who migrated loved their new lands. For every Old Jules 
(Mari Sandoz) who lovingly nursed an almost impossible farm there 
were thousands who tore up the thin grass sod and moved on to let 
their homesteads return not to the previous buffalo range but to desert. 
Thus, the great American dust bowls were formed. The mountains were 
denuded of trees for timber. The earth was ripped by "strip mines'" 
whose ugly scars still blemish large sections of the United States. The 
American dream of Freedom had a negative quality! The hope of 
perfect freedom, "freedom from," persisted. For some it was to be found 
outside the United States. Our flights into space still nourish this idea 
for many. The dream contained an irreconcilable paradox— to be free 
and to be fulfilled. But to fulfill oneself one must do something and this 
means, of course, commitment — and commitment requires a withdrawal 
from perfect "freedom from." While you do one thing you cannot do 
something else. If you have one woman, what about all the others? 
Some writers like Henry Miller face this as a logical conclusion which 
to them is justified. His heroes have all the women they meet even to 
the point of physical simultaneity. This solution has also been advocated 
in some of the erotic scenes depicted in Konarak and Khajuraho. Hem- 
ingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald did not go that far. They limited their 
woman to merely a sense of freedom that merged on what later became 
known as the "good sport" or "party girl" but who stopped short of the 
mass exhibitions of some of our recent scandals. 

This negative sense of freedom is basic to colonial notions of in- 
dependence and the adolescent notion of freedom from parental re- 
strictions. But with growing sophistication comes an awareness of the 
necessity of accepting responsibility of limiting freedom in the sense 
referred to by Erich Fromm in his Escape from Freedom. For in the 
last analysis when perfect "freedom from" is attained one is left very 
often, as Sartre has pointed out in despair and boredom. One achieves 
nc^t the "emptiness" sought by the Buddhist thinkers but essentially a 
negative vacuousness. If the struggle has been against real or fancied 
restrictions very often the sight of a positive goal is lost. What to do 
when freedom comes is frequently a most painful problem to face 
especially if substitutes for the externally restricted activity are not 
developed. When there are no economic restraints, the solution be- 
comes doing that which is most available— and since one's own physical 
being is often closest to hand, the appetites and the sex organs are 
most likely to have first call. 

So the problems of Hemingway's world are not the social problems 
which concerned writers such as John Steinbeck. Rather they are fre- 
quently the problems of individuals, not truly involved with the affairs 


of the world and who seek fulfillment through the spontaneity of their 
own sense of physical being. In only one of the three novels set in war 
time does one find a sense of war, social struggle, nations in clash. Each 
novel is centered around a lone individual— an ambulance driver who 
is wounded and falls in love with his nurse — an aging officer in Italy 
who indulges in a great deal of reflection which comes close to self 
pity. Only Robert in the novel of the Spanish Civil War {For Whom the 
Bell Tolls) seems also a social character but against such a small social 
canvas that he hardly represents the concern of the times. Hemingway's 
protagonist is the lone individual confronting or confronted by nature, 
by himself, or by other individuals— hunters, bull fighters and one grand 
old fisherman struggling directly with nature or occasionally a mis- 
placed wife ( The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber) or rival 
[Snows of Kilimanjaro). In a less romantic setting we are often given 
gangsters and prize fighters who belong to an underworld equally as 

To Americans the memory of their recent confrontation with 
nature was still vivid. A writer who could keep up the dream that such 
a life was still authentic somewhere else, a writer who could capture 
primitive conflict between man and his immediate surroundings— such 
a writer was to be treasured. Many of us received him in that spirit. On 
my first trip to Mexico I turned to Hemingway and saw the bullring 
through his eyes as so beautifully depicted in Death in the Afternoon. 
As a demonstration of ultimate encounter the bull fight is conceivable. 
Although I never saw a really good bull fight I did see two Americans, 
"athletic" type young men obviously experienced with cattle, get into 
the ring with a man-wise bull. They were repeatedly tossed and were 
no match for this bull who had learned that the man and not the red 
cape is his chief target. A bull who stays in the ring without being killed 
for longer than twenty minutes will make this discovery. No man stands 
a chance in an encounter with such a bull. 

Shortly after this I visited a slaughter house where the tourists 
were not permitted to see the actual killing of the animals. This was 
considered too ugly. But to eat is to kill and the sin of death is always 
upon us as long as we eat other creatures, plant or animal. Hemingway 
is excellent at communicating this sense of the elemental and essential 
encounter between man and nature. 

Big game fishing is also such an encounter be it for pay as with Harry 
Morgan [To Have and to Have Not) or for ultimate human dignity as 
with the old man (The Old Man and the Sea). My attitudes about pro- 
fessional game fishing preceded my own direct experience and came 
first through Hemingway via Harry Morgan. I, too, saw the beautiful 
marlin strike, leap, run, and after a prolonged struggle be brought to 
the boat. And the fish is not always defeated. I have seen huge hooks 
straightened, nylon lines and steel wire snapped after hours of struggle. 


We once lost a huge tuna after seven hours of confHct. These were for 
me among the most intense experiences of life. And so I say I speak as 
a witness to Hemingway's major theme. I am sure if I ever go to Africa 
I shall read his novels and stories first. 

As an individual I encountered the nature Hemingway addressed 
to us almost. I say almost because one of my most vivid recollections 
is a final sequence in a movie based on the last story in To Have and 
Have Not. John Garfield, then at his zenith as a star played Harry Mor- 
gan. The scene is the quay. Morgan has just returned wounded from a 
smuggling trip which ended in failure. The police await him and carry 
him off the ship. But his Negro helper has been killed. And as the crowd 
of police, doctors and reporters leave the dock we see the mate's be- 
wildered young boy, a lad about five or six years, standing there alone 
in uncomprehending patience waiting vainly for his father to come 
ashore too. There he stands a single small lone figure left behind by the 
bustling crowd. The camera remains focused on him as it gradually 
pulls away and he becomes smaller and more alone until finally the 
entire scene fades out completely. This lack of concern with everyone 
else so vividly symbolized by this little boy was also part of the Ameri- 
can Dream. 

That it was the American Dream Hemingway so eloquently mani- 
fested I think was evidenced not only by the sales popularity of his 
books and their use in college literature courses but also especially by 
their frequent and detailed conversion to motion pictures. Most of the 
novels have been so used and many of the short stories formed the basis 
of very popular films. Generally these were major productions with 
top ranking Hollywood stars in the leading roles. Gary Cooper, who 
was cast in a number of Hemingway type roles, exemplified for the 
American people, the non-social individual in conflict with nature or 
with men exclusively bad, demonic at best. They were rarely "social" 
conflicts. One of Cooper's first major roles was with Helen Hayes, 
the "First Lady" of the American stage and screen at the time, in Fare- 
well to Arms. He also played Robert Jordan in For Whom the Bell 
Tolls. Humphrey Bogart made one of the sections of To Have and To 
Have Not. John Garfield made another. Both men were famous for their 
characterizations of underworld characters, the City's primitive man. 
Gregory Peck made The Snows of Kilimanjaro. Burt Lancaster made 
the Killers, one of the great films of the time. Two films have been made 
of The Sun Also Rises, the most recent with Ava Gardner. When Holly- 
wood gives this much attention and devotion to the works of an author 
one can be sure that these works have a wide range of appeal for the 
American public. 

The tough, private individual of integrity, this was the typical 
Hemingway hero — a hero who has his counterpart in the "Western" 
story and in the detective story especially the "tough" school as rep- 


resented by writers such as Dashiell Hammet and Raymond Chandler. 
Hammet's Sam Spade expressed the typically American value system in 
a speech which he makes when an attempt is made to dissuade him from 
investigating the murder of his partner, an unsavory character, who had 
been cheating Spade in business. Despite threats and cajolery Spade 
says he will continue his investigation not to serve justice, which has 
been well served already, but because it is a job to be done. He owes 
it to his client who has paid for his services. Sam Spade expresses in 
this speech a sense of responsibility to his job and to his conscience. 
This was an attitude gready admired by Americans at this time and 
which Thorsten Veblen called "the instinct for workmanship." William 
James wrote that he had once asked a carpenter why he spent so much 
time and effort on the backs of drawers in a chest. "After all," said 
James, "No one ever sees the back of the drawer." "I do," replied the 
carpenter and went on with his work. The American Dream required 
complete integrity of the individual to his job— to his role as he con- 
ceived it. But the individual, authentic only in this role, was typically 

As all modes of life became more and more socialized this kind of 
individualism was no longer sufficient. Perhaps it will come again. 
Perhaps it is most needed now in the recently independent ex-colonial 
nations where there is primarily an internal job to be done. 

But in this atomic world, this world of reduced physical and tem- 
poral dimensions, a more social conscience is needed. Let us hope that 
it will be not merely social but that it will contain as well the authentic 
individual of integrity that Hemingway so movingly created for us. 

31 \ 





At one level, T/ie Man Who Died is just another attack by D. H. 
Lawrence on some of the basic principles of Christianity. In Lawrence's 
view, love for one's neighbor, a belief in the equal dignity and worth 
of all men, and sublimation of one's "carnal" side are impracticable, 
if not insidiously demoralizing. Altruistic love for one's neighbor tends 
to degenerate into a power-driven attempt to dominate him, since the 
loved neighbor is expected to show his gratitude by submissiveness.^ 
A democratic faith in the equal merit of all human beings, Lawrence 
felt, not only ignores the fact that some individuals are worthier than 
others, but it also tends to reduce people into undifferentiated mass 
men. Such equalitarianism is disastrous, for a society cannot thrive 
unless its great mediocre majority recognizes and obeys the superior 
individual. Finally, the emphasis placed by Christianity on reununciation 
and spiritual growth is. to Lawrence, a preposterous and ruinous denial 
of earthly reality: man "needs earthly bread, the satisfaction of his 
physical appetites . . ."^ 

Whether or not Lawrence's objections to Christianity are as pro- 
found as Hough finds them, they are certainly essential to the struc- 
tural and thematic dialectics of The Man Who Died. The thesis of 
the work is Christ's meekness and self-abnegation as Lawrence under- 
stands them: an escape from physical reality as well as a subtle drive 
for social power. You must imitate and obey me because I am good! 
Hence the failure of Jesus. Attempting to dominate people, the man 
inevitably is rejected and crucified. Moreover, in the excesses of his 
righteous otherworldliness. Christ cuts himself off from nature and 
from his "lower" side. The antithesis of this unconditional "idealism" 
is the bestial sensuality of those who go to the other extreme and re- 
ject spiritual values altogether. Their symbols in Lawrence's fable 
are the Egyptian slaves and the "carnal", and surprisingly human, 
cock. Lawrence's synthesis comes at the climax of his novelette, in the 

*Assistant Professor of English, West Georgia College, Carrollton, Georgia. 

^ Graham Hough, "Lawrence's Quarrel with Christianity: The Man Who Died," 
Mark Spilka, ed., D. H. Lawrence: A Collection of Critical Essavs (Englewood 
Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1963), pp. 101-6. 

2 Ibid. p. 104. 


union of Christ with the priestess of Isis. This union is ideal because 
the relationship of the two is physical as well as spiritual, sexually 
aggressive as well as tender, selfish but also other-oriented, intense 
and passionate at the same time that it is expected to terminate as soon 
as the passion has spent itself. Soul and body thus, in Lawrence's in- 
tention, receive their due. Neither is overwhelmed by the other. The 
relationship is mature also in that it is asocial. Having outgrown his 
early messianic ambitions, Christ now wisely seeks only his individual 
salvation, far from the madding crowd. 

This dialectical pattern is then the surface import of The Man 
Who Died. What needs to be emphasized, however, is that the novel- 
ette contains much more than this familiar Lawrentian advocacy of 
asocial individualism, free love, and (as one Lawrence critic put it) 
"more and better intercourses." At its subsurface, archetypal level, 
in the form of authentic, intuitive symbolism, the work expresses its 
author's extraordinarily fascinating perception of time and reality. 
The ultimate essence of the physical and spiritual world is a cosmic 
principle of organic change — a life force that manifests itself in the 
phenomena of inanimate nature no less than it does in the growth and 
decay of organisms. Death itself is a phase of this universal energy; 
indeed, through the metamorphosis of dissolution a higher form of 
life may be achieved. This is the deeper and truer meaning of the work. 

At this subsurface level, the central symbol of the novelette is 
neither the cock nor the priestess, as Hough suggests, but rather Christ 
himself, for, in his life, death, and rebirth, "the man who died'" is a 
multiple symbol of the universal energy in all its manifestations. At 
one level. Jesus symbolizes the eternal cyclicity of the day, or the per- 
petual diurnal processes of "the natural world or morning and evening, 
forever undying. "^ He is Cristus, sol. the sun god. He wakes up from 
his "death" at dawn (p. 7), and his subsequent alternation of periods 
of activity and torpor parallels the cycles of the sun. At night Christ 
is shut up in "the dark house" of the peasant, while during the day he 
is outdoors (pp. 17-19). Appropriately, his wandering, after he leaves 
Jerusalem, is always to the west: "I go west as the sun goes" (p. 68). 
Thus Lawrence "paganizes," or rather "re-paganizes," the traditional 
Judaic-Christian conception of God as a "sun of righteousness," a "sun 
and a shield" with "grace and glory" (Psalms 84:11). What seems to 
stand out in Lawrence's rendering is not the spiritual light of Cristus, 
sol but the cyclicity, eternity, and vital energy of nature, as focused 
in its undying sun-god. 

Another cycle that Lawrence's Christ reflects is the cycle of the 
vegetation and the seasons, which, of course, is closely related to the 
revolutions of the sun. Again Lawrence the mystic and novelist takes a 

3 D. H. Lawrence, The Man Who Died (New York: Knopf, 1928), p. 11. 


familiar symbol of Jesus and, by restoring it to a rather literal sense, 
relates Christianity to the pagan religions in which it seems to be rooted. 
For Jesus is not only a sun but also a good seed, a "corn of wheat" that 
falls into the ground and dies." but subsequently revives and "brings 
forth much fruit."'* To Lawrence this Biblical seed symbolism evidently 
suggested a pagan vegetation god. Having been "buried in a garden," 
Christ "wakes up" in the spring, still "numb and cold, inside a carved 
hole in the rock" (p. 7), all tied up in "bandages." He does not wish to 
return to life, but he must. "Strength came from somewhere" (p. 9) — 
from the immanent will of nature — and the husks fall away. Slowly he 
forces his way out of the soil just as the plant does. The fact that the 
garden contains such evergreen plants as the laurel and the myrtle 
emphasizes Lawrence's point about the eternity of the vegetation. 
There is no "death." only the semblance of it. 

At a third level. Lawrence's Christ epitomizes the cycle of human 
life from gestation, through birth, childhood, and maturity, to the 
decline of life in old age, ending in death, in preparation for a new 
cycle, and so on forever. Thus Christ's rising from the dead is rendered, 
among other things, as the experience of being born. And again Law- 
rence interprets a figurative Biblical idea (one must be "born again") 
in a literal fashion. Having died, Christ is actually born a second time. 
The "deep cavity" (p. 34) in which he has been sleeping "tied up" (p. 4) 
and cramped is the womb, and the "bandages" are the fluid in which 
the foetus is immersed. The "deep, deep nausea" that Christ experiences 
as he faces life is the birth trauma so much emphasized by some psycho- 
analysts. Jesus does not desire to be born, but he must: he is forced out 
into the cold world, head first (pp. 7-8). 

Strength came from nowhere, from revulsion; there was a crash 
and a wave of light, and the dead man was crouching in his lair 
.... And the strange, piercing keenness of daybreak's sharp 
breath was on him. It meant full awakening. 

Slowly slowly he crept down . . . Bandages and linen and 
perfume fell away, and he crouched on the ground against 
the wall of rock . . . with unspeakable pain . . . 

The remainder of the story traces the growth, then decline, of Christ 
the son of man. In the first part of the narrative Jesus is a young man. 
In the second part, his hair is streaked with silver and his face is worn 
and aged. The sea voyage upon which Jesus embarks at the close of 
the work is clearly the voyage of death — from which the god will return: 
"So let the boat carry me. Tomorrow is another day" (p. 103). 

Christ, to Lawrence, was symbolic also of the psychic (and psycho- 
sexual) cyclicity of life, though here we are treading on less certain 

^ See St. John 12:24. Christ's statement about the corn of wheat shortly pre- 
cedes His betrayal and crucifixion. 


ground. Looking at this cyclicity in terms of interpersonal relation- 
ships, we find Jesus maturing slowly and, in the process, moving through 
several patterns of interpersonal relationships. Initially — prior to his 
crucifixion— the man represents what Lawrence suggests is an "imma- 
ture" orientation of undiscriminating love toward the masses— toward 
all people, regardless of class and intrinsic worth. In his bitterness after 
the crucifixion, Lawrence's Christ swings to an attitude of sullen indif- 
ference and willful self-isolation. Subsequently, after his years of wan- 
dering, the man achieves full emotional-spiritual maturity. He becomes 
capable of an intimate relationship with the priestess of Isis, a hetero- 
sexual bond that brings him a sense of completeness and yet does not 
deprive him of his identity, nor impels him to dominate the partner in 
the relationship. 

Viewed psychosexually, however, the maturation of Lawrence's 
Christ is more complex. Christ's gentle life prior to the crucifixion, 
and especially his chastity, are implicitly interpreted by Lawrence as 
expressions of effeminacy and fear of women, and so the wound in the 
side becomes, in Lawrence's fable, a symbol of psychic castration and, 
evidently, sexual impotence. What should be emphasized is that Law- 
rence here, as at the other levels, of his fable, is dramatizing a universal 
pattern. The psychosexual incapacity of the protagonist is not acciden- 
tal and it is not unique. Rather, the development of Jesus is the sup- 
posedly universal progression from the Oedipal entanglement with the 
mother, through hostility, anxiety, and rebelliousness, to a mature extra- 
familial heterosexuality and a sense of liberation. This theme is of course 
nothing new in Lawrence, yet The Man Who Died does seem to have 
the artistic advantage over, say. Sons and Lovers in that the latter 
work renders this theme exclusively through symbolism. And the sym- 
bolism is so subtle that it is conceivable that Lawrence himself was 
unaware that he was again dealing with his lifelong idee fixe. 

Thus the narrative opens with a seemingly pointless description 
of a certain rooster. The rooster is an exceptionally potent, saucy 
and flamboyant specimen, all red and with a conspicuous fiery comb — a 
cock who "is good for twenty hens" (p. 4). But the peasant and his wife 
who own the cock think that the animal is too lively, and so the pea- 
sant, with the tacit approval of his spouse, ties the cock by the leg, 
with the result that the animal can no longer freely chase hens around 
the yard. 

The incident lends itself to interpretation in terms of the Oedipal 
situation. The cock, a phallic symbol from one perspective^ is the 
"cocky," presumptuous son; the crude peasant is the castrating father— 
the dreaded violent man that Lawrence vividly e^'okes in his half-auto- 

5 See, e.g.. Angel Garma, The Psychoanalysis of Dreams (New York: Delta, 
1966), figure 42 ("Depression"). 


biographical Sons and Lovers. The cord by which the cock is confined 
is "the silver cord" of maternal fixation at the same time that it suggests 
inhibitions due to fears of the punitive father and to the incest barrier. 
The escape of the cock and his ultimate full living at a distant barnyard, 
amidst friendly hens, stands for the final heterosexual adjustment that 
most men achieve. 

Lawrence's shift, without any transition, from the story of the cock 
to the waking up of Jesus alerts one to the analogy between the "psycho- 
sexual" histories of the two. Christ, too, is literally tied up when he 
wakes up. and he too cannot fully respond to the "electricity" (p. 11) of 
nature. Later, while the peasant is away, his wife feeds the helpless 
Christ, and she does so (like Mrs. Morel in Sons and Lovers) in a way 
that is superficially maternal but, in effect, seductive: "He knew she 
wished he would desire her. ..." "She wanted the embrace of his body 
. . ." (pp.32, 33). But Christ cannot, in his "castration" respond to her, 
though he "would have desired her if he could" (p. 32). He is paralyzed. 

The solution for the young man is to escape from home. Christ 
(like Lawrence) sets out on his wanderings, and his quest is, for a long 
time, troubled and despairing, for he is unable to break through his 
continuing fear of contact with others (lawrence's "psychoanalytic" 
interpretation of Christ's Noli me tangere). But Christ does finally meet 
the right woman. The priestess of Isis is the "Lawrencian" combination 
mother, wife, and goddess. Seductive and rejecting, dreamy and prac- 
tical, submissive and haughty, this virgin is, at twenty-eight, ready for 
a mature relationship. And so is Jesus. Like other "intellectualized" 
Lawrence characters (Paul Morel, Rupert Birkin, Gerald Crich), the 
still-inadequate man is suddenly overcome by anxiety in the presence 
of the woman— a sense of vulnerability indicated by the man's extreme 
embarrassment about his physical nakedness, especially about his tell- 
tale scar. Thanks, however, to the gentle ministrations of the woman, 
who rhythmically rubs the wounds with some mysterious ointment, 
the man is cured of his impotence and is made whole. His discovery 
of sexuality (his "rising to the Father") is the climax of the story. 

The climactic male-female union is, however, much more than a 
sorely needed proof of a man's virility. Here we come to the archetypal 
level of the fable, for the climactic event has a far-reaching occult im- 
port. It is an affirmation of life and order and of the possibility of recon- 
ciling the opposites of experience: maleness and femaleness, darkness 
and light, strength and receptivity. (The dark location— part cave, 
part temple — evidently symbolizes the unconscious, where this arche- 
typal union takes place.) Thus Christ is repeatedly associated with 
darkness. He is a "dark figure" in "a cloak of gray homespun" and a 
"dark hat," and he has a dark beard, dark eyes, and a dark face. In 
contrast, the pure and receptive priestess is rendered in soft, pastel 
colors. She wears a yellow robe or a saffron mantle, a white tunic. 


gilded sandals, and a "gold net," and she has "ivory feet" and "soft, 
golden depths" (p. 59). The darkness thus associated with the male 
seems to body forth the mysterious, awesome nature of the "masculine" 
aspects of the unconscious (the animus), while the whiteness of the 
woman appears to reflect the benign, creative aspect of the uncon- 
scious (the aniinal. 

Other attributes of the man and the woman add the idea of fer- 
tility to the concepts of intergration and "wholeness." The man is a 
subterranean "dark sun" (p. 56). The sun image endows him with the 
symbolism of male potency^, whose mysteriousness is expressed by 
its subterranean source and by its "darkness." The lotus-like woman, 
on the other hand, is connected with the flower-like sea and with the 
land with its "hollow slopes" (p. 67) and "the hollow by the tiny spring" 
(p. 81). The womb symbolism of the flower, the sea. and the fecund 
earth is quite familiar. In brief, the union of Christ and Isis is a mar- 
riage of the higher and lower elements of life, of energy and passivity, 
of phallus and womb. It is the reconciliation of the physical and spiritual, 
"masculine" and "feminine," dimensions of one's personality. 

This leads us to the last level of Lawrence's sequel to the tradi- 
tional story of Christ. Lawrence has a certain half-anthropological, 
half-mystic theory about successive religions. Adonis. Osiris. Christ, 
and Quetzalcoatl are cognate— if you will, are the same god under 
different masks— for each of them symbolizes the basic cyclicity of 
nature, especially as manifested in the pattern of the seasons. In keep- 
ing with this theory, Lawrence's Christ, after his death, is transformed 
into Osiris (p. 71). Gods, it appears, die and return to life in a cycle no 
less eternal and inevitable than those of the sun, the rhythm of the sea- 
sons and the vegetation, the pattern of individual destiny, or the sexual 
cycle of desire and satiation. Ultimately there is neither beginning nor 
an ending, thanks to the "urge and urge and urge,/ Always the pro- 
creant urge of the world" (Whitman). Or as Lawrence puts it. 

And the man who had died watched the unsteady, rocking 
vibration of the bent bird, and it was not the bird he saw but 
one wavetip of life overlapping for a minute another, in the tide 
of the swaying ocean of life. And the destiny of life seemed 
more fierce and compulsive to him than the destiny of death. 
The doom of death was a shadow compared to the raging des- 
tiny of life, the determined surge of life. 

Such an interpretation of the Christ story may or may not impress 
the individual reader as an improvement on the Good Book, or at least 
a cogent interpretation of it (as distinguished from free projection). 

^ An interesting discussion of the phallic symbolism among many pagan peoples, 
of the "rejuvenating" sun appears in Emil A. Gutheil, M.D., The Handbook of 
Dream Analysis (New York: Washington Square Press, 1966), pp. 144-45. 


But this was Lawrence's conception of life and of the Perfect Man, and 
to those to whom this mystic faith appeals, The Man Who Died will 
probably be the magnificent story of the man who did not die— the 
story of inevitable resurrection and unending life. 




It is unlikely that a wise politician would favor campaigning for 
reelection during the month in which most taxpayers file their tax 
return. A six month interval, however, has proved sufficiently long to 
exceed the memory span of many voters. The 1970 pattern may have 
followed a similar cycle for a number of taxpayers: 

January— Little concern over taxes. Many W-2s came in late in 

February— Plan to file return early, reserve next week-end for the 
job. Probably will not have to pay in much may even get a little 

March — Anxiety develops as April nears, coupled with slight anger 
both with self and with the government. 

April — Files return on April 12. Takes anger out on family, friends, 
and co-workers. Had to pay in considerably more than antici- 
pated. Tightens budget. 

May— Anger subsides as he talks with fellow taxpayers. All in 
same boat. 

June— Planning vacation. April ordeal nearly forgotten. Wishes 
he had April's tax money for July's vacation. 

July— Vacation. Forgot about taxes. 

Election Time — Poor memory. Votes for big spender. 

Perhaps we all need to be reminded periodically that we will ex- 
perience many "Aprils." Perhaps, too, we should recognize the incon- 
sistencies in the present tax laws. An example of ambiguous treatment 
of capital losses is the paragraph titled, "Capital Assets— Defined," 
in the tax manual. By definition, capital losses on all defined assets- 
including money— should be an allowable deduction. 

Every individual faces at least three types of financial decisions. 
He must decide on (1) his time-consumption pattern, (2) the size and 
shape of the return on his investments, and, (3) the sources of funds 
for these two uses. 

The consumption pattern of an individual over his lifetime depends 
upon many factors which are not related to the income he receives 

*Associate Professor of Economics, West Georgia College, Carrollton, Georgia. 


each year. When he is young he may prefer to accumulate a house and 
durable goods and consume at a rate that exceeds his annual earnings. 
He may choose to borrow from others in order to raise his current 
level of consumption. During a portion of his life he will be repaying 
past obligations and accumulating wealth for his retirement and his 
heirs. When he retires, his expenditures may exceed his income if he 
chooses to spend some of his past savings. 

How will he decide on the best pattern of spending and saving dur- 
ing his lifetime? His barber, congressman, or neighbor may readily 
offer considerable advice on the subject; but only the individual, acting 
rationally on his own, can best decide how to use his income to obtain 
the highest level of satisfaction. 

When an individual elects to forego current consumption, he is 
immediately faced with the question of what will be the form in which 
he will hold these unspent funds. The saver may be faced with a large 
number of opportunities for investment. In organizing his investment 
portfolio, the saver will consider the risk of various investments relative 
to their return, their liquidity relative to his future consumption needs, 
and his own tastes and preferences for different assets. 

The individual will consume, invest, and borrow in a pattern that 
will produce the greatest possible satisfaction within his budget. He 
will choose a desired pattern of consumption now or consumption 
later. Deferred consumption implies that he will select an investment 
portfolio that is consistent with his objectives and personal preferences. 

Net worth is built up over a portion of an individual's life span for 
spending after retirement and sometimes to leave something for his 
heirs. In a world of uncertainty, assets are accumulated as a precaution- 
ary reserve against possible contingencies, for speculative purposes, 
sometimes for their pyschic income, for portfolio diversification to 
reduce total risk, or because it may preferable to own an asset instead 
of rentiiig it.^ 

If one type of asset yields more than another, it would be logical 
to expect savers to switch to the better-paying asset. But many savers 
have too little to take advantage of the full range of investment oppor- 
tunities and lack the sophistication and market knowledge to respond 
to moderate changes in asset returns. These savers will tend to retain 
the lower-yielding assets. 

Another asset— money— produces no return in kind. Cash in your 
pocket does not produce more money. A checking account (also de- 
fined as money) does not grow. It may even decline in size as a result 
of service charge debits or a debit for personalized money (printed 

1 Basil J. Moore, An Introduction to the Theory of Finance (New York: The 
Free Press, 1968). pp. 66-67. 


checks). Why, then, will a rational investor choose money, which 
generates no income, as a form to hold a portion of his wealth? 

What is money?2 Functionally we can define money as a means 
of payment and unit of account. This definition includes coin and cur- 
rency—a non interest-bearing debt of the government — and commercial 
banks' demand deposits. How can money, which produces no income, 
compete with other financial assets that do? The expected answer to 
this question is that money provides exchange convenience (something 
universally acceptable in payment of purchases and obligations) and 
capital certainty. 

Capital certainty means that money is also demanded for asset 
purposes— for the permanent wealth portfolios of savers. Because of 
the "attribute" of greater certainty of future value as compared with 
other assets, money permits the saver to reduce portfolio risk through 
diversification. Money, held as an asset, produces no income, but it 
may reduce the risk of possible future losses associated with the pur- 
chase of various assets. In other words, money may be accumulated not 
for any income it produces but because of other "services'" or utilities 
that it furnishes to its owner. 

There is also the possibility of capital gains or losses associated 
with the holding of money. The value of money depends upon its pur- 
chasing power. If the price level rises (inflation), then more money 
is required to purchase individual goods. Therefore, each dollar that 
we hold in cash or in the form of a checking account buys less, the pur- 
chasing power of money declines. On the other hand, if the general 
price level falls, the purchasing power of money increases (not a likely 
prospect these days). We can say that the total return from holding 
money depends upon those "services" mentioned above plus changes 
in the real value of money— capital gains or losses resulting from 
changes in the price level. Capital gains are usually considered taxable 
income and capital losses are usually deductible. 

According to the Internal Revenue Service Manual, Your Federal 
Income Tax. "Everything you own is a capital asset . . . ." A brief list 
of exceptions follow. The exceptions are: stock-in-trade, inventory, 
business accounts or notes receivable, depreciable or real property 
used in business, and a copyright or similar property. 

If an individual's portfolio consists of corporate bonds, ownership 
shares in a firm, and money, and if losses are realized in all three cate- 

2 See the article by Milton Friedman, "Factors Affecting the Level of Interest 
Rates," in Coeval Economics: A Book of Readings, edited by Robert P. Vichas 
& W. Glenn Moore (Berkeley: McCutchan Publishing Corp., 1970), p. 233ff. 


gories, then a decline in the purchasing power of money represents a 
real loss to the owner and should be an allowable deduction. ^ 

At least a loss on many assets are a deductible tax item but with 
such a limiting qualification that risk-taking is discouraged. If the saver 
.adds money to his portfolio to reduce over-all risk, he is penalized when 
a loss in purchasing power results. Risk-taking is penalized by the tax 
limitation on short-term losses.'* Risk-aversion is penalized because of 
the "tax" imposed on money through loss of purchasing power. 

While nearly all savers are affected by an unjust income tax code, 
it is extremely more difficult for the small and less-sophisticated in- 
vestor to escape tax by inflation. His range of investment opportunities 
may be limited to money, savings deposits and shares, retirement funds, 
insurance, long-term government bonds, and similar low-yield instru- 
ments.^ Since the investor cannot deduct these losses in purchasing 
power from his income tax liability, the central government has ef- 
fectively taxed away part of the individual's wealth. 

The result can cause the saver to further restrict consumption 
in order to restore his wealth accumulation objectives. If he can only 
purchase from a limited range of assets which produce a return insuf- 
ficient to adequately offset inflationary losses, then the small saver is 
a slave to the whole cycle of legislation upon which he becomes de- 
pendent to survive. His voting behavior is locked-in — a victim of wise 
politicians, taxes, and inflation. 

^ Unfortunately, when a dollar is also the unit of account, a means of payment, 
and defines liquidity, further complications arise. The sale of a corporate share 
can involve a double loss— one in nominal terms and a second loss of money 
in real terms. Only the first loss is deductible. By the same token, a gain on 
paper may occur when, in real terms, there is a loss because the dollar received 
in sale was worth less than the dollar paid at the time of purchase. For an inter- 
esting article on this point, see Henry Hazlitt, "One-sided Capital-Gains Tax," 
The Freeman. XIX, No. 5 (1969), 270-71. 

'^ Deductions against income are limited to $1,000 a year on short-term capital 

^ The decision in early 1970 of the Federal Reserve Board to prohibit sales 
in small denominations of capital bank notes represents another door closed 
to the small saver. 




Baglin, Peter Michael (Psychology, December, 1970)* 


There were over 25,000 reported successful suicides and approx- 
imately 100,000 people made suicidal attempts last year indicating a 
serious national problem. Philosophical and historical approaches to 
suicide have always been a major concern of man. Although many 
classification schemes have been proposed, the major work on suicide 
is still Emile Durkheim's 1897 essay Suicide. Despite efforts to refine 
it by combining psychological and sociological approaches the work 
has not been replaced. 

Dynamically suicide has many motives, leading from symptoms of 
rejection to depression. Depression is the chief indicator of a potential 
suicide, but not the only one. There seems to be a definite difference 
in the behavior patterns of attempted and completed suicides. It is now 
considered that these represent different types of suicidal behavior. 

Efforts of volunteer personnel in Suicide Prevention Services bring 
the potential suicide into immediate involvement with the personnel. 
It is an intense and absorbing experience, often extending into the 
family of the volunteers. Beyond the study of suicide there are the 
ultimate questions of the value of life and death. Man is so many things, 
is death not part of the way man lives? Suicide magnifies the mystery 
and points out the fraility of man. 

Baker, Gerald Kenneth (Psychology, August, 1970) 


Past studies concerning man's attitude toward death and aging, 
(e.g., Feifel, 1956), indicate the failure of researchers to employ a 
young population as a comparison group in attitude surveys. The present 
study attempts to enlarge upon the scope by investigating attitudes 
toward an increasing age and by using subjects whose ages fell into 
three specific groupings. The attitude assessment device was a semantic 
differential questionnaire composed of scales representing three factors 

*"Psychology" is the awarding department and "December, 1970" is the time of 
completion of all requirements for the degree. 


of judgment. One of the factors, the evaluative, served as a measure 
of attitude, while the remaining factors of potency and activity pro- 
vided additional information on the age decades judged. 

Bledsoe, Eugene (English, August, 1970) 


Byron Herbert Reece, who committed suicide June 3, 1958 in a room 
on the campus of Young Harris College, was one of the most popular 
Georgia writers of his day. He published hundreds of pieces of verse, 
several collected volumes, and two novels. He was a popular lecturer 
at writer's conferences, and he taught creative writing at both Emory 
University in Atlanta and the University of California in Los Angeles. 
Ralph McGill, John Gould Fletcher, and Jesse Stuart were prominent 
among his admirers. 

Recce's verse often concerns man's mutability, his kinship with 
nature. Lost innocence, sin, frustrated love, and death are common 
subjects, especially in the ballads. In the novels, Better a Dinner of 
Herbs and The Hawk and the Sun. man is not only mutable, violent, 
and often trapped by fate in a mechanistic universe, but also grotesque, 
perverted, and frustrated in love. 

Bolin, Thomas Moody (Psychology, December, 1970) 


The study was an in-the-field type in which the interviewer made a 
survey of practicing Carroll County faith healers and some of his clients 
or patients. This study was based on the premise that faith healers have 
power to cure certain diseases and that their power and their patient's 
ability to achieve a state of well being are based on faith and a type of 
primitive psychotherapy. The faith healers deal with both mental and 
physical disorders. The study included males and females in the Negro 
and Caucasian races. The results of this investigation show that faith 
healers are approximately 85% successful in terms of cure rate and 
that they have unique abilities in gaining the confidence of the patient 
and developing a feeling of repose concerning the situation at hand. 


Braswell, Michael Calvin (Psychology, June, 1970) 


If prejudice is viewed as to pre-judge, it can be either beneficial or 
non-beneficial to himself as well as to others. Prejudice in terms of 
specific preferences (i.e., food and clothes) and general attitudes is 
taught both intellectually and experientially through education (meaning 
both the informal aspects of the home as well as the more formal in- 
stitutional setting). Through education the individual's prejudice leads 
him toward a beneficial hope — a prejudice for possibility, or toward 
non-beneficial hopelessness— a rigid prejudice that excludes possibility. 

Various studies indicate that non-beneficial prejudice can be allev- 
iated to some degree by the mere exposure that time affords. In an 
atmosplrere of inclusive love, the individual can, with time, emerge 
from non-beneficial prejudice and hopelessness toward beneficial 
prejudice and hope. In such an atmosphere the individual can take 
part in and at the same time be aware of positive growth. 

Butler, Cheryl Charlette (English, August, 1969) 


Three plays of Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher, Philaster, 
The Maid's Tragedy, and A King and No King, contain court satire. 
My thesis suggests that the plays present a negative view of courts 
in which can be found "discernible historical particulars." These par- 
ticulars are evident in James I and his court. 

Chapter II, in which James I and his court are discussed, forms the 
basis for the following chapters. Evils similar to those displayed by 
James, his courtiers, and the women of his court can be found in these 
three plays. It is these evils and the people responsible for them which 
constitute the particulars necessary for satire. 

The kings of Beaumont and Fletcher, discussed in Chapter III, 
evince many evils which correspond to those of James I. With as many 
evils in both the dramatic and the real world, it is not surprising that 
we derive a comment on actual kingship from these plays— this comment 
is emphatically negative. 

In Chapter IV a discussion of the courtiers of the plays shows the 
negative aspect of the court to an even greater extent. These courtiers 
establish the characteristics of the court as immortality, emptiness, 
and imbecility. 


Chapter V again presents a negative view of the court which in num- 
erous ways mirrors the court of James I. The women of the court, 
who are dealt with in this chapter, if not guilty of any definite, out- 
standing evil are either vacuous or imbecilic, or they are maligned to 
such an extent that they appear grossly evil. 

Crowe. Anne Claire (Enghsh, December. 1969) 


That Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism is a close and inten- 
tional imitation of Horace's The Art of Poetry is demonstrated by the 
presence of unity as the central theme and by the use of Horatian 
techniques and phrasing. Pope's correspondence during the years 
1706-1710 provides evidence that he was sufficiently familiar with 
Horace's writings to have employed The Art of Poetry as a model for 
a definition of the literary art. 

Both Horace and Pope develop the theme of unity and advocate 
the attainment of unity in composition through observance of decorum 
and avoidance of excess. In addition, both recognize the necessity 
for the union of wit (inspiration) and judgment (reason). In following 
Horace. Pope includes three techniques in his Essay found in The Art 
Of Poetry: the character sketch, the three-part structure, and the con- 
versational manner. In the character sketch Pope adopts two Horatian 
devices. First, he creates sketches which are a combination of the type 
and the portrait, and, second, through placement, he uses the sketches 
to emphasize an assertion. The classical three-part division of content 
in The Art of Poetry is paralleled by Pope in the content of each of 
the three parts of the Essay. Finally, Pope incorporates two methods 
used by Horace to achieve a conversational manner, an informal intro- 
duction and dialogue. 

Due to the neoclassical demand for imitation. Pope was obliged, 
as a serious poet, to model the Essay after a classical work. Imitation 
in the eighteenth century was derived from a combination of Horace's 
advice to follow the ancients and from the eighteenth-century ration- 
alistic concept that only the ancient and universal was valid. Because 
of its compatibility with eighteenth-century beliefs and its popularity 
throughout English literary development. The Art of Poetry was the 
most suitable classical work on which to base a neoclassical statement 
of critical principles. Since Pope not only developed Horace's theme of 
unity, but also incorporated Horatian techniques and words, the ob- 
vious model iov An Essay on Criticism would seem to have been The 
Art of Poetry. 


Ebertowski, James Robert (Psychology, June, 1970) 


This thesis suggests man's actions are both good and evil and implies 
his world is also filled with this same pluralism. Man's awareness of 
his daemonic nature is one step toward his self-acceptance or self- 
affirmation. Self-affirmation is the affirming of man's daemonic nature. 

The thesis also reviews Rollo May's idea that the anxiety of our age 
is due to man's fear of death and that he tries to avoid this conscious- 
ness of death through sex. This thesis presents another theory which 
states that the anxiety of our age results from the death of the species 
Homo sapiens and from the lack of permanence in man's theories of the 
cosmic process or eternity. The idea of man evolving toward the cosmos 
is man's fear. Paradoxically man will lose more and more of his sense 
of permanence with this approach toward the constantly flowing cosmic 

Today's modern society keeps approaching the ipse-sexual (sexuality 
of self) unity of all things. In this way it wills its own death, because 
when man loses his daemonic nature, he loses the plurality which is 
needed for survival and growth. 

Ganyard, Paul Ellsworth (Psychology, August, 1970) 




This study investigated the marathon encounter experience as a 
means of relieving Loneliness Anxiety. Eight participants of a 24-hour 
marathon were given a pretest and posttest experimental measure of 
Loneliness Anxiety. The group mean scores and a one-tailed "t" test 
of significant difference between means for pretest and posttest scores 
on the Loneliness Anxiety Scale (LAS) were then calculated. The re- 
duction of Loneliness Anxiety by the marathon experience as measured 
by the LAS was significant (1=1.34; p<; 0.10). 

Hord, Jack Clifford (Psychology, December, 1970) 


Human beings are constantly changing and growing and the process', 
in a creative sense, is a "flowing." When a person is aware of, and 


free to express his own uniqueness and distinctiveness, lie flows. He 
is able to grow towards actualizing his potentials. Just as dams trap 
flowing water into stagnant pools, there are dams to creativeness, to 
fully-functioning (Kelly, 1962) and to the natural flow or the growth 
and potential of an individual. 

This inquiry brings into focus how labeling behavior adversely affects 
those aspects of life which contribute to a more open experiencing and 
growth of the individual. For this purpose several areas for discussion 
and research have been chosen. They are: the relationship of labeling 
behavior to self-concept; to person perception; to normality; and to 
the growing person. 

Jordan, Jimmy Eugene (Psychology, August, 1970) 




The purpose of the present study was to determine differences in 
musical rhythm aptitude (perception, discrimination) of white, Afro- 
American, and African children. The musical rhythm scores of three 
groups of fourth grade children were obtained from the Rome (City) 
Public Schools, Rome, Georgia; Floyd County Public Schools, Rome, 
Georgia; Ricks Institute in Monrovia, Liberia, West Africa. Race, sex, 
age and nationality were the subject variables, while the raw scores at- 
tained on the Rhythm section of the Seashore Measures of Musical 
Talents (SMMT) was the criterion variable under consideration. 

A Least-Squares Analysis of Variance was employed. It was found 
that there were no significant F ratios for the raw scores on the SMMT 
and race, sex, and nationality. The F ratio for the interaction of sex 
with nationality was not significant. 

There was a significant relationship between age and the criterion 
variable (p ^.01). This relationship was a reversal of previous findings 
in that as age increased, accuracy on the Rhythm section of the SMMT 

The tentative explanations of individual differences in capacity, 
environmental exposure and receptiveness during the testing situation 
were presented. The present study supported those studies which 
found no significant relationships between sex and race variables and 
musical rhythm discrimination. The non-significant relationships be- 
tween the nationality and nationality sex interaction variables and 
musical rhythm discrimination appeared to be original findings since 
no previous studies were available using similar variables. 


Although the findings of the present study can be generaUzed only 
to the local populations from which the immediate sample was taken, 
it was hoped that this effort will lead to studies involving the larger 
white, Afro-American and African populations. 

Kennedy. Charles Edward (Psychology, June, 1970) 





The subjects used in this study were 394 West Georgia College stu- 
dents enrolled in introductory psychology during the spring and sum- 
mer of 1968, and the winter of the 1968-69 academic year. The instru- 
ment under consideration was referred to as Thomas" Self Concept 
Inventory, and consisted of 105 statements purportedly measuring 
seven dimensions of the self: self-satisfaction, bodily satisfaction, inter- 
personal relations, intellect, self-righteousness, personal responsibility, 
and authoritarianism. The factor composition of the instrument was 
determined by means of factor analysis using the principal components 
solution and rotation to the varimax criterion which yields an orthogonal 
estimate of simple structure. The closed model or use of unities in the 
diagonal was used, as was the R technique design for factor analysis. 
Initially, 12 factors were extracted accounting for 34.75% of the total 
variance. Data obtained using these dimensions were factor analyzed 
as outlined above. Four factors accounting for 21.67% of the total vari- 
ance were obtained. There dimensions were named and discussed. 
From this analysis, scores on total factors were obtained, correlated, 
and factor analyzed. 

The conclusions drawn on the basis of data presented were: (1) The 
original seven dimensions were not adequately or clearly defined by 
their respective items and thus the logical structure collapsed; (2) The 
second analysis yielded four factors considered to be relatively inde- 
pendent and homogeneous; (3) Neither analysis yielded factors which 
could be considered strong; (4) The great proportion of total variance 
in both analyses is revealed to be unique; (5) The instrument cannot 
yield a reliable measure of self-concept; and (6) No further development 
should be attempted. 

Lacey, Ruth Mary (Psychology, June, 1970) 




The whole growth of human culture is based on the symbolization 
process, but this key to human behavior and thought has been all but 


ignored. The antimythological intellectual attitude of our time expresses 
our fear of the marvellous and unusual, and in our quest for clarity and 
order we have tried to convince ourselves, that we live, not in a mys- 
terious universe, but in a mechanistic world. We have forgotten that 
the poetic, mythical, or mystical mode of vision perceives orders and 
relationships which escape factual description and vanish under the 
careful scrutiny of the critical intellect. The gains we have made in the 
evolution of civilized society have been made at the price of enormous 

This paper is a descriptive inquiry into the origins and meanings of 
symbols and of the symbolization process. The psyche is discussed as 
revealed in mythology, art, dreams, literature, the individuation process, 
and individual symbols. In this attempted synthesis of available litera- 
ture, hopefully the basic ground work has been laid for future attention, 
inquiry, and analysis. 

Litaker. Robert Gregory (Psychology, August, 1970) 





The study investigated the relationships among measures of person- 
ality, knowledge, and attitude of regular classroom teachers toward 
the exceptional child. Thirty-six elementary teachers volunteered to 
take the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 P. F.), the Class- 
room Integration Inventory (CII), and the General Information Inven- 
tory (GII). Product-moment correlation coefficients were reported for 
all combinations of the variables under investigation. A multiple linear 
regression analysis was performed and a regression line obtained em- 
ploying the 16 primary and three secondary factors of the 16 P. F. as 
predictors, and the Acceptance Score of the CII as the criterion. A 
Least Squares analysis of variance was employed in an attempt to identi- 
fy significant personality determinants of attitude as measured by the 
CII score. Profile Similarity Coefficients were calculated as a measure 
of significant difference between personality profiles of various groups 
of teachers. There were no significant correlations between the at- 
titude measure and any of the personality factors. The results of "t" 
tests on the beta weights of the regression equation indicated no signi- 
ficant predictors of attitude toward exceptional children from among 
the personality factors. An analysis of variance yielded no significant 
personality determinants of attitude; however, the Sensitivity Factor 
was significantly related to the knowledge score of the GII. Teacher 
personality profiles indicated that the personality profiles of the ex- 


perimental group were not significantly different from the personality 
profiles of the general population of teachers. 

Melton, Jack H. (Psychology, August, 1970) 


The purpose of the study was to determine if a child's perceptions 
of death could be altered by presenting him with two different types of 
stories— one coping; one non-coping. The study used four fifth-grade 
classes and consisted of three descriptions in which the subject made a 
response to the statement "Write down everything that comes to your 
mind about death." On Description 1 no story was presented; on Des- 
cription 2 each child received either a coping or a non-coping story; 
on Description 3, he received the other kind. The statistical results 
indicated that the subjects' perceptions were changed in a significant 
number of cases from non-coping to coping but not from coping to non- 
coping. The results were also analyzed concerning amount of change 
and types of perceptions in relation to the subjects' academic-ability 

Rankin, Edward Francis (Psychology, August, 1970) 


This study is a historical and phenomenological investigation of the 
encounter movement. The investigation is primarily based on the pro- 
fessional literature, personal observation and upon the phenomenolog- 
ical descriptions of encounter participants. The underlying premise of 
this thesis and of the encounter movement is a "growth view of man." 
The most important part of this view states that man is capable of 
change; he can find alternative methods of coping with reality if he 
desires to do so. 

Chapter I is an overview of encounter including generic and descrip- 
tive definitions; the therapeutic leap; the group's ability to help one 
to become self-actualized; the self-disclosing and healing factors oper- 
ating in a group; the rationale; commonality among groups; why en- 
counter is needed. 

Chapter II considers leadership and why we need a time-out thera- 
peutic dimension. The types of leadership existing in society are ex- 
plored and applied to the leader of the encounter group. The opinions 
of participants concerning the role of the leader are included as well 
as those of professionals. Opinion-wise, the participants and the pro- 
fessionals do not align as distinct groups. Chapter III is concerned 


with the kinds and types of therapeutic changes that can take place in 
a group and the marathon is considered the paradigm for all encounter 

Chapter IV is a historical, phenomenological and statistical evalua- 
tion of the entire encounter movement. My findings show that T-groups 
in business are doomed because they have become institutionalized. 
Encounter as a personal growth experience is at its apex and should 
continue to be effective for the next ten years. Possible directions 
that encounter can take during the next decade are discussed. 

Rodd. John Alan (Psychology, August, 1970) 


The study investigated and described the affective experience of 
eight participants in a 24-hour marathon encounter group. Participants 
rated five dimensions of helpfulness. Data was obtained from a post- 
marathon reaction sheet and a six-day follow-up reaction sheet. 

The data obtained on the post-marathon reaction sheet was compared 
to normative data for 73 groups employing a chi-square analysis tech- 
nique and found not to differ significantly (p 0.05). 

The marathon encounter proved to be a significantly positive emo- 
tional experience. Aggression-confrontation was considered to be as 
valuable as acceptance-warmth for dimensions of helpfulness. Frustra- 
tion, group pressure, and anxiety were found to be integral to pro- 
ducing honesty, openness, and intimacy among participants. 

Smith. Marion Otis (History, August, 1970) 


Georgia's 1863 Congressional election represented the most com- 
plete turnover in legislative personnel in the Confederate Government. 
Julian Hartridge was the only Georgia representative reelected. The 
other nine — Warren Akin, Clifford Anderson, Hiram P. Bell, Mark H. 
Blandford. Joseph H. Echols, George N. Lester, John T. Shewmake, 
James M. and William E. Smith — were all newcomers. The background 
of each of these men, their views on the issues during the election of 
1863, and their role in the Second Confederate Congress are discussed. 

The men in this delegation were relatively young with little legisla- 
tive experience. Four had none whatsoever, and only one had ever 
served in a capacity higher than the state legislature. Most of Georgia's 


delegates had received only rudimentary local schooling and had military 

The turnover of the 1863 election indicated that the Georgia elec- 
trorate was displeased with some of the programs of Jefferson Davis. 
The new members of Congress were expected to work to rectify the 
abuses of the Confederate administration's programs and to oppose 
any increase in President Davis' power. 

Although the Georgia delegates to the Second Confederate Congress 
did build records as anti-administration men they did not serve as an 
effective bloc against administration measures because, in many in- 
stances, their vote was split. Furthermore, their energies might have 
been better spent if they had subordinated states' rights to the Con- 
federate Government. 

Stewart, Ben Crowell, Jr. (Psychology. December, 1970) 


This thesis is an experiential account of an ex-institutionalized au- 
thor's experiences while a patient in a state mental hospital. It purports 
to show and evaluate the role played by hope in his final recovery and 
release into society as a self-supporting, productive member thereof. 
Literature on the subject was scant thus indicating the current need for 
much further study in this area. 

Thompson, Randall Taze (Psychology, August, 1970) 




Throughout history, man seems to have insisted as the final truth 
that the homosexual needed a different orientation concerning his 
sexual objectives. This "truth'' has in fact been a reflection of the 
society's approach to life as a whole. 

By the use of psychoanalytic perspectives and his own empirical 
observation, the writer has examined the question of homosexuality 
and the nature of this phenomenon. It appears that the ordinary prin- 
ciples of learning and conditioning are responsible for most homo- 
sexuality. Any aims and objects that become attached to the sexual 
drive do so only as a result of experience. 



Arons. Myron M. 

"Wisdom and Cognition." Paper read at the Southeastern Psycho- 
logical Association, Louisville, Kentucky, Apr., 1970. 

"Personal Relations: Experiment in Introductory Psychology Edu- 
cation." Paper read at the Georgia Psychological Association, 
Atlanta, Georgia, May, 1970. 

"Humanistic Psychology and North American Education." Paper 
read at the International Invitational Conference, Amsterdam, 
Holland, Aug., 1970. 

The following papers read at the Eighth Annual Meeting of Asso- 
ciation for Humanistic Psychology, Miami Beach, Florida, Sept., 

1. "Images of Man: Machiavelli, Philosophical Judoist." 

2. "Psycho-ecology: Explorations Into a New Study of the 

3. "B.A. and M.A. in Humanistic Psychology." 

"Foreword." Introductory Experimental Psychology by H. Stewart 
and J. Thomas, co-editors. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall Hunt Pub- 
lishers, 1970. 

Belt, Bobby 

"Radiative Capture of Deuterons by Protons at 20 and 30 MeV." 
Unpublished PhD dissertation (physics). University of Tennessee, 

"A Study of the Reaction iH(d, ^He) at 20 and 30 MeV." Paper read 
at the Symposium on Electromagnetic Interactions in 2, 3, and 4 
Nucleon Systems, Washington, D. C, Apr., 1970. 

"Radiative Capture of Deuterons by Protons." With C. R. Bingham, 
M. L. Halbert, and A. van der Wonde. Physical Review letters, 
XXIV (1970), 1120. 

"Radiative Capture of Deuterons by Protons." With M. L. Halbert 
and A. van der Wonde. Bulletin of the American Physical So- 
ciety, II, No. 15 (1970), 480. (Abstract) 

"Excitation Function for the Radiative Capture of Deuterons by 
Protons." With C. R. Bingham, M. L. Halbert, and A. van der 


Wonde. Bulletin of the American Physical Society, II, No. 15 
(1970), 1661. (Abstract) 

"Radiative Capture of Protons by Deuterons." With C. R. Bingham, 
M. L. Halbert, and A. van der Wonde, Oak Ridge National Labor- 
atory Report ORNL-4534. (1969), p. 10. 

Berry man, James M. 

"Heat of Mixing of Carbon Tetrachloride with Several n-Alkanes." 
Unpublished PhD dissertation (chemistry). University of Georgia, 

"Solubility of Napthalene at 25° Centigrade in Some Ternary Sol- 
vent Mixtures." With E. L. Heric. Journal of Chemical and En- 
gineering Data, XI (Jan., 1966), 108. 

"Solubility of para-Dibromobenzene at 25° Centigrade in Some 
Mixed Solvents." With E. L. Heric. Journal of Chemical and 
Engineering Data, XII (Mar., 1967), 249. 

"Heat of Mixing of Carbon Tetrachloride with n-Alkanes." Paper 
read at the Joint Southeast-Southwest Regional Meeting of the 
American Chemical Society, New Orleans, Louisiana, Dec, 

Blanton, Floyd L. 

"A Use for the Base Four Numeration System to Solve a Nontrivial 
Problem." Paper read at the National Council of Teachers of 
Mathematics Regional Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov., 1970. 

An Introduction to the Idea of Number. With J.E. Perry. Carrollton, 
Georgia: West Georgia College, 1970. (Offset printed). 

Blue, Edwin M. 

"Desegregation and Involuntary Turnover of Elected School Super- 
intendents in Georgia." Unpublished EdD dissertation (adminis- 
tration and supervision). Auburn University, 1970. 

Blumenthal, Warner 

"Sin and Salvation in the Works of Franz Werfel." Unpublished PhD 
dissertation (German), University of California, Los Angeles, 

"Leid und Eriosung in der Friihlyrik Franz Werfels." Paper read at 
the American Association of Teachers of German, New Haven, 
Connecticut, Apr., 1968. 


Bowdre. Paul H. 

"Development and Implementation of a Design for an English Cur- 
riculum— Tho, Language Section." Paper read at the National 
Council of Teachers of English. Atlanta, Georgia, Nov., 1970. 

Brown. David 

"Convergences and Topologies for Families of Functions." Unpub- 
lished PhD dissertation (mathematics). The Georgia Institute of 
Technology. 1970. 

Bryson. Jewell G. 

"National Business Education Association Membership and You." 
Georgia Business Education Association Armchair Bulletin (Fall, 
1970K pp. 5-6. 

Bryson. Thomas A. 

"Walter George Smith and General Grant's Memoirs." Pennsylvania 
Magazine of History and Biography. XCIV (Apr., 1970), 233-44. 

"Walter George Smith and the Armenian Question at the Paris 
Peace Conference, 1919." Records of the American Catholic 
Historical Society. LXXXI (Mar.. 1970), 3-26. 

"United States Involvement in Vietnam: A Survey of Changing 
Interpretations." West Georgia College Studies in the Social 
Sciences. IX (Jun., 1970), 40-56. 

"A Lawsuit Concerning the Publication of Jefferson Davis's The 
Rise and Eall of the Confederate Government. "Georgia Historical 
Quarterly. LIV (Winter. 1970), 540-52. 

"United States Involvement in Vietnam: An Historiographical 
Survey." Paper read at West Georgia College. Carrollton, Georgia, 
spring. 1970. 

"Walter George Smith and the International Philarmenian League: 
A Note on the Armenian Question Before the League of Nations, 
1920." Paper read at Harvard University. Cambridge. Mass- 
achusetts, Oct., 1970. 

"Admiral Mark L. Bristol: An Open Door Diplomat." Paper read 
at the Southern Historical Association. Louisville, Kentucky, 
Fall, 1970. 

Carrere. Thomas A. 

"A Study of the Power Structure of a Selected South Carolina 
County." Unpublished PhD dissertation (school administration), 
University of South Carolina. 1970. 


"Charleston Tries New First Grade Plan." South Carolina Edu- 
cation News, (Sept., 1956), pp. 26-29. 

C lax ton, Robert H. 

"Lorenzo Montufar: Central American Liberal." Unpublished PhD 
dissertation (history), Tulane University, 1970. 

"Some Recent Images of Cuba in the United States Leftist Press." 
South Eastern Latin Americanist, XIV (Dec, 1970), 1-4. 

Cobb, Buell E., Jr. 

"The Sacred Harp of the South." Louisiana Studies, VII, No. 2 
(1968), 107-21. 

"Style in Malory's Morte D'Arthur." Paper read at the English 
Hour, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, Nov., 1969. 

Coe, Robert M. 

"Common Rising Junior Test in Music Theory— Pro and Con.'' 
Paper read at the Georgia Music Educators Association, Atlanta, 
Georgia, Jan., 1970. 

Coker, Homer 

"Scientific Literacy: Implications for Teacher Training Programs." 
Paper read at the Conference on Scientific Literacy, Portland 
State University, Pordand, Oregon, Feb., 1970. 

"Sensitizing Regular Classroom Teachers to the Needs of Handi- 
capped Children." Paper read at the Conference on Special 
Education, Lincoln City, Oregon, June, 1970. 

"Components of Preparation Programs for Educational Admini- 
strators." Paper read at the Southern Regional Council of Edu- 
cational Administrators, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov., 1970. 

"Marriage for Retardates." Paper read at the American Associ- 
ation on Mental Deficiency, Southeastern Section, Charleston, 
South Carolina, Dec, 1970. 

Crawford, Thomas J. 

Stratigraphic and Structural Features Between the Cartersville 
and Brevard Fault Zones. With Jack H. Medlin. Guide Book 9, 
Atlanta, Georgia: Georgia Department of Mines, Mining, and 
Geology, 1970. 

DeVillier, John Lincoln 

"How to Get the Most Out of Your Life Insurance Dollar." West 
Georgia College Review, III, No. 1 (1970), 8-15. 


DeVillier, Mary Anne 

"Faulkner's Young Man: As Reflected in the Character of Charles 
MaWison." American Literature Abstracts, III, No. 2 (1970), 128. 

Dickmann, Donald I. 

"Physiological Investigations of First-and Second-Year Pistillate 
Strobili of Red Pine, Piniis resinosa Ait." Unpublished PhD 
dissertation (biology), University of Wisconsin, 1969. 

"Mobilization of ^"C During Development of Pine Cones." With 
i: .l .KozXo^ski. Plant Physiology, XLII (Jul., 1967), 19. (Abstract) 

"Seasonal Changes in the Reserve and Structural Components of 
Pinus resinosa Cones." With T. T. Kozlowski. Plant Physiology, 
(Jul., 1968), 32. (Abstract) 

"Mobilization by Pinus resinosa Cones and Shoots of ^'Kl Photo- 
synthate from Needles of Different Ages." With T. T. Kozlowski. 
American Journal of Botany, LY (1968), 900-6. 

"Seasonal Variations in Reserve and Structural Components of 
Pinus resinosa Ait. Cones." With T. T. Kozlowski. American 
Journal of Botany, LVI (1969), 515-20. 

"Seasonal Growth Patterns of ovulate Strobili of Pinus resinosa 
in Central Wisconsin." With T. T. Kozlowski. Canadian Journal of 
Botany, XLVII (1969), 839-48. 

"Seasonal Changes in the Macro — and Micronutrient Composition 
of Ovulate Strobili and Seeds of Pinus resinosa Ait." With T. T. 
Kozlowski. Canadian Journal of Botany, XLVII (1969), 1547-54. 

"Mobilization and Incorporation of Photoassimilated ^'Kl by Grow- 
ing Vegetative and Reproductive Tissues of Adult Pinus resi- 
nosa Ait. Trees." With T. T. Kozlowski. Plant Phvsiologv, XLV 
(1970), 284-88. 

"Photosynthesis by Rapidly Expanding Green Strobili of Pinus 
resinosa. "With T. T. Kozlowski Life Sciences, IX, No. 2 (1970), 

"Photosynthesis and Respiration by Developing Leaves of Populus 
deltoides." Plant Physiology, XLV (Jul., 1970). 8. (Abstract) 

Doxey, William S. 

"Characterization in the Prose Fiction of Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes." 
Unpublished PhD dissertation (English), University of North Caro- 
lina, 1970. 

"William Blake and William Herschel: The Poet, The Astronomer, 


and The Tyger'/' Blake Studies. II (Spring, 1970), 5-13. 

"Ithaca's Westward-turning Earth: A New Portal of Discovery in 
Ulysses. " James Joyce Quarterly. VII (Summer, 1970), 371-73. 

Edwards, C. Nines, Jr. 

"The Literary Reputation of Sidney Lanier." Unpublished PhD 
dissertation (English), University of Georgia, 1970. 

Ess linger, W. Glenn 

"Synthesis of Substituted Styrenes." With W. L. Lockhart, O. Weldon, 
D. Nations, R. Coleman, and J. Harvey. Paper read at the American 
Chemical Society Southeastern Sectional Conference of Under- 
graduate Student Chemists, Clemson, South Carolina, Apr., 

"Mixed Hydride Reductions of Epoxides." With R. H. Garner and 
Dwight Kinzer. Paper read at the Joint Southeast-Southwest 
Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, New Orleans, 
Louisiana, Dec, 1970. 

Flanagan, W. Malcolm 

"Human Growth and Development." With Carolyn A. Flanagan. 
Introductory Experimental Psychology. H. Stewart and J. D. 
Thomas, co-editors. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall-Hunt Publishers, 

"The Counselor and Public School Student Liberties." Paper read 
at the Seventh District Georgia Association of Educators, Forest 
Park, Georgia, 1970. 

Folk, Richard A. 

"Radical Republicans Reconsidered." Paper read at The John 
Hopkins University, Seminar for Public School Teachers, Balti- 
more, Maryland, Apr., 1968. 

"Steps Toward Racial Harmony." Paper read at the Phi Alpha 
Theta Regional Convention, Cincinnati, Ohio, Dec, 1968. 

"The Socialist Party of Ohio — War and Free Speech." Ohio Hist- 
ory, LXXVIII, No. 2 (1969), 104-15. 

"The Golden Age of Ohio Socialism." Northwest Ohio Quarterly, 
XLI, No. 3 (1969), 91-112. 

Fox, Cecil H. 

"Experimental Studies on the Physiology of the Phycobiont and 


Mycobiont Ramalina ecklonii. " Physiologia Plantanim, XIX 
(1966), 830-39. 

"Studies of the Cultural Physiology of the Lichen Alga Trebouxiz. " 
Physiologia Plantamm. XX(1967), 251-62. 

"On the Biosynthesis of Lichen Substances III. Lichen Acids as Pro- 
ducts of a Symbiosis." With K. Mosbach. Acta Chemica Scandina- 
vica, XXI (1967), 2327-30. 

"Papulosin, a Novel Chlorinated Anthraquinone from Lasallia Pap- 
ulosa (Ach.) Llano." With W. S. G. Maass and T. Forest. Tetra- 
hedron Letters, (1969), pp. 919-22. 

"The Formation of Roccellis Acid, Eugenitol, Eugenetin, and Rupi- 
colon by the Mycobiont Lecanora rupicola. " With S. Huneck. 
Phytochemistry, VIII (1969), 1301-4. 

"The Occurence of Porphyrilic Acid in the Genus Stereocaulon 
and Identity of Dendroidin." With W. S. G. Maass and 1. M. Lamb. 
Japanese Journal of Botany, XLIV (Dec, 1969), 9-14. 

"Colensoinsaure, ein neues Depsidon aus Stereocaulon colensoi. " 
With E. Klein and S. Huneck, Phytochemistry, IX (1970), 2057. 

"Inhaltsstoffe von einigen Stereocaulonarten. " With E. Klein and 
S. Huneck. Phytochemistry, IX (1970), 2057. 

Gait, William R. 

"Life in Colonial Um^r Hispania, XXXIII, No. 3 (Aug., 1950). 247-50. 

Garmon, Gerald M. 

Editor, Ga.-S. C. CEA Newsletter, I, 1969- 

Assistant Editor, West Georgia College Review, II, 1969 — 

Garmon, Lucille B. 

"Electron Diffraction and Microscopy Studies of the Early Stages of 
the Low Pressure Oxidation of (001) Nickel." With Kenneth R. 
Lawless. Paper read at the International Colloquium on the Struc- 
ture and Properties of Surfaces of Solids, Paris, France, Jul., 1969. 

"Indexing of Kaolinite Electron Diffraction Patterns." With Paul 
Sennett. Paper read at the South East Electron Microscope Society, 
Tampa, Florida, Dec, 1969. 

"Comparison of Transmission and Scanning Electron Micrographs of 
Clay Specimens." With Paul Sennett. Paper read at the South East 
Electron Microscope Society, Gainesville, Florida, Apr., 1970. 


Gibbons, Don E. 

"Coercive Achievement Motivation: An Extension of Atkinson's 
Theory." Unpublished PhD dissertation (psychology), Claremont 
Graduate School, 1968. 

"Set Breaking as a Learned Response." Psvcholoqical Reports, XVII 
(1965), 203-8. 

"A Determinist in Search of Value." University of Portland Review, 

XXI (1969), 32-45. 

Selected Readings in Psvchologv. With J. Connelly. St. Louis: C. V. 
MosbyCo., 1970. 

"The Validity of the Polygraph with Hyponotically Induced Repression 
and Guilt." With S. Abrams and E. Weinstein. American Journal 
of Psychiatry, CXXVI(1970), 1159-62. 

"The Cognitive Control of Behavior: A Comparison of Systematic 
Desensitization and Hypnotically Induced 'Directed Experience' 
Techniques." With L. Kilbourne. A. Saunders, and C. Castles. 
American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, XII (1970), 141-45. 

"Directed-Experience Hypnosis." American Journal of Clinical 
Hypnosis, XIII (1970), 101-3. 

"The Pho-Phum Phenomenon." University of Portland Review, 

XXII (1970), 24-31.. 

Gibson, James C. 

"A Burkeian Analysis of Eugene Talmadge's Speeches During the 
1934 Gubernatorial Campaign in Georgia." Paper read at the 
Southern Speech Convention, Memphis, Tennessee, Apr., 1969. 

"Eugene Talmadge's Use of Identification During the 1934 Guberna- 
torial Campaign in Georgia." Southern Speech Journal, XXXV, 
No. 4 (1970), 342-49. 

"Public Speaking Exhibitions in Nineteenth Century Georgia Schools." 
Georgia Speech Journal, II, No. 1 (1970), 24-29. 

"Eugene Talmadge's Use of Common Ground in the Speech Intro- 
duction During Georgia's 1934 Gubernatorial Campaign." North 
Carolina Journal of Speech, IV, No. 1 (1970), 17-23. 

Gilbert, Edward E. 

"A Time-Lapse Photographic Method for Studying Population 
Behavior of Flour Beetles (Tribolium)." Journal of the Society 
of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, LXXIV, No. 10 
(1965), 901-4. 

Review of Concepts of Ecologv by Edward J. Kormondy. The Quart- 
erly Review of Biology, XLV (Jun., 1970), 216. 


Gregor, C. Bryan 

"The Human Factor in Denudation." Georgia Academy of Science 
5w//e'/m. XXVIII, No. 2 (1970), 21. (Abstract) 

"Denudation of the Continents." Nature, CCXXVIII (1970), 273-75. 

Griffith. Benjamin W. 

"The Writing of The Revolt of Islam: A Study of Percy Bysshe 
Shelley's Methods of Composition." Unpublished PhD dissertation 
(English). Northwestern University, 1952. 

"Shelley's 'Ginevra"."LoAzc/oA? Times Literary Supplement. MMDCCXI 
(Jan., 1954), 41. 

"Another Source of The Revolt of Islam. "Notes and Queries. CXCIX 
(Jan., 1954), 29-30. 

"An Unpublished Shelley Reading List." Modern Language Notes. 
LXIX (Apr., 1954), 254-55. 

"Remedial English Without Student Resentment." College English. 
XV (May, 1954), 474. 

"Cumming's 'Memorabilia'." TheExplicator. XII (May, 1954), item 47. 

"Frost's 'The Road Not Taken'." The Explicator. XII (Jun., 1954), 
item 55. 

"Hawthorne's The House of the Seven Gables. " The Georgia Review, 
VIII (Summer, 1954), 235-37. 

"The Keats-Shelley Poetry Contests." Notes and Queries. CXCIX 
(Aug., 1954), 359-60. 

"Crane's 'Paraphrase'." The Explicator. XIII (Oct.. 1954), item 5. 

"Housman's 'Terence, This is Stupid Stuff." The Explicator, XIII 
(Dec, 1954), item 16. 

"Mary Shelley's Inscribed Copy of Queen Mab. "Notes and Queries. 
N.S. IKSept., 1955), 408. 

"The Removal of Incest from Laon and Cvthna. "Modern Language 
Notes. LXX (Mar., 1955), 181-82. 

"Shelley and Lempriere." Notes and Queries. II (May. 1955), 191. 

"Rear Rank Robin Hood: James Jones's Folk Hero." Georgia Review, 
X (Spring, 1956), 41-46. 

"Two Misdated Dickens Letters." Notes and Queries. Ill (Mar., 1956), 


"The Revolt of Islam and Byron's 'The Corsair'." Notes and Queries, 
III (Jun., 1956), 265. 


"Shelley's To — (Music, When Soft Voices Die)'."" The Explicator, 

XV (Jan., 1957), item 26. 

"Dickens the Philanthropist: An Unpublished Letter."" Nineteenth- 
Century Fiction, XII (Sept., 1957), 160-63. 

"The Lady Novelist and the General: An Unpublished Letter from 
Augusta Evans to P. G. T. Beaureeard."" Mississippi Quarterly, 
X (Summer, 1957), 97-106. 

"De Stael, Count Munster, and the Russian." Notes and Queries, IV 
(Sept.. 1957), 398. 

"An Augustus Baldwin Longstreet Letter, Annotated by Jefferson 
Davis."" Georgia Historical Quarterly, XLI (Sept., 1957), 319-21. 

"An Experiment on the American Bookseller: Two Letters from 
Irving to Godwin."" Nineteenth-Century Fiction, XII (Dec, 1957), 

"A Lady Novelist Views the Reconstruction."" Georgia Historical 
Quarterly, XLIII (Mar., 1959), 103-9. 

"Foreword."" Southern Life in Fiction by Jay B. Hubbell. Athens: 
University of Georgia Press, 1960. 

Editor (with introductory essays on playwright, play, and staging), 
All for Loye by John Dryden. Woodbury, New York: Barron's 
Educational Series, Inc., 1961. 

"A Georgia Frontier Songster: The Thomas Hurry Morgan Manu- 
script Songbook."" Paper read at the Meeting of the South Atlantic 
Modern Languages Association, Miami, Florida, Nov., 1962. 

"Foreword.'" Folklore Keeps the Past Aliye by Arthur Palmer Hud- 
son. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1962. 

Editor (with introductory essays on playwright, play, and staging). 
The Beggar's Opera by John Gay. Woodbury, New York: Barron's 
Educational Series, Inc., 1962. 

Editor, with introduction. The Knight of the Burning Pestle by Beau- 
mont and Fletcher. Woodbury, New York: Barron's Educational 
Series, Inc., 1963. 

"Foreword." Edgar Allan Poe as Literary Critic by Edd Winfield 
Parks. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1964. 

"A Longer Version of 'Guinea Negro Song'." Southern Folklore 
Quarterly, XXVIII (Jun., 1964), 116-19. 

"An American Variant of 'The Bonny Scotch Lad'." Journal of Amer- 
ican Folklore, LXXVII (Oct., 1964), 348-50. 

" 'Powerhouse' : A Showcase of Eudore Welty's Methods and Themes." 
The Mississippi Quarterly, XIX (Spring, 1966), 79-85. 


A Simplified Approach to Wuthering Heights. Woodbury, New York: 
Barron's Educational Series, Inc., 1966. 

"Foreword." Three Modes of Southern Fiction by C. Hugh Holman. 
Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1966. 

A Simplified Approach to Silas Marner. With Kenneth Walker. 
Woodbury, New York: Barron's Educational Series, Inc., 1967. 

A Simplified Approach to Huckleberry Finn. Woodbury, New York: 
Barron's Educational Series, Inc., 1969. 

Barron's How to Prepare for the Graduate Record Examination in 
Literature. Woodbury, New York: Barron's Educational Series, 
Inc., 1969. 

Harman, Edwin E., Jr. 

Review of American Health Scandal. Hospital Administration, 
XV, 66-68. 

Hecht, Alan D. 

"Miocene Distribution of Molluscan Provinces Along the East Coast 
of The United States." Geological Society of America Bulletin, 
LXXX (Aug., 1969), 1617-20. 

"Oxygen-lSStudies of Recent PlanktonicForaminifera: Comparisons 
of Phenotypes and of Test Parts." With Samuel M. Savin. Science, 
CLXX (Oct., 1970), 69-71. 

"Morphological Variation in Planktonic Foraminifern: Paleoclimatic 
Indicators." With Samuel M. Savin. Paper read at the American 
Quaternary Association, Bozeman, Montana, Aug., 1970. 

"Planktonic Foraminifera: Environmental Stress Model as a Paleo- 
climatic Indicator." With Samuel M. Savin. Paper read at the 
Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin, Nov., 1970. 

Hill, Kenneth D. 

"Nonbasic-Basic Employment Ratios in Metropolitan New Orleans." 
With Walton T. Wilford. Louisiana Business Survey, I, No. 4 
(1970), 6-12. 

"Regional Analysis: The Economic Base Multiplier." Coeval Eco- 
nomics: A Book of Readings. R. P. Vichas and W. Glenn Moore, 
co-editors. Berkeley:McCutchanPublishing Corp., 1970, pp. 132-34. 

Hill, Richard S. 

One Man Shows: Reinhardt College, Waleska, Georgia (1968); 


Asheville-Biltmore College, Asheville, North Carolina (1968); 
Pembroke College, Pembroke, North Carolina (1968); Ft. Myers 
(Florida) Art Association (1968); Church of the Atonement, 
Atlanta, Georgia (1970). 

Invitational Exhibitions: Mandorla Gallery, Atlanta, Georgia, 1965; 
Augusta Museum of Art, Augusta, Georgia, 1967, Permanent 
Collection; Gallery of Contemporary Art, Winston-Salem, North 
Carolina, 1967; Piedmont Art Exhibit, Atlanta, Georgia, 1967, 

1968, 1969, Purchase Award, 1969; Savannah Print and Drawing 
Competition, Savannah, Georgia, 1967; Annual Exhibit, AC 
Hausmann Fine Arts Center, Mississippi, 1968; Callaway Exhibit, 
Pine Mountain, 1968, 1969; Hunter Annual, Chattanooga, Tenn- 
essee, 1968, 1970; American Drawing Biennial, Norfolk Museum 
of Arts & Sciences, Virginia, 1969; Adanta Civic Center, Atlanta, 
Georgia, 1969, Permanent Collection; Drawings U. S. A., St. 
Paul, Minnesota, 1969; High Museum of Art. Adanta, Georgia, 

1969, 1970; The Washington Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C, 
1969; American Invitational Draughtsman Exhibition, Pensacola, 
Florida, 1970; EAT Exhibition, Experiments in Art & Technology, 
Atlanta, Georgia, 1970; National I (Painting Exhibition), Atlanta, 
Georgia, 1970; Quinlan Art Gallery, Gainesville, Georgia, 1970; 
Smithsonian Traveling Exhibition Service, Washington, D. C, 
1970; Southeastern Annual, Adanta, Georgia, 1970. 

Holmes, Y. Lynn 

"The Location of Alashiya." Paper read at the American Oriental 
Society, Baltimore, Maryland, Apr., 1970. 

Huck, Eugene R. 

Editor, West Georgia College Studies in the Social Sciences. VI, 

Editor, West Georgia College Review, I, 1968— 

Editor, SECOLAS Annals, I, 1969- 

Militarists, Merchants and Missionaires: United States Expansion 
in Middle America, (Essays written in honor of Alfred Barnaby 
Thomas). With Edward H. Moseley, Tuscaloosa: University of 
Alabama Press, 1970. 

"International Education— Who Needs It?" West Georgia College 
Review, III, No. 1 (1970), 3-7. 

Ingram, Anne Gayle 

"What Makes a Successful Caller." American Squares, XX, No. 8 
(1965). ^ 


"Dancer-Teacher." Journal of Health. Physical Education and 
Recreation. XXXVI, No. 3 (1965). 

A Sociological Study of the Carroll Service Council. Carrollton, 
Georgia: Carroll Service Council, 1968. 

Moving With Music: A Syllabus for Teaching Dance and Rhythms. 
Carrollton, Georgia: Dance Workshop, 1968. 

Introduction to Physical Education for the General College Student. 
With James H. Humphrey. Boston: Holbrook Press, 1969. 

"Dance Epidemics and Fairy Tales." Viltis: A Folklore Magazine, 
XXVIII, No. 4(1969). 

"Children With Impaired Vision are 'Seeing Through Touch"." 
Journal of Health. Physical Education and Recreation. XL, No. 2 

"Dance in the Philippine Islands." Viltis: A Folklore Magazine. 
XXVIII, No. 6 (1970). 

"Creativity vs. ¥o\k\ovQ." JOHPER. XLl. No. 8 (1970). 

"Poetic and Prose Comments by Great Authors on Play." The 
Physical Educator. XXVI, No. 4 (1970). 

Keller. George E. 

"The Mixing of the Gamma Vibrational and Ground State Bands 
in leoDy-^with E. F. Zganjar. Nuclear Physics, A147 (1970), 

"A Note on Band Mixing in i^'Od." With E. F. Zganjar. Nuclear 
Physics. A 153. (1970), 647-51. 

Key. John W. 

"A Study of the Social Science Curricula in the Public Junior 
Colleges of Georgia 1963-64 and 1968-69." Unpublished EdD 
dissertation (secondary education: social science education). 
University of Southern Mississippi, 1970. 

LaForest. James R. 

"Relation of Critical Thinking to Program Planning." Unpublished 
EdD dissertation (adult and community college education), 
North Carolina State University, 1970. 

Lampton. Robert K. 

"Mosses of Georgia. A Check List of Species Which Have Been 
Collected Within the State." Georgia Academy of Science 
Bulletin. XXVIII (Jun., 1970), 81-98.' 


Lankforcl. W. H. 

"Inflation — Friend or Foe?" Coeval Economics: A Book of Reacl- 
^ ings. R. P. Vichas and W. Glenn Moore, co-editors. Berkeley: 

McCutchan Publishing Corp., 1970, pp. 77-80. 

Link, J. Oliver 

"The Central Premise in Stark Young"s Theories of Art and Theatre 
Art."' Unpublished PhD dissertation (drama and theatre), Cornell 
University, 1968. 

"On Summer and Smoke: An Analytic Technique." Studies and 
Research Bulletin, (Feb., 1964), 15-22. 

Lockhart. William L. 

"Synthesis of Substituted Styrenes." With W. G. Esslinger, O. 
Weldon, D. Nations, R. Coleman, and J. Harvey. Paper read at 
the American Chemical Society Southeastern Sectional Con- 
ference of Undergraduate Student Chemists, Clemson, South 
Carolina, Apr., 1970. 

Assistant Editor, West Georgia College Review. II, 1969 — 

Long. C. Sumner. Jr. 

"Mineral Resources of the Middle Georgia Area." Natural Re- 
source Appraisal. Middle Georgia Area Planning Commission, 
Macon, Georgia, 1968. 

"Some Aspects of Depositional Regressions in Tectonically Stable 
Basins." Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science, XXVI, 
No. 2 (1968). (Abstract) 

"Depositional Environments of the Dakota Group in Southeastern 
Colorado." Paper read at the Rocky Mountain Association of 
Geologists Symposium, Trinidad, Colorado, Sep., 1969. 

"Identification of Paleodispersal Centers for Deltaic Sediments." 
Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science, XXVIII, No. 2 
(1970). (Abstract) 

McCutcheon. Stephen C. 

"A Systems Model for Institutional Planning." With A. W. Eberle. 
Educational Records, LI (Winter, 1970), 66-71. 

McKenny. Charles J. 

"United States History and the Crossword Puzzle." Social Education, 

XXXIII, No. 5 (1969), 526-27. 


"A Technique for Producine Isopleth Maps for Use In Educational 
Research."" With J. A. Barnes. Journal of Educational Research. 
XLIII. No. 6 (1970). 279-84. 

"The Crossword Puzzle in Teaching Earth Science." The Journal 
of Geography. LXIX. No. 7 (1970l. 408-9. 

"Black American History Crossword Puzzle."' Georgia Educator. 
I. No. 3 (1970). 23. 

McTeer. John H. 

"Simulationasa Means for Developing International Understanding." 
Paper read at AACTE Sponsored Conference on Teacher Edu- 
cation for International Understanding, CarroUton, Georgia, 
Dec. 1970. 

Madeley. Hulon M. 

"A Tentative Interpretative Stratigraphy of the Pre-Womble Shale 
Section of the Ouachita Mountains."" Georgia Acade/nv of Science 
Bulletin. XXVIII. No. 2 (1970), s 22. (Abstract) 

Maierhofer. Richard A. 

"Pupil Behavior Change Through Group Counseling and Teacher 
Consultation."" Unpublished EdD dissertation (education). Uni- 
versity of Missouri. 1970. 

Martin. Georgia 

"Innovations in Counseling— 1970." Paper read at the National 
Conference-American College Personnel Association, St. Louis, 
Missouri, Mar., 1970. 

Masters. Charles D. 

"Correlation of the Post-Mancos Upper Cretaceous Sediments of 
the Sand Wash and Piceance Basins."" Symposium on Cretaceous 
Rocks of Colorado and Adjacent Areas. 1 1th Annual Field Con- 
ference. Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists, 1959, pp. 


"Fort Union Formation-Eastern Sand Wash Basin, Colorado." 
Symposium on Late Cretaceous Rocks of Wyoming. 16th Annual 
Field Conference. Wyc^ming Geological Association, 1961, pp. 


"Stratification Analysis and the Determination of Depositional 
Environments."" American Association of Petroleum Geologists 
Bulletin. L. No. 9 (1966). 2036-37. (Abstract) 


"Use of Sedimentary Structures in Determination of Depositional 
Environments, Mesaverde Formation, Williams Fork Mountains, 
Colorado." American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bul- 
letin. LI, No. 10 (1967), 2033-43. 

"Geology of Natural Gas Occurrence in Tertiary and Late Cre- 
taceous Rocks of Sand Wash Basin, Colorado and Wyoming." 
Natural Gases of North America Memoir No. 9. American Asso- 
ciation of Petroleum Geologists, pp. 730-31. 

"Environmental Interpretation of the Upper Part of the Mesaverde 
Formation, Northwestern Colorado, from Outcrop, Core, and 
Subsurface Study." American Association of Petroleum Geol- 
gists Bulletin. LIII, No. 3 (1969), 730-31. (Abstract) 

Mathews. James W. 

"TheCentralityof Composition in Design for an English Curriculum." 
Georgia English Counselor. XVIV (Nov., 1970)^ 1-2. 

"The Creativity Crisis." Paper read at the Workshop of the National 
Association of Teachersof Singing, Carrollton. Georgia, Aug., 1970. 

Mathis. L. Doyle 

"CiHirts as Political Instruments: The Politics of School Consol- 
idation." With Roald Mykkeltvedt. Occasional Papers on Georgia 
Government. I (Spring, 1970). 

Reapportionment in Georgia. With T. R. Dye, F. K. Gibson, T. C. 
Ryles, Brett Hawkins, I. Sharkansky and Cheryl Whelchel. Athens: 
Institute of Government, University of Georgia, 1970. 

Contributor to Strengthening the Georgia General Assembly. A 
Report to the People and General Assembly of Georgia by the 
Citizens Committee on the Georgia General Assembly, 1970. 

Maxwell. Derrill M. 

One Man Shows: Westmar College, LeMars, Iowa (1967); Trails 
Art Gallery, Bridgeport, Nebraska (1967), Permanent Collection. 

Invitational Exhibitions: DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 
(1962) Permanent Collection; Nebraska University, Lincoln 
(1963); Artists Equity Midwest Traveling Exhibition (1964-65); 
Central Intercollegiate Conference Traveling Exhibition (1965); 
Sioux City (Iowa) Art Center ( 1965) ; Columbus (Georgia) Museum 
of Arts and Crafts (1969); Quinlan Art Center, Gainesville, Geor- 
gia (1970). 


Meehan, Virginia 

"Higher Education and the Crisis in American Civilization/' West 
Georgia College Review. Ill, No. 1 (1970), 16-23. 

Mil/er. Ross W. 

Perceptual Organization of Teachers and Their Posture Toward 
Educational Change." Unpublished EdD dissertation (super- 
vision and administration), University of New Mexico, 1970. 

Moon. Syng Ek 

A Theory of Political Autonomy. Seoul: Ain-Kahk Publishing 
Co., 1970. 

Moore. W. Glenn 

Coeval Economics: A Book of Readings. With Robert P. Vichas. 
Berkeley: McCutchan Publishing Corp., 1970. 

"Why Clad Coins?" Coeval Economics: A Book of Readings. R. P. 
Vichas and W. Glenn Moore, co-editors. Berkeley: McCutchan 
Publishing Corp., 1970, pp. 44-48. 

Morgan, Dorothy L. 

"A Comparison of Growth in Language Development in a Structured 
and a Traditional Unruh Preschool Compensatory Education 
Program." Unpublished PhD dissertation (early childhood edu- 
cation). United States International University, 1970. 

Mykkeltvedt. Roald 

"Courts as Political Instruments: The Politics of School Consol- 
idation." With L. Doyle Mathis. Occasional Papers on Georgia 
Government. I (Spring, 1970), 1-46. 

Newmark. Zalmon M. 

"Contingent Monies and Learning Performance: A Study of the 
Effect of Incentive Payments to Prisoners in a Manpower Train- 
ing Program." With John McKee, Samuel Jordan, and William 
Jenkins. Elmore, Alabama: Draper Correctional Center, 1969. 

Perry. James Earl 

An Introduction to the Idea of Number. With F. L. Blanton. Carroll- 
ton, Georgia: West Georgia College, 1970. (Offset printed) 


Pittman. Chatty R. 

"An Elementary Proof of the Triod Theorem." Proceeding's of the 
American Mathematical Society, XXV, No. 4 (1970), 919. 

"On Paralindelof and Point-wise Paralindelof Spaces." Notices of 
the American Mathematical Society. XVII, No. 1 (1970). 191. 

Poort, Jon M. 

Interpretations of Earth History. Carrollton, Georgia: Thomasson 
Publishing Co.! 1970. 

"Distribution of Seismic Background Noise Compared to the Major 
Tectonic Provinces of the United States." Bulletin of the Georgia 
Academy of Sciences, XXVIII, No. 2 (1970), s 23. (Abstract) 

Powell. Bobby E. 

"Nonlinearities in the Stress-Strain Relations for Tin Filamentary 
Crystals." Bulletin of the American Physical Society, XV, (Mar., 

1970). 335. (Abstract) 

"Two Methods of Determining the Cross-Sectional Area of Fila- 
mentary Crystals." Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science. 
XXVIII (Apr.. 1970). 30. (Abstract) 

"Combinations of Fourth-Order Elastic Constants of Fused Quartz." 
Journal of Applied Physics. XLI (Nov., 1970), 4913-17. 

Rao. Jaganmohan 

"Chapter I: Introduction." With Everett M. Rogers. Diffusion of 
Innoyations in Brazil. Nigeria and India. Edited by E. M. Rogers, 
J. R. Ascroft and N. R. Roling. USAID: Diffusion of Innovations 
Research Report # 24, 1969.^ 

"Generalizations About the Diffusion of Innovations." Communi- 
cation of Innovations: A Cross-Cultural Approach. Edited by 
Everett M. Rogers. New York: Free Press, 1970. 

Renshaw. Parke 

A New Religion for Brazilians." Practical Anthropology, XIII, 
No. 4 (1966), 126-32. 

"Spiritism in Modern Brazilian Society." The Latin Americanist. 
V, No. 1 (1969), 1-2. 

"Basics for a Strategy of Language Teaching." Hispania, LIII, 

No. 1 (1970), 67-70. 


Scott. Carole E. 

"Save the Cities— Noble Cause or Grand Delusion." Georgia Coiintv 
Government Magazine. XXII, No. 10 (1970), 45. 

Shapiro. Harvey 

"Extensions of Pseudometrics.'" Canadian Journal of Mathematics. 

XVIIl (1966), 981-98. 
"Extending Uniformly Continuous Pseudometrics." Bulletin de la 

Societe Mathematique de Belgique. XVIII (1966), 439-41. 

"A Note on Compactifications and Semi-normal Spaces." With 
R. A. Alo. Journal of the Australian Mathematical Societv. VIII 
(1968). 102-8. 

"Normal Bases and Compactifications." With R. A. Alo. Mathe- 
matische Annalen. CLXXV (1968). 337-40. 

"Closed Maps and Paracompact Spaces." Canadian Journal of 
Mathematics. XX (1968). 513-19. 

"Extensions of Totally Bounded Pseudometrics." With R. A. Alo. 
Proceedini^s of the American Mathematical Societv. XIX (1968). 


"Extensions of Uniformities." With R. A. Alo. Proceedings of the 
International Symposium on Topology and its Applications. 
Belgrade, Yugoslavia: 1968. p. 48. 

"Z-real Compactifications and Normal Bases." With R. A. Alo. 
Journal of the Australian Mathematical Society. IX ( 1969). 489-95. 

"Wallman Compact and Real Compact Spaces." With R. A. Alo. 
Contributions to Extension Theory of Topological Structures. 
Berlin: VEP Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften. 1969. pp. 9-14. 

"Paracompact Subspaces." With R. A. Alo. Acta Mathematics, 
XXI (1970). 115-19. 

"P-and Z-embedded Subspaces." With R. A. Alo and L. Imler. 
Mathematische Annalen. CLXXXVIII (1970), 13-22. 

"More on Extending Continuous Pseudometrics." Canadian Journal 
of Mathematics. XXII (1970), 984-93. 

"ContinuousUniformities." WithR. A. A\o. Mathematische Annalen. 
CLXXXV (1970), 322-28. 

Sills. Thomas W. 

"Teacher Certification in Georgia." Georgia Educational Asso- 
ciation Journal. LXIII, No. 5 (1970). 14. 

"Want to Change Certification Policies?" Georgia Educational 
Association Journal LXIII, No. 6 ( 1970), 16. 


Steelmon, Peggy S. 

"Growth and Development of the Georgia Education Association." 
Unpubhshed EdD dissertation (education), University of Georgia, 

"Through the Years " Georgia Education Journal, LX (Jan., 

1967), 10-17. 

"GEA's 103 Years." Georgia Education Journal. LXIIl (May, 1970), 


Stewart, Horace E., Jr. 

Introductory Experimental Psychology. With James D. Thomas. 
Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall-Hunt Co., 1970. 

Stewart, Vaughn M. 

Invitational Exhibitions: Quinlan Art Center, Gainesville, Georgia 
(1970); Georgia Designer Craftsmen Exhibition, High Museum, 
Atlanta, Georgia (1970). 

Vic has. Robert P. 

Coeval Economics: A Book of Readings. Co-editor with W. Glenn 
Moore. Berkeley: McCutchan Publishing Corp., 1970. 

"Economic Rent." Coeval Economics: A Book of Readings. R. P. 
Vichas and W. Glenn Moore, co-editors. Berkeley: McCutchan 
Publishing Corp., 1970, pp. 214-28. 

"Financial Assistance to Low Income Countries." West Georgia 
College Review, III. No. 1 (1970), 24-31. 

Walker, Timothy 

"Motivational Aspects of Alcohol Consumption in Mice." Un- 
published PhD dissertation (psychology). University of Georgia, 

Wash, James A. 

"Philosophy of Research" Introduction to Experimental Psychology. 
H. Stewart and J. D. Thomas, co-editors. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall- 
Hunt Co., 1970. 

"Some Psychological Bases for Educational Technology." Edu- 
cational Technology, X, No. 1 (1970), 17. 

Weaver, David 

"The Hurricane as an Economic Catalyst." Journal of Tropical 
Geography, XXVII, No. 4 (1968), 66-71. 


"Some Aspects of Metropolitan Development in the Cape Kennedy 
Sphere of Influence." With J. R. Anderson. Tijdschrift voor Eco- 
nomische en Sociale Geografie, LX, No. 3 (1969), 187-92. 

Review of Introduction to Meteorolooy by S. Petterssen. Geography, 
LIV, No. 3(1969), 362-63. 

'Changes in the Morphology of Three American Central Business 
Districts 1952-1966." Professional Geographer. XXI. No. 6 (1969), 

"HenryMayhew — Nineteenth Century Pioneer of Social Geography." 
Paper read at the S. E. Division of the American Association of 
Geographers. Columbia, South Carolina. Nov.. 1970. 

yVeir. Robert D. 

"Governments as Entrepreneurs." Coeval Economics: A Book of 
Readings. R. P. Vichas and W. Glenn Moore, co-editors. Berkeley: 
McCutchan Publishing Corp., 1970, pp. 153-58. 

Whittemore, Kenneth R. 

Ten Centers: An Analysis of 1000 Cases from Ten Suicide Prevention 
Centers. Atlanta: LuUwater Press, 1970. 

Youngblood, Betty 

"Political Parties and Political Development: An Exploratory 
Study of Legislators' Perceptions in the Indian States of Punjab 
and Haryana." Unpublished PhD dissertation (political science). 
University of Minnesota, 1970. 

Zander. Vernon E. 

"Integration with Respect to Infinite Products of Set Functions 
from Orlicz Spaces." Paper read at the American Mathematical 
Society, San Antonio, Texas, Jan.. 1970. 

"Integral Representation of Infinitely Linear Bounded Continuous 
Operators." Bulletin De L Academic Polonaise Des Sciences, 
XVIII (1970), 89-92. 

"An Example of a Metric, Affine Subspace of a Non-Metric Linear 
Space." Bulletin of the Georgia Academv of Science. XXVIII 
(1970), s 33. (Abstract) 



DEMCO 38-297